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fate of all its heirs, and not allowed to this, told me that he could not get his mix io affairs of state till he came to the steam-launch repaired in the Turkish throne, it is extraordinary that he has dockyard, at his own expense, without the acquired such skill as he has, and should matter going before the sultan for his be so completely master of bis people. approval. Another ex-ambassador said He must be a man of great natural capac- that in an interview at the palace the ily and intelligence ; very skilful in play- sultan complained of over- work, and ing off one set of people against another, pointed to a great heap of papers on his whether they be ambassadors or his own iable on which his decision was required. ministers ; a very hard worker in the de. The ambassador, glancing his eye at the tails of his goveroment. By dint of these papers, observed that the first of them qualities he has achieved a power over consisted of proposed regulations for a every one and everything in his empire cafe chantant in Pera. It naturally folsuch as very few of his predecessors in lows that, the sultan being overwhelmed modern times have enjoyed. Most hos- with such petty details, important quespitable aod courteous to foreigners - tions get shelved and intermediate delays whether royal persons, whom he enter. occur, fatal to the administration and to tains with lavish splendor, ambassadors, the improvement of the country, The or passing strangers - and frequently, re- ministers are reduced to the position of ceiving ladies at dinner, he has broken mere clerks, without responsibility or down the old barriers between his court sense of power, feeling that they are not and the outward world more than any trusted, and the more anxious therefore sultan before him. He appears to be sim. to shirk any difficulty. The sultan may ple and upostentatious in his personal fancy that he decides on every question anxious to be held in esteem in western that comes before him free from influence; habits, without religious fanaticism, and but influences are necessarily brought to Europe.

bear upon him in a hundred indirect ways. These qualities, however, must not de- He must be dependent for his facts upon ter one from recognizing other defects, some one, however much he may distrust which, it is to be feared, nullify many of every one. The entourage of the palace, his good intentions and preclude the suc. the favorite aide-de.camp for the time cessful administration of the empire. It being, the chief of the eunuchs (always ao is universally imputed to bim that he has important person in the sultan's court), one of the gravest defects which an arbi- the ladies of the harem, the astrologers, trary ruler can have, namely, that of trust some fanatics who have obtained access to ing no one, of being suspicious and show him, may all have their turn in influencing ing his suspicion of all who come near the supreme head of the State. him, whether his ministers, or the people The sultan is also said to employ an about the palace, or the representatives of army of spies, who make known to him foreign powers ; that he is in constant fear everything that takes place in Constanti. of plots against his life and government; nople, and much more, probably, that does and that he allows these fears to be played not take place. His ministers abroad are upon by designing persons. It is said of sometimes watched by spies. These peo. him that if two people advise him in the ple have access to his person, and are same direction he begins to suspect a believed to supply him with pretended or combination and to fear a plot; that he got-up plots against his person at critical hears with alarm of even a meeting and moments when decisions on important conversation between two of his ministers, points are requisite, and when it is desired and demands an explanation ; that he dis- to deter him from some course he appears courages or forbids any large gathering of bent on. It is certain, then, that chance Turks, even to celebrate such family must have more to do with the decisions events as marriages.

arrived at than any other factor. Another main defect of his administra- The sultan is known to keep an atten. tion, arising largely out of that already tive eye to everything that appears in alluded to, is that he insists upon doing print about himself in any part of Europe ; everything himself, and will trust no one there is an officer whose special duty it is of his ministers with responsibility and to collect these notices and to bring them power. There is no detail of administra- before him. He often attributes to obtion of his government so small or trivial scure prints an importance far beyond that it does not come before him person their desert, and cannot believe, when ally for his approval and signature. The attacks are made on him, that the governBritish ambassador, as an illustration of Iment of the country in which they appear,

is not responsible for them. He was change of air, and to drive about the coungreatly annoyed by a recent article in this try. On her departure he is reported to review on the death of his uncle, Abdul have said, “What harm have I done that Assiz, written by Sir Henry Elliot, for- this woman should desire my death? merly ambassador at his court, in which it Why does she advise me to run into such was sought to prove that Abdul Assiz dangers ?” really committed suicide, and that the It has already been said that the sul. subsequent judicial proceedings were for tan's income is enormous; besides balf a the purpose of making away with Midhat million of English pounds from the State and other pashas. The sultan communi- taxes he is said to draw two or three times cated with the present British ambassador as much from the crown property. He on the subject of this article, and asked owns a very large number of palaces on whether he had read it; when the ambas- the Bosphorus, and a great proportion of sador replied in the negative, the sultan the best kiosks and villas on its northern again sent word, specially desiring him to banks, which he grants during his pleas. read the article and to say what he thought ure to ministers and favorites, or to perof it. Later he again reverted to the sub- sons who have married members of his ject; he said that he had known several family. He is, in fact, the sole fountain British ambassadors during his reign; of honor, wealth, and distinction in his that there had been two of them with country ; every Turk depends on him for whom he had had exceptionally friendly position and fortune; his expenditure is relations, and whom he believed to be his enormous; his charities are said to be personal friends; that one of them, Sir very great; his gifts and benevolences are Henry Layard, on bis recall, had written equally so; he complains that no one ever a despatch reflecting, in the severest comes near him who does not want someterms, on his — the sultan's — conduct, thing; it is said that three thousand per. and the other, Sir Henry Elliot, had now sons are fed daily in his palace, and that written an article containing a most seri. be sends out dinners to a vast number of ous accusation against him. He desired others by way of charity. Of his private to be informed “whether these are the life in the harem little is known. His ways of British ambassadors.”' It will official life is one of incessant labor. He be admitted the question was one which is the first ruler of Turkey who has shown could be answered with difficulty.

interest in art. For the first time the inThe sultan is equally well informed of teresting contents of his treasury have the political views of all foreigners who been arranged, and, under special permits, come to see him. He is said to have are open to inspection. He has also esdrawn out an eminent British statesman, tablished a museum of antiquities, under once a leader of the Radical party, as to the care of Hamdi Bey, a very competent what he considered the danger of Home antiquarian, a Moslem by religion, but the Rule for the Irish, and on the reply that son of a Greek who was stolen as a boy it would not stop there, and would lead to from Scio. There has been a recent find the independence of Ireland, fatal to the of three splendid sarcophagi at Sidon, one empire, the sultan said that was precisely of which is believed to have contained the the reason why he could not give auton- remains either of Alexander or one of his omy to Macedonia. When asked why generals; it has bas-reliefs of the very he was so civil to some foreigner of dis- best period of Grecian art - equal in tioction, he replied that there was a line merit, in the opinion of many, to the Elgin in the Koran which said, “ Be charitable marbles, and far more perfect in preserva. to your friends, and be friendly to your tion. This alone makes the fortune of the enemies."

museum, and must attract every sculptor The sultan very rarely or never leaves in Europe. He has formed a school of the grounds of Yildiz Kiosk, except to go art, at which are students both Moslem once a week to a mosque just outside, and Greek. A technical college and sevwhen the very striking ceremony known eral industrial schools have recently been as the Selamlick takes place; once a year, established at the capital and elsewhere. also, he pays a visit to Stamboul, but the It is also greatly to the credit of the sul route there and returning is never known tan that he has established and maintained in advance. He is in constant fear of as- several girls' schools at Constantinopl sassination. Some grand duchess whom and other towns - - an innovation of the he received at his court, on his complain. utmost importance. Apart from this tber ing that his health was indifferent, ad. is improvement in the status of women a vised himn to take more exercise and the capital. The number of cases of po

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lygamy are comparatively rare. Monog dred in oumber, and they will not leave amy is the rule, partly, it is said, because again till reduced to that number. The there are very few Turks rich enough to navy, on the other hand, has been comafford the separate establishments they pletely neglected - it is believed by many are obliged by law to keep for several that the sultan has a prejudice against it, wives, and partly because the women will arising from the fact that it took an active oot submit to the old system. They have part in the deposition of Abdul Assiz. become acquainted with the condition of The ironclads were then moored in front women in western Europe, largely, it is of the palace, and were ready to fire into said, through French novels; and if the it if there had been need. Whether this morality of these books is of a low order, be the cause, or whether it be from want at least'it is based on equality of the two of mean's only, the navy has been deg. sexes. Probably the best hope for Turkey lected to a point where it can scarcely be is that the rising generation of men may said to exist. The ironclads, most of be brought up by educated mothers and which are now completely obsolete, have oot under the debasing influences which not left the Golden Horn for twelve years. in the past have too often surrounded When the Greeks receive from the conthem.

tractors in France the three ironclads The sultan is said to be most strict in pearly completed, they will be masters of fulfilling the obligations of his Civil List. the Ægean Sea ; the Turks will have It is also due to him that eight years ago oothing fit to cope with them - the Greek the Porte came to terms with its external government, if left to itself, will be able creditors and hypothecated to an interna. to prohibit the landing of troops in Crete. tional commission revenues amounting to It will depend on England and the great two millions of pounds a year for payment powers whether another Turkish army of a greatly reduced interest, and for a will land there. gradual redemption of the debt. The It has already been pointed out that the commission has worked

well and sultan has shown great skill in playing off smootbly. It collects the revenues as one foreign power against another. In signed to it, mainly through Turkish offi. the last instance it is the power which cials, with regularity, and for eight years threatens, the one who is most feared at faith' has been kept. As a result confi- the time, which wins in the diplomatic dence is being restored, and in recent game with the Porte, and obtains acquiestransactions conversions have been ef. ceoce tu its demands. There is no fected on comparatively easy terms; fresh doubt that Russia is at the moment the revenues have been assigned to the com- most powerful, for it is better able to mission in trust for them; and the money threaten, and can also press its claims for market shows that, subject to this hypoth- payment of the indemnity which was imecation of revenues to an international posed as a condition of peace in 1877. In commission, the Turkish government can ordinary times the Germans, supported by borrow money at little over five per cent. Austria, have the most influence; and it The commission has also proved that it can scarcely be denied that the influence Turkish officials are well and punctually of England has for years past – since, in paid they can be relied on for efficient and fact, the cession of Cyprus - been very bodest service. It would seem that this small in spite of a succession of able am. commission may be the germ of some bassadors. thing in the nature of an international ad- The sultan affects to be more concerned ministration, and may point the way to a about the occupation of Egypt by English solution of the Egyptian difficulty. troops than any other losses of his.

It is also generally admitted that the Shrewd men, however, who have had condition of the army, or of such part of means of sounding him, say that his conit as is concentrated at Constantinople, is cern is rather of a theoretical kind, and greatly improved. German officers have that he finds it a convenient stick to beat been employed for the drill of these men, England with, and the means of stirring and invariably give a good report of the up mischief against her whenever he depersonnel of the troops and of the younger | sires to do so, and that in this view he officers, To what extent this improve would regret the evacuation. Looking ment extends to the provinces is unknown. back at the conduct of our government of But it is certain that the Turks will not late years to Turkey, one can scarcely finally cross the Bosphorus without a good wonder if he fails to take our professions fight for Constantinople. It has been said at our own value, or to believe in our dis. of them that they first crossed it five hun. l interestedness. We failed to support him

in the last war with Russia. The indigna. resources, but in the interior of the coud. tion meetings in England on the Bulgarian try, among the peasantry, who constitute atrocities bad much to do with the ulti- nine-tenths of the population, and espemate liberation of this province. It was cially among the Turkish peasantry. All not the fear of offendiog England, but the accounts of independent witnesses from promises made to Austria before the war, every quarter of the empire concur that which induced the czar to refrain from the condition of the peasantry is not only ordering his troops to enter Constantino no better but is worse than it was; that ple. The stand made by England at Ber- they are poorer, and are more heavily lin for the separation of Roumelia from taxed; that life and property are no safer Bulgaria, the boast of Lord Beaconsfield, than formerly in rural districts; that has proved to be of no value. On the brigandage, a sure sign of poverty and other hand, we took advantage of his misgovernment, is increasing in many weakness to compel him to surrender districts. I select a few out of many tesCyprus; and we are in practical occupa. timonies to this effect. tion of Egypt. What more could his The commissioners of the public debt worst enemy have done?

are probably in a better position to report It is reported that on some occasion the on the condition of the people than any sultan said that “ he disliked the English others. They have agents in every part of more than any other people, for they the country for the collection of the reve. never seemed to be interested in his nue. In their report of last year, written dynasty: Their ambassador was always by Mr. Vincent Caillard, the English addressing him on the subject of the con- commissioner, there is this passage: dition of his people and never had any. The peasant, in the interior, has reduced thing to say about his dynasty. It was his wants to their simplest expression, and different with other powers. Even Rus. signs are to hand which show him to be less sia, though very much to be feared in time and less able to purchase the few necessaries of war, was at other times most friendly he requires. For instance, a few years ago in to his rule, and supported him against his any decent peasant household copper cooking internal foes, and never troubled him utensils were to be seen. Now they are about his people.” The saying has the scarcely to be found, and they have been sold true ring of personal government, and Their place has been taken by clay utensils,

to meet the pressing needs of the moment. gives the clue perhaps to much of the sul- and, in the case of the more affluent, by iron. tan's policy. If I have written so much The peasant's chief expenses lie in his womenabout him, it is because at the present folk, who require print stuffs for their dresses there is no other personality at Constanti. and linen for their underclothing; but of these nople. He disinissed and abolished the he gets as little as possible, since, as often as representative assembly which in the first not, he cannot pay for them. The smallness year of his reigo had been created by of margin is one of the reasons why the Midhat Pasha, the moment it began to amount of importation increases so slowly. make inquiries about the Civil List and to chases in cash; what little he has goes in

The peasant hardly ever pays for his purquestion his policy. Since then he has

taxes. He effects his purchases by barter. aimed at preventing any one acquiring in- Another significent sign is the increase of fuence or reputation, with the result that brigandage which has taken place. New he fulfils the ideal of an absolute monarch, bands of brigands are continually springing and bas reduced every other aspirer to up; reports from the interior are ever bringinfluence to the level of the common herd. ing to our knowledge some fresh acts of vio Even the ambassadors hold a totally dif- lent robbery. This simply means that men ferent position from that which they held desperately poor, and refusing to starve, take under Abdul Medjid.

to brigandage as a means of living. The main test, however, of the success A director of the Ottoman railway from of such a ruler is whether the people of Smyrna to Aidin, which now extends a his country have progressed under him, long distance into the interior and whether their material condition is strongly impressed with the expediency better. There have been twelve years of of keeping Constantinople in the hands profound peace since the last Russian of the Turks - gave me the same account. war, and it was to be hoped that in this The country districts not immediately in time signs of improvement in the material contact with the railway have gone backcondition of the people would be observ- ward, the people are poorer, there is more able. The test of such improvement is brigandage. The same report was given not to be taken at Constantinople, for by a competent authority from Salonika. which the whole empire is drained of its | An American gentleman, with no interest

— a man

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in politics, employed by a society of an, murders and violating the women. These tiquaries in the United States to make Kurds are predatory tribes and traditional researches for them, and who had spent robbers, not actuated so much by fanatitwo years in the provinces of Bagdad and cism as by desire for plunder, often exSyria, gave the same account of the gen- tending their operations to the Turkish eral condition of the people. He said peasantry, but giving their preference to that nothing could exceed the hatred of the Armenians, for the reason that they the people for the Turks. The people are know that they will in such case find im. Mussulmans by creed, but not of the munity from the valis and other Turkish Turkish race. The true Turks there are authorities. The beys of these Kurdish merely the goveroing classes, and are very tribes, he said, are often meu of large sew in number; they have made tbem- means, and are able to bribe the Turkisia selves execrated by their exactions. He authorities. My informant reckoned the confirmed the statement as to the exten. murders of Armenians in the Van district sion lately of the sultan's property. More as averaging one per diem. The Armethan half of the landed property of the nians, he added, also complained that no province of Bagdad, he said, has passed improvements of any kind were made or into his hand; and he has possessed him. allowed to be made, and no roads or rail. self of the whole of the valley of the Jor- ways - that they were not even allowed dao. One effect of this was, that the to establish a line of small steamers on province no longer paid its way in the Lake Van. On crossing the Russian fronsense of returning a surplus income to tier into the province annexed by Russia the treasury, as the sultan's lands and after the last war, the contrast, he said, those cultivating it were not subject to was most striking. The Armenians entaxation.

joyed there security for life and prop. Another American gentleman, employed erty: Improvements were being effected for two years at a college established at by the government in the way of roads, Karput, in the centre of Asia Minor, for and generally there was every indication the education of Armenian teachers, who of an improving peasantry. took no joterest in political questions, The Armenians in Turkey, this gentlegave much the same account of the con- man said, were looking with anxious hope dition of the peasantry in that district. A for the intervention on their behalf of large majority of the population there is England. They have no desire to be subpurely Turk, but there are bere and there ject to Russians, but sooner than endure Armenian villages. Extreme poverty the present state of things they would prevails among both. The Turks are welcome their advance. This view was more to be pitied than the Armenians in confirmed by a statement made to me this district, as they are subject to con- in another quarter by an American genscription, and every year a large propor- tleman who has the means of commution of their young men are taken for the nicating contidentially with the leading army, to be returned, if at all, after five Armenians in the east of Asia Minor. He years, greatly deteriorated and worn out by told me that he was requested a few years disease and insufficient food. My inform- ago by an eminent English statesman to ant said that in these districts the Turks inquire confidentially from the Armenians and the Armenians in ordinary times get op of that district whether they would prefer fairly well together, and there are seldom remaining under Turkish rule or being outbreaks of fanaticism on the part of the annexed to Russia. My friend made the former, though there is often brigandage. inquiry in an influential quarter, and the He had recently been in the districts of reply was that "the Armenians would Van and Erzeroum and had seen much of prefer to remain under the Turks if Edthe condition of the Armenian villages gland would hold a big stick over the there. Jo these districts the Armenians sultan, but if England would not do this are far more numerous, but still not in they would prefer Russia, or the devil the majority of the population of any well. himself, to the Turk." defined district or province. Their vil. It is by no means certain that Russia in lages are mixed up with those of Turks, any future advance into Asia Minor would and there is no active hostility to them on find itself strongly opposed even by the the part of the indigenous Turks. The Turkish peasantry, who have only too Kurds, however, from the mountains come many reasons to complain of their pres. down and make continual raids on the ent condition. I have been informed that Armenian villages, pillaging their houses, the Russians, with very good policy, made robbing their cattle, often committing a very favorable impression upon the vast

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