Chap, within them, and make the weak to quake and trem—~ ble. It was further objected, that it would require 16 lj/greater sums of money to furnish such a voyage and to fit them with necessaries, than their estates would amount to. And yet they must all as well look to be seconded with supplies, as presently to be transported. , Also, the like precedents of ill success and lamentable miseries befallen others in the like designs,1 were easy to be found and not forgotten to be alleged; besides their own experience in their former troubles and hardships in their removal into Holland, and how hard a thing it was for them to live in that strange place, although it was a neighbour country, and a civil and rich commonwealth.

It was answered, that all great and honorable acJ tions were accompanied with great difficulties, and must be both enterprised and overcome with answerable courages. It was granted the dangers were great, but not desperate, and the difficulties were many, but not invincible; for although there were many of them likely, yet they were not certain. It might be that some of the things feared might never befall them; others, by providence, care, and the use of good means, might in a great measure be prevented; and all of them, through the help of God, by fortitude and patience, might either be borne or overcome. True it was that such attempts were not to be made and undertaken but upon good ground and reason, not rashly or lightly, as many have done for curiosity or

1 The entire failure of the plan- serve to discourage them from semi-

tation at Sagadahoc, near the grating to America. See Gorges's y

mouth of the Kennebec, in 1607, Brief Narrative, in Mass. Hist.

which was abandoned in less than Coll. xxvi. 54 — 56; Williamson's

a year, and the slow progress of the Maine, i. 197 — 203; Bancroft, i.

Virginia settlements, might well 124 — 152.


hope of gain, &c. But their condition was not ordi- Chap. nary. Their ends were good and honorable, their —-^ calling lawful and urgent, and therefore they might 1617expect a blessing of God in their proceeding; yea, although they should lose their lives in this action, yet they might have comfort in the same; and their endeavours would be honorable. They lived here but as men in exile and in a poor condition; and as great miseries might possibly befall them in this place; for the twelve years of truce were now out,1 and there was nothing but beating of drums and preparing for war, the events whereof are always uncertain. The Spaniard might prove as cruel as the salvages of America, and the famine and pestilence as sore here as there, and liberty less to look out for remedy.

After many other particular things answered and alleged on both sides, it was fully concluded by the major part to put this design in execution, and to prosecute it by the best means they could.

1 The twelve years' truce, con- 1621, when the war was renewed, eluded April 9, 1609, expired in See Note on page 44.



And first, after their humble prayers unto God for his direction and assistance, and a general conference 16 17. held thereabouts, they consulted what particular place to pitch upon and prepare for. Some, and none of the meanest, had thoughts and were earnest for Guiana,1 or some of those fertile places in those hot cli

1 Sir Walter Raleigh published in 1596 his " Discovery of Guiana," which he calls a mighty, rich and beautiful empire, directly east from Peru, towards the sea, lying under the equinoctial line. Its capital was "that great and golden city, which the Spaniards call El Dorado, and the natives Manoa, and for greatness, riches, and excellent seat it far exceedeth any of the world" Having, in 1595, sailed up the Orinoco 400 miles in quest of it, he says, "On both sides of this river we passed the most beautiful country that ever mine eyes beheld ; plains of twenty miles in length, the grass short and green, and in divers parts groves of trees by themselves, as if they had been by all the art and labor of the world so made of purpose; and still as we rowed, the deer came down feeding by the

water's side, as if they had been
used to a keeper's call, — I never
saw a more beautiful country, nor
more lively prospects, hills so rais-
ed here and there over the valleys,
the river winding into divers
branches, the plains adjoining
without bush or stubble, all fair
green grass, the deer crossing in
every path, the birds towards the
evening singing on every tree with
a thousand several tunes, the air
fresh, with a gentle easterly wind;
and every stone that we stopped to
take up promised either gold or
silver by his complexion. — For
health, good air, pleasure, and
riches, I am resolved it cannot be
equalled by any region either in the
east or west." See Raleigh's
Works, viii. 381, 398, 427, 442,
462. (Oxford ed.)
Chapman, too, the translator of


mates. Others were for some parts of Virginia,1 where Chap. the English had already made entrance and beginning. —v^~

Those for Guiana alleged that the country was rich, 1617. fruitful, and blessed with a perpetual spring and a flourishing greenness; where vigorous nature brought forth all things in abundance and plenty, without any great labor or art of man; so as it must needs make the ^ inhabitants rich, seeing less provision of clothing and other things would secure them than in more colder and less fruitful countries must be had. As also that the Spaniards, having much more than they could possess, had not yet planted there, nor any where very near the same.2

But to this it was answered, that out of question the country was both fruitful and pleasant, and might yield riches and maintenance to the possessors more easily than to others; yet, other things considered, it would not be so fit. And first, that such hot countries are subject to grievous diseases, and many noisome impediments, which other more temperate places are free from, and would not so well agree with our Eng

Homer, in a poem on Guiana, Grahame's History of the United written in 1595, thus celebrates States, i. 39. the country: * Although England and Spain

were now at peace, and had been

"Guiana, whose rich feet are mines of gold, •">«» 1604- and Dis continued till

Whose forehead knocks against the roof of the rupture in 1624, yet the PllI""',. ...... L. grims, from their long residence in

£Unde on her tuttoc at fair Lnpland looking, Tt^iu 1 u«j :~u:u j .k or, -l

Kimni her hand, i«>winB her mighty breast, Holland, had imbibed the national and erery §ign ufaiiiuhiiiiMion mnking, repugnance of the Dutch to their To be the .i.ter and the daughter both Spanish oppressors, a feeling which

Of our most sacred maid." * , '' J T ° ,

was long retained. In a letter

written by the Plymouth colonists

See Tytler's Life of Raleigh, p. to the Dutch on Hudson's river in

164; and Oldys's Life in Raleigh's 1627, they speak of resisting "the

Works, i. 215. pride of that common enemy, the

1 The successful colonization of Spaniards, from whose cruelty the

Virginia commenced in 1007, at Lord keep us both, and our native

Jamestown. See Stith's History countries." See Mass. Hist. Coll.

of Virginia, p. 46; Bancroft, i. 125; iii. 51, 52. 1 See the account of the massacre land, of 100 miles wide, along the


chap. lish bodies. Again, if they should there live and do —~ well, the jealous Spaniard would never suffer them 1617. long, but would displant and overthrow them, as he 15 65. did the French in Florida,' who were settled further 2i. from his richest countries; and the sooner, because they should have none to protect them, and their own strength would be too small to resist so potent an enemy and so near a neighbour.

On the other hand, for Virginia it was objected, that if they lived amongst the English which were there planted, or so near them as to be under their government, they should be in as great danger to be troubled V/""' and persecuted for their cause of religion * as if they lived in England, and it might be worse; and if they lived too far off, they should neither have succour or defence from them.

And at length the conclusion was, to live in a distinct body by themselves, under the general government of Virginia;s and by their friends to sue to His

of the Huguenots in Florida by the Atlantic coast of North America,

Spaniards, in Bancroft, i. 67 — 70. extending from the 34th to the 45th

* Virginia had been colonized by degree of north latitude — a terripersons belonging to the Church of tory which then went under the England, and attached to its cere- common name of Virginia — bemonies and institutions. In the tween two Companies, who were orders and instructions for the to colonize it. The First or Southgovernment of the colony, issued em Colony was granted to certain by King James under his sign knights, gentlemen, merchants, and manual and the privy seal of Eng- adventurers of London, who were land, it was specially enjoined that to colonize between the 34th and "the word and service of God the 41st degrees. The second, or should be preached and used accord- Northern colony, was granted to ing to the rites and doctrines of the persons of like description in BrisChurch of England." See Stith's tol, Exeter, and Plymouth, who Virginia, p. 37, and Chalmers's An- were to plant between the 38th and nals, p. 15. the 45th degrees. Each Company

'The Virginia Company was was to be under the government of

established in 1606. On the 10th a council of thirteen, and neither of

of April of that year, King James, them was to plant a colony within

by letters patent, divided a strip of a hundred miles of a previous settle

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