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FROM THE

COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

IN MDCCLXXXIX.

TO THE

RESTORATION OF THE BOURBONS

IN MDCCCXV

BY

SIR ARCHIBALD ALISON, BART.

F. R. S. E.

NINTH EDITION

VOL. X.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS
EDINBURGH AND LONDON

MDCCCLV

CONTENTS OF VOL. X.

CHAPTER LXXII.- ADVANCE OF NAPOLEON TO MOSCOW.

Scene at crossing the Niemen, 1.-Proclamation of the Emperor Alexander, 2.

-Resolution of the Russian army and people: their forces retreat, ib.

Early history of Barclay de Tolly, 3.-Early history of Bagrathion, 4.-Na-

poleon enters Wilna, 5.-Address of the Polish Diet to the emperor, 6.-

Movements of Jerome against Bagrathion, 7.—Combat of Mobilow, ib. -Ba-

grathion retreats to Smolensko, 8.—The intrenched camp at Drissa, ib.-

Barclay retires to Witepsk, 9.- Napoleon advances to the Dwipa, ib.-Im.

portance of this movement on Witepsk, 10.-Advance of the French to

Witepsk, 11.-Condition of the corps in rear, 12.- The Emperor Alexander

repairs to Moscow, 13.—Proclamation, ib.-Devotion of the inhabitants of

Moscow, ib.--First operations of Wittgenstein on the Dwina, 14.—Opera-

tions of Tormasoff against Schwartzenberg, 15.-Arguments against any

farther advance, ib.—Action of Newerofskoi, near Krasnoi, 18.–Battle of

Smolensko, 20.-Retreat of the Russians from Smolensko, 21.–Battle of

Valtelina, 22.- Depression of the French army, 24.-Losses already sus-

tained, ib.- Napoleon's reasons for a farther advance, 25.—Operations of

Schwartzenberg against Tormasoff, 26; of St Cyr against Wittgenstein,

and of Macdonald against Riga, ib.- Advance of Victor to Smolensko, ib.; and

of Augereau from the Oder, and the national guard of France to the Elbe,

27.- Advance of Napoleon towards Moscow, ib.—Appointment of Kutusoff

to the command, 28.-His character and previous achievements, ib.Order

of the Russian retreat, 30.- Difficulties of the French army, 31.-Advan-

tages of the Russians, ib.—Battle of Borodino, 36.-Condition of the French

army at its termination, 42.-Retreat of the Russians towards Moscow, ib.

Desertion of the city by the inhabitants, 44.—Description of that city, 45.—

The French enter and find the city deserted, ib.—Burning of Moscow, 46.

CHAPTER LXXIII.--RETREAT FROM MOSCOW.

Inclination of conquest from the north to the south, 50.—Situation of Russia

at this period, 51.-Alexander's proclamation, 52.- Plan of the Russian gene-

ral for surrounding the French, ib. -Measures of Napoleon to secure his

communications, 53.-His attempt at negotiation, 54.—His stay at Moscow,

ib.-Strength and situation of the Russian army, 55.—Kutusoff's views of

the advantages of his situation, 56.-Partisan warfare, ib.—Effect of the

plunder of Moscow on the French, 57.–Napoleon's preparations for a re-

treat, 58.- Alexander's resolution not to treat, 59.- First appearance of

snow, ib.—Kutusoff resumes offensive operations, 60.-Attack on Murat at

Winkowo, ib.Napoleon marches towards Kalouga, 61.-Caravans which

followed the army, ib.Kutusoff moves to bar the passage, ib. Battle of

Malo-Jaroslawitz, 62.–Napoleon nearly made prisoner, 64.- Retreat resolved

on, 65.—Kutusoff moves in pursuit, 66.-Spectacle on passing the abbey of

Kolotskoi: disorders which already appeared, ib.-Action at Wiazma, 67.-

Ney commands the French rear-guard, 68.—Commencement of the frost,

69.-- Depression among the soldiers, ib.-Increasing distresses of the troops,

ib.- Effects of the cold on the army, 71.—Effect of the want of provisions,

ib.-Indignation against Napoleon, 72.—Retreat to Dorogobouge, ib.—Disas-

ters of the Viceroy, ib.-Movements of Kutusoff, 73.-Arrival at Smolensko,

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