way system. Newspapers: daily, South by Bligh in 1788 for wood and water, Australian Register, Advertiser, Evening before the mutiny of the Bounty. Journal, Express, Adelaide Observer, 'Age, The," a daily journal published South Australian Chronicle, Sud-Aus- in Melbourne, enjoys a larger circulation tralische Zeitung, Lantern and Christian than any other paper in Australasia, the Colonist; once a week, Quiz, Southern average being more than 80,000 per day. Cross, Christian Weekly, Tit-Bits, Sentinel It was founded in 1854 by Henry Cook, and Athlete; also monthly, Garden and Walter Powell, and others, and its early Field. numbers were printed in the Melbourne Exhibition. During the Ballarat riots of Dec. 1854 the Age espoused the cause of the miners, and obtained a popularity which it has never since lost; but it did not become a commercial success and a valuable property until 1868, when its price was reduced to a penny. Its first editors were Ebenezer Syme, T. L. Bright, and David Blair, and after being owned by a co-operative society, became the property of Mr. Syme, and on his death Adelaide Lead, Vict. An agricultural that of his family and his brother David. and mining township in co. Talbot, It has since been purchased by D. Syme. situated on the Timor creek, 12 miles During the last quarter of a century, the from Avoca and 108 miles N.W. of Mel-names of James Harrison, A. L. Windsor, bourne. Population, including neighbourhood, 600.

Adelaide, S.A. The Metropolitan county, with an area of 1141 square miles, in the centre of the colony, with frontage to St. Vincent's Gulf; intersected by the railway from Adelaide to the Port, Adelaide to Gawler and the North, Adelaide towards Mount Barker and Victoria. Towns: Adelaide and its suburbs, North Adelaide, Norwood, Kensington, Unley, Thebarton, Hindmarsh, Bowden, Walkerville, Port Adelaide, Glenelg and Brighton.

Adelaide River (Northern Territory), S.A. A township and railway station 43 miles from Southport.

Adelaide River (Northern Territory), S.A., falls into Adam Bay, on the N.W. coast. The river is wide and deep, abounds with alligators, and has many shoals at its mouth; but it is navigable for 40 miles by ocean-going ships, and higher up by barges.

Adelong, N.S.W. A town on the creek of the same name, a tributary of the Murrumbidgee, 273 miles S. W. from Sydney. Population of district 2000. Local newspaper, Adelong Argus.

Adelong River, N.S.W. A tributary of the Murrumbidgee, and falls into it a few miles below Gundagai. Alluvial diggings and quartz reefs have been worked on the banks.

Professor Pearson, G. C. Levey, and D.
Syme have been identified with the Age.

Agents General. These officers hold a position, social and political, somewhat analogous to that of the chargés d'affaires of a foreign government, except that they are virtually accredited to the Colonial instead of the Foreign Office. The first officer who held an analogous position was Sir Stuart Donaldson, who acted for New South Wales; the second Sir G. Verdon, for Victoria. The present occupants of the position are: New South Wales-Sir Saul Samuel, 9, Victoria Street, S.W.; Victoria

Hon. James Munro, 15, Victoria Street, S.W.; South Australia-Sir J. C. Bray, 15, Victoria Street, S. W. New ZealandW. B. Perceval, 13, Victoria Street, S.W.; Queensland-Sir James Garrick, 1, Victoria Street, S.W.; Tasmania-Sir E. N. C. Braddon, 5, Victoria Street, S.W.; Western Australia, Sir William Robinson, 15, Victoria Street; and Fiji-Crown Agents for Colonies, Downing Street, S.W. Agricultural Societies. These are to Admiralty Gulf, W.A., on the north-be found in every township and district west coast, between Lakes Bougainville and Voltaire, in what is now known as the Kimberley Division. The bay contains the Osborne Islands, and at its head is Port Warrender.

Adieu, Cape, S.A. A point of land in the Great Australian Bight, about 102 miles E. of its head.

Adventure Bay, Tas., on the E. coast of Bruni Island, south of Hobart, discovered by Furneaux in 1773, was visited

of Australasia, and are largely subsidised by the colonial governments. There is no doubt that they have done a great deal to improve the form of the live stock throughout Australia, and to bring under the notice of the farmer the best descriptions of agricultural implements. The Agricultural Society of New South Wales,

the parent society, was founded in 1822, and was much assisted in its early days by the Macarthur family.

is prettily placed at the feet of Mounts Clarence and Melville, on the lower rising ground. Its chief importance is in being the point of communication with Perth, the capital of Western Australia, distant 256 miles. A railway is now open between the two towns; fare 36s. Albany is placed in one of the most healthy parts of AusSouthern Ocean. The thermometer is seldom below 60° or above 85°. This evenness of temperature is remarkable, and renders the spot most salubrious. Population 2665. The fortification of Albany is now being undertaken by the Imperial and Colonial governments, owing to the importance of the port as a coaling station. Newspaper, Australian Advertiser.

Agriculture. The first harvest in Australia was gathered at Rose Hill, Parramatta, Dec. 1789,and two years afterwards there were 1000 acres under crop around Sydney and Parramatta. The total area under crop throughout Australia in 1890-tralia, being open to the breezes of the 91 was 9,315,685 acres, of which 3,537,091 were under wheat, 616,934 under oats, 150,182 barley, 142,178 potatoes, 1,077,150 hay, and 3,722,150 other tillage, including permanent grasses, root crops, vines, maize, sugar, and tobacco; the produce included 32,835,505 bushels of wheat, 15,805,324 of oats, 2,787,726 of barley, 562,655 tons of potatoes, and 1,282,438 of hay. The live stock included 1,697,051 horses, 10,799,060 cattle, 114,078,977 sheep, and 1,260,716 pigs.

Ahaura, N.Z. A town in a timber country, 22 miles N.E. from Greymouth, on the Ahaura creek. Population 210. Ahuri Plains, N.Z. A fertile district 80,000 acres in extent, near Hawke's Bay. Akaroa, N.Z., is a township on the eastern shores of one of the finest harbours of New Zealand, 38 miles S.E. of Christchurch. Population, with district, 4106. Newspaper, Akaroa Mail.

Akaroa, N.Z. A county on the east coast of the South Island, S. of Christchurch, and including Banks Peninsula; town, Akaroa.

Albany Isles, Qd., on the north-east coast, consist of six small islands. Albatross Island, Tas., N. W. of Barren Island, in Bass's Straits.

Albatross Point, N.Z. A cape on the west coast of the Northern Island, at the south point of Kawhia Harbour.

Albert, N.S.W. A pastoral district comprising the extreme north-western portion of the colony, containing 60,000 square miles, of which a considerable area is well suited for grazing, and in seasons when there is sufficient rainfall for agriculture.

Albert, S.A. A county with an area of 2144 square miles in the south-eastern Akaroa Harbour, N.Z. An inlet of the district, and on its N. and W. boundary ocean on the south coast of Banks Pen-has frontage to the Murray river. insula on the east coast, and a few miles south of the city of Canterbury; is one of the best harbours in New Zealand.

Albacutya, Vict. A lake in the Wimmera district 13,000 acres in extent, co. Weeah; brackish; receives the surplus waters of Lake Hindmarsh, into which the Wimmera flows.

Albany, W.A. A port on the Southern Ocean, situated on the northern side of Princess Royal Harbour, one of the most convenient inner estuaries of King George's Sound, and is the port of call for the mail steamers to Western Australia. The entrance, between Points King and Possession, is narrow-barely mile wide; the barbour, which is 44 miles long-N.W. and S.E.-and two miles wide, is very shoal at its western and southern sides; the available portion for vessels of heavy draught is of limited extent. The town

Albert Lake, S.A., a sheet of water 10 miles long by 8 in width, E. of Lake Alexandrina, with which it is connected by a narrow channel 5 miles long. The waters are brackish.

Albert Park, Vict. A suburb of Melbourne, 14 mile S., on the Melbourne and St. Kilda railway line. Population, 12,708.

Albert River, Qd., falls into the Gulf of Carpentaria, and is navigable for a short distance to the bar, from whence a small steamer conveys passengers and cargo to Burketown, which is the port for a large portion of Queensland and the Northern Territory.

Albert River, Qd. A small stream falling into Moreton Bay.

Alberton, Qd. A township in an agricultural district near Brisbane, producing sugar, maize, potatoes and arrowroot.

A station on the South Coast Railway. Population 100.

Alberton, Tas. A port town in a gold mining district, near Ellesmere, in the Ringarooma district, 186 miles from Hobart.

district, situated on the Aldinga creek, on the main southern road to Yankalilla, 27 miles S. of Adelaide. Population, with district, 700.


Aldinga Bay, S.A. A bay on the eastern coast of Gulf St. Vincent, and about Alberton, Vict. An agricultural town-half-way between Port Adelaide and Cape ship and port on the Albert river, in co. Buln Buln, and gives name to an extensive shire in South Gippsland. It lies 177 miles S. E. of Melbourne. Population 200, of the shire 900.

Alberton and Queenstown, S.A. A town and railway station on the Port line, suburban to Adelaide, 6 miles W. Population 2250.

Albion, Qd. A suburb of Brisbane and a station on the Sandgate railway.

Albion Park, N.S.W. A town on the Macquarie rivulet, between Kiama and Wollongong, 81 miles S.S. W. of Sydney. Population, with district, 600.

Albuera, Mount, N.S.W. A mountain in the Liverpool Plains District.

Albury, N.S.W., sometimes known as Federal City, is an important town on the river Murray, which is the boundary between New South Wales and Victoria, 351 miles S.W. of Sydney and 190 miles N.E. of Melbourne. Albury is the N.S.W. terminus of the Southern Railway, and Wodonga, on the opposite bank of the Murray, is the terminus of the North Eastern Railway of Victoria, the two lines being connected by a handsome iron bridge. The railway stations are large and commodious. The Murray river is navigable to Albury, and steamers have plied from the town to Lake Alexandrina in S.A., the first steamer, the Albury, having arrived in 1855. The town is lighted with gas, and has a good supply of water, is the centre of an important agricultural, pastoral and vine-growing distric 1 returns a member to the Legislature, has four banks, is a municipality, and is a place for holding quarter sessions and circuit courts. Population of district 5250. Newspapers: Border Post, Albury Banner, and Evening Mail.

Alderman Islands, N.Z. A group of islets in the Pacific Ocean, to the E. of

the Thames Peninsula.

Aldgate, S.A. A railway and telegraph station on the Adelaide and Nairne Railway, 12 miles E. from Adelaide by road, and 22 by rail.

Aldinga, S.A. A town in an agricultural

Alexander, Mount, Vict., in co. Talbot, between Sandhurst and Castlemaine, is of granite formation, and has an elevation of 2435 feet.

Alexandra, N.Z. A town at the base of the Pirongia mountain, and the head of the navigation of the river Waipa, 105 miles S. of Auckland city. Population 200. A town 110 Alexandra, South, N.Z.

miles N.W. of Dunedin, at the junction of the Manuherikia and Clutha rivers. It is in the centre of some important quartz diggings. Population 246.

Alexandra, Vict. A mining township on the Goulburn river, 10 miles N.E. of Melbourne. Population of town and shire 2850. Local paper, Alexandra Standard.

Alexandrina Lake, S.A. A sheet of water, 30 miles long and 15 wide, which receives the waters of the river Murray. On the east there is a channel to Lake Albert, and on the south a narrow passage to the ocean, through which small steamers are occasionally able to enter the Murray, although the entrance is usually blocked by a sandbar. waters are brackish, and abound with fish.


Alfred, S.A. A county with an area of 1492 square miles in the south-eastern district; has frontage to the south bank of the Murray and the colony of Victoria; contains the celebrated Irrigation Colony of Renmark.

Alfredton, Vict., is a mining district, being a suburb of Ballarat, 98 miles W. of Melbourne. Population 100.

Alice, Qd. A station on the Central Railway, 326 miles W. of Rockhampton.

Alice Springs (Northern Territory), S.A. A station on the Overland Telegraph, 1036 miles from Adelaide.

Allandale East, S.A. A town in co. Grey, 300 miles E. of Adelaide. Popu

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Alligator East, South, and Upper East (Northern Territory), S.A., are rivers falling into Van Diemen's Gulf, in the Indian Ocean. The South Alligator is navigable for 30 miles by vessels of from 500 to 600 tons, and the East Alligator for 40 or 50 miles.

Allora, Qd. A town in an agricultural district in the Darling Downs, 14 miles

from Warwick and 156 miles S.W. of Brisbane. The nearest station is on the Southern Railway, at Hendon, 3 miles distant; the land around is very rich, and the Clifton colliery is in the neighbour hood. Population of district 930.

Alma, S.A. A town 53 miles N.E. from Adelaide. Population of district


Alma, Vict. A village on the Timor creek, 116 miles N.W. of Melbourne and 4 miles from Maryborough. Population

of district 690.

Alma River, W.A. A tributary of the Gascoyne, which runs into Shark's Bay. Alpacas. These animals were introduced into Victoria by Charles Ledger, an Englishman who had a large estancia on the frontiers of Bolivia and Peru, and they were purchased by the Government of Victoria. But the climate of the coast was not adapted for the animal, which is accustomed to dry and mountain districts, and the experiment was a qualified failure.

Alphington, Vict. A suburb 5 miles N.E. of Melbourne, on Darebin creek and the river Yarra, on the road to Heidelberg. Population 500.

Alsatia, Qd. See WALKERSTON. Alstonville, N.S.W. A town in co. Rouse, 320 miles N.N.E. of Sydney. Population 500.

Althorp Island, S.A. A small island in Investigator Strait, on which a lighthouse has been erected.

Amadeus, Lake, S.A. and W.A. Lies N. of lat. 25° S., on the boundaries of both colonies, and although covering a large area is rather a depression in the earth than a lake.

Amberley, N.Z. An agricultural and pastoral town and railway station on the Christchurch and Amberley line, 34 miles N. from Christchurch, and on the Kowai river. Population, with district, 700.

Amherst, Vict. A mining and agricultural town on Daisy Hill creek, 114 miles N.W. from Melbourne. Population 800.

Amphitheatre, Vict. A town in a mining district on the Avoca river, 111 miles N.W. of Melbourne. Population, with neighbourhood, 700.

Amuri, N.Z. A county in the Nelson Province of the South Island, E. of the

Spencer Mountains; intersected by the railway from Canterbury to Culverden. Towns, Culverden and Waiau.

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Ana Branch. A name given to branches of rivers which leave the main stream and after a course of greater or less length return to it again. Edwards and the Wakool and some branches of the other streams are "ana Murray, leaving that river near Tocumwal, and after a course of nearly two hundred miles returning to it again a few miles above the junction of the Murray and the Murrumbidgee.

Anchor Island, N.Z. A small island 1360 feet high, which lies at the mouth of Dusky Bay, one of the west coast sounds, on the south-west coast of the South Island.

Anderson Bay, Tas. A large bay on the north coast, which receives the waters of the Great and Little Forester.

Anderson's Inlet, Vict., falls into Bass's Straits, between Capes Liptrap and Patterson, after receiving the waters of Tarwin river.

Andrews, E. W., journalist, born 1813, died 1877, emigrated to S. A. in 1839, and in 1853 became one of the proprietors of the South Australian Register. As the Mayor of Glenelg, he was the first person in Australia to welcome the Duke of Edinburgh, the first prince of the blood who ever visited the Australian colonies, on his arrival at the latter end of 1867.

Angaston, S.A. A township in an agricultural district, on Angaston creek, 51

miles N.W. from Adelaide. Population with district, 2100.

Angathela, Qd. (formerly known as Ellangowan). A pastoral town in the Warrego district, 60 miles W. of Charleville, a station on the Western Railway, and 497 W.N.W. of Brisbane. Population 160.

Anglegrove, S.A., 107 miles N. from Adelaide, is situated midway between Clare, Snowton and Redhill.

Anglem, Mount, N.Z. The highest peak in Stewart Island; has an elevation of 3200 feet.

Anglesey, Vict. One of the old counties; area, 1647 square miles; bounded on the N. by Delatite, on the W. by Dalhousie, on the S. by Bourke and Evelyn, and on the E. by Wonnangatta; watered by the Goulburn and its tributaries the Yea and Acheron, and intersected near its western boundary by a portion of the North-Eastern railway from the neighbourhood of Kilmore to Avenel; contains the towns of Seymour and Yea. Population 12,877.

Angle Vale, S.A. A village in an agricultural district near the Gawler river, 23 miles from Adelaide by mail route. Population 100.

Anglican Church. The first chaplain, the Rev. R. Johnson, landed with the first fleet in 1788, and returned to England in 1800. Rev. Samuel Marsden, assistant chaplain, landed in 1794, built a stone church at Parramatta in 1803, and at Sydney in 1807. In 1807 he sailed for England. During his absence his duty was performed by the Rev. Mr. Pulton, who had arrived in 1799. In 1810 Marsden returned, and two other clergymen-one the Rev. W. Cowper -landed. From 1804 to 1820 the Rev. R. Knopwood, chaplain, was the only clergyman in Van Diemen's Land; but in 1823 the Rev. Dr. Bedford was appointed chaplain at Hobart Town; and the Rev. J. H. Youl had been at Launceston since 1818. Upto 1820 all these clergymen acted independently of one another, and were under the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishop of Calcutta. But in 1825 the Rev. T. H. Scott was appointed Archdeacon of Australia, including Tasmania; and one-seventh of all the land in New South Wales was by charter given to the Church. This charter was revoked in 1833; but during the interval 435,765 acres were granted to the Church of England, of which it sold 15,993. In

1829 the Rev. W. G. Broughton was appointed first Archdeacon of Australia. There were at that time 8 churches and 12 clergymen in New South Wales, and 4 churches and 6 clergymen in Van Diemen's Land. At that date an attempt was first made to Christianise the aborigines. Up to 1830 the supremacy of the Church of England was absolute. In 1831, under the governorship of Sir Richard Bourke, the principle was established in New South Wales of assisting all religions; but so late as 1842 the distribution of public money was most uneven, for the vote was: Church of England, £18,081; Presbyterians, £6,500; Roman Catholics, £8,350; Wesleyans, £3,050: the popula tion being, out of a total of 128,726— Church of England, 73,727; Church of Scotland, 13,153; Roman Catholics, 36,690; Wesleyans, 3,236. And in addition to the lion's share of the public money, the Church of England obtained subscriptions in England from private individuals and religious societies amounting to £13,000. In 1836 Archdeacon Broughton was consecrated Bishop of Australia, with a seat in the Legislative Council-a privilege not extended to any other Australian bishop. The subdivision of the vast diocese of Australia commenced in 1841, when the diocese of New Zealand was formed, and received as its first bishop the Rev. G. A. Selwyn, who was afterwards translated to the English bishopric of Lichfield. In 1842 the diocese of Tasmania was formed, the first bishop being the Rev. R. R. Nixon. In 1847 the principle of subdivision was extended to the mainland, and the diocese of Melbourne with jurisdiction over Victoria, Adelaide with jurisdiction over South and West Australia, and Newcastle for the northern portions of New South Wales, including what now constitutes Queensland, were formed, the respective bishops being-Charles Perry, Melbourne; Augustus Short, Adelaide; and William Tyrrell, Newcastle; Bishop Broughton being Metropolitan of Australia and Tasmania. Further subdivisions were made subsequently. In 1857 Western Australia was formed into a separate bishopric, under the Rev. Matthew Hale; and in 1859 the Rev. E. W. Tufnell was consecrated bishop of Brisbane; Goulburn was separated from Sydney in 1863, Rev. Mesac Thomas; Grafton and Avon

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