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troops in Jamaica : “ memoirs of the fever in Cadiz in 1810, illustrated by cases and dissections :" and lastly a “recapi. tulation. In the extracts which we shall now make, some evidence will be afforded of the nature of the fever, and a specimen of the author's opinions, as well as his manner of delivering them at the same time exhibited to the reader. In the month of May, 1805, the eighty-fifth regiment (of which Mr. D. was then surgeon) marched in perfect health to occupy the barracks in Spanish Town. In June an alarm was produced in Jamaica by information that a powerful French fleet had arrived at Martinique, with troops on board. “ It was this fleet the immortal Nelson pursued to the West Indies, and finally conquered off Trafalgar.”
“ It being fully supposed their object was an attack on Jamaica; every precaution was adopted by General Nugent to guard against the saine. Martial law was declared ; the militia called forth, and formed into brigades with the troops of the line. The 55th regiment was ordered from its several stations on the north side of the island to Spanish Town, a distance of more than one hundred and twenty miles, which it had to march. Although the men were often drenched with rain during their route, they joined us in a very healthy state, and continued with us in brigade near two months. For one month and upwards, after their arrival, they continued free from sickness. Their several stations on the north side were, for the most part, considered healthy. The old Maroon Town, situ ated high in the mountains, is even a more healtlıy post than that of Stoney Hill;-(about six miles from Kingston) _“this was their head-quarters. The regiment had been separated from the date of its arrival in Jamaica, and at the time of its junction again, in Spanish Town, three years had elapsed. From so long a residence in the colony, it might be supposed the men were so far seasoned to the climate, as to be unsusceptible, in a great degree, to that cause which generates Yellow Fever. To the men of the 85th regiment this consideration might stronger apply, as they had been near four years in the island. But what was the result ?"
“ About the middle of August several cases of fever, of the most violent type, were admitted into hospital, both of the 85th and 65th regiments, and which continued to increase so rapidly as soon to fill it. A large building, which had been formerly a theatre, was filled up to receive cases, and this also soon became crowded.
“ The number admitted, and aggravated state of the disease, created an early mortality. So great and alarming was the fever, and so inadequate were the accommodations to the number attacked, in both regiments, that the 55th was ordered to Up-Park Camp. Their change of situation produced no change in the nature of the disease, or any diminution in the number of admissions: the hospital at the camp was soon filled, and the mortality was uncommonly great. Our situation was not less deplorable; the admissions amounted daily to seven or eight, for more than a month after the commencement of the sickness."
“ The great mortality which took place this season in Spanish, Town, induced us to iry every remedy but bleeding, which was only performed in one case" (and unsuccessfully because, in the author's opinion, too little blood was taken) “ from the bias there was against it, and because I was not entirely at my own controul.”
“ The Apostle's Battery, a post situated amongst rocks on the bay of Port Royal, being elevated and open greatly to the seabreeze, bas always been considered a very healthy station. To this post we sent our convalescents, with a proportion of non-commissioned officers and privates, to do the duty of the place, and assist them in hospital. These men, however, having imbibed in Spanish Town the seeds of the disease, were attacked with the same violent form of fever as their comrades at head quarters; and the mortality was equally great in the like number of cases. Of those who died, the symptom of black vomit was prevalent in five cases out of seven.
“ The advocates for the doctrine of contagion may ascribe the sickness at ibis reputed healthy post, in those who were sent free from disease, to their having received the infection from the convalescents whom they accompanied. But I consider that the same cause which created the fever first in Spanish Town, and which had not ceased to operate its influence at the time they were removed to the Apostle's Battery, occasioned the fever amongst them here. Their constitutions had been saturated with those noxious exhalations in Spanish Town, and which might be brought into action by that additional excitement, peculiar to change of situation in the West Indies. It is probable had they not removed from the focus of the disease, the morbid cause might have remained dormant in the system, and not have had sufficient power to produce febrile derangement. For although the disease was very general throughout the regiment; yet several remained exempt from any attack.” (pp. 57—64.) • This last remark coincides with, and illustrates an observation made by Dr. Jackson in St. Domingo, in the year 1796; when an astonishing and unaccountable degree of sickness was observed to occur in every embarkation of troops proceeding from the Mole to other posts. To mention a single instance : the 29th light dragoons embarked, about the end of June, in perfect health ; but, 6 during a passage of four or five days, the sick-list became formidable, and one ship alone lost thirty men.”
In the summer of 1806, the 85th regiment went into barracks at Fort Augusta, which is washed in three-fourths
Crit. Rev. Vol. 1V. August, 1816.
of its circumference by the sea. Here they remained nearly a year, with a very triling degree of sickness; they were then removed to the barracks in Kingston, and in the autumn of 1807 again suffered severely from the fever, of which Mr. D. also at that time sustained a second dangerous attack.
The following statement bears upon the most important of the points in dispute.
« Without any apparent cause, that I could learn, fever, in the same violent form and attended with the same fatal consequences, has prevailed, two or three successive seasons, in the garrison of Port Royal, in the month of May, when the troops in every other station of the island bave been entirely exempt from it. This repeated occurrence, at so usually healthy a part of the year in other parts of Jamaica, induced the principal medical officer to recommend, and the comniander of the forces to approve, the removal of the greater part of the garrison to Up-Park Camp, for a month or six weeks, the time it generally continued. I remember their removal to the camp produced no fever sui generis" (if we must have latin, better say ejusdem generis) “ with that under which they la. boured, amongst the other troops in the same quarters; and wbich must have ensued had the disease been contagious, because they indiscriminately mixed together: and those labouring under the disease were placed in the same hospital with those confined from complaints of a total distinct nature.” (p. 70.)
The fever which afflicted Cadiz in the year 1810, commenced, as was before observed, early in October, after an excessive sultry, hot, and dry summer; it made its first appearance in the Barrio de Santa Maria, the filthiest and most crowded quarter of the town, and continued to be most fatal in this district. Our author, having charge of the surgical cases, was not called upon to undertake the treatment of this disease ; but he let slip no opportunity of inspecting the bodies of those who died, the results of which occupy a large portion of the second part of this work. Like his precursors in the enquiry, he detected various and very general derangement in the internal organs of the body, most commonly inflammation of the parts within the cranium, and likewise of the stomach, with remarkable congestions in several of the other viscera. The author here reverts to a consideration of the causes from which the fever originates, and discusses the doctrine of exemption from second attacks: his ideas on this last topic we shall take the liberty of exhibiting at some length ; they seem to be perfectly rational.
“ The same degree of cause which produces fever one year in a given number of people exposed to its action, will not have the same effect the succeeding year, with the same person so exposed, shonld the morbid virulence be in the same degree. No, the suscepti. bility to its influence is reduced by the change which the constitution undergoes from febrile action. Nay, a given number of people, exposed to the action of the febrile cause which may produce only a slight derangement of health the first season, would not by any exposure to the same cause, the succeeding year, be any ways affected, if the degree of virulence in the cause was the same, and they had been residing during the intermediate time of health in the same quarter where the febrile miasm is generated. Let them, however, quit this focus of sickness for two years, and reside in the more healthy parts of Spain, or where Yellow Fever is never seen, then return, and take up their residence in their former dwellings in the Barrio de Santa Maria, during the prevalence of the Endemic Fever, I am well convinced they would not escape its infuence. The sụsceptibility to its action would be regenerated, by having for the time I have supposed, inhaled an atmosphere divested of those morbific miasms which generate fever in the autumnal season of Cadiz, Gibraltar, the West Indies, and otlier parts. Hence the idea of seasoning.
" I shall suppose a cause prevails which I will calculate in force equal to 30°, and which creates, in the usual season, fever amongst six or more persons, of which they recover; the same cause prevailing in the same degree of force, would have no effect upon these persons the succeeding year, they would be unsusceptible to its action ; but let the morbid principle be increased in force to the 40th or 50th degree of concentration, then would they, I am convinced, be again affected with febrile action. This reasoning is not founded on the basis of visionary hypothesis, it is drawn from facts which I have explained in the former part of this work, when speaking of the effects produced in different quarters occupied by the 85th re. giment in Jamaica. Hence the great consideration in Mr. Pym's publication, that the particular order of fever which he speaks of “ attacks the human frame but once" is doubtful. I am aware that persons exposed to the cause, and who have laboured under the effects of the most aggravated form of Yellow Fever, are not likely to have it a second time; but those who have been exposed to a cause of the minor degree, and laboured under this fever in its milder form, will certainly run great risque in being again attacked, if exposed to the source of this disease in a more powerful degree of concentra. tion; and more especially if there has been any regenerated susceptibility from a residence, for a given time, beyond the precincts of the generative cause.” (pp. 181—4.)
In proof of the non-contagious nature of the fever at Cadiz, it is mentioned that, though an unrestricted inter
course was kept up between this place and the Isla, only eight miles distant, and containing upwards of fifteen thou. sand troops, besides ten thousand inhabitants, the disease was not communicated to the latter place. The fact is accounted for from the circumstance of the nature of the soil and the construction of the dwellings here heing less fa. vourable, than in Cadiz, to the production of noxious exhalations.
The treatment recommended by Mr. Doughty is according to the depletory system, in which he is sanctioned hy some of the highest authorities : but for further particulars we must refer to the work, which though inferior to several preceding essays on the same subject, may be advantageously consulted by all medical men whose pursuits may call them away to regions, in which they will probably bave to encounter the formidable attacks of Yellow Fever.
Art. VI.-Journal of a Tour in Germany, Sweden, Russia,
Poland, during the years 1813 and 1814. By J. T. JAMEs, Esq. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. London, Murray, 1816. 4to. Pp.527. It is a remark in the Idler, on a class of travellers, that all the pleasure that is received, ends in the opportunity of splendid falsehood, in the power of gaining notice by the display of beauties which the eye was weary of beholding, and a history of happy moments, of which, in reality, the happiest was the last. The writer of the excursion before us is not of this description of tourists; be acquaints the reader in plain and natural terms of what he saw and learnt during his travels, and we have nothing of Mr. Marvel's propensity, to sounding words and hyperbolical images till he had lost all power of accurate description. Nor is this itinerant collegian one of those who pursue their course with “ the same observation that the carriers and stagecoachmen do through Great Britain : that is, as we read in the Spectator, “ their steps and stages have been regulated according to the liquor they have met with in their passage.” Our author has been happy in selecting good company, and he has freely availed himself of the assistance that such society was calculated to afford him.
In this work, the reader is not fatigued by magnificent descriptions of personal adventure: the traveller has neither climbed nor descended precipices, on which the yul