knowed it, and talked and wondhered. the “ Maiden's Lament " she was at; it had And some said, Randal was a lad o'sense ; stayed in her head somehow, - and rason for if he hadn't done it that way, Mauriade good she should sing it, the crayther! would have biodhered him, somehow.

Since my lover ceased to woo, And the rest said, he should have let his

I have roamed the wide world through, friends wish him luck, before startin' on

To ease the heart he broke in two: his first voyage; dhrink to his luck was Is go de tu, mo muirnin slān! * all they meant, and all they missed too.

But anyway, soon after ihat, when Dop. I watched his shadow from the door, nell the runner *

I tracked his footsteps o'er the moor, came through these parts, he tould that Randal MacNale had

I prayed as I shall pray no more: sailed in the Kate o' Kincarna, from

Is go de tu, mo muirnin slan! Loughvogue, for Queenstown. He'll make

One other thing Mauriade would do, some big voyage from yondher, they said ; and that was what I tould ye the first and that was the last they thought of him. thing when I begau. She'd walk out Sure it takes no time at all to forget a along that great cliff - look up there ! man; it's the asiest thing in the world. out to the very end, and sit there for Only one thing they remembered him by hours, keepin' watch out to sea, wid her - Mauriade.

hands shadin' her eyes if a ship came in Ah, it's hard to be tellin', pow afther all sight. And though whiles a wind might, these years, even

Mauriade lost her be blowin' that could whirl a man over the wits.

edge in half a minute, still through rain or 'Twas long before they'd belave it. The shine she would wait there, lookin' out for girl would let no one come near her; she'd Randal's ship, to be bringin' him home. fiy, like a hunted thing; she'd hide, or At length and at last the ship did come, shriek, or startle them off. She lived, no sailin' up the channel, bringin' him home. one knowed how, but some way of her Il wasn't for months and months, till the own; and sure, they say, the witless ne'er corn was cut, and the stooks standin'in come to want, No one could ever win to the fields, one day in September, a slip of spake to her ; but still she'd be seen, a schooner came in and anchored out bewhiles, in some o' those same airy t places yoot Portnasilla. A boat put off, three she'd been used to bide in; and only there men in her, and rowed for the little white would she stop or stay; every other place coastguard station on the south side o' the she'd go by at a fittin.' Then she took to bay. wearin' crowds o’ flowers and weeds on

They ran her in on the landin', and two her head; that's a sure sign o' the wits o' the crew lifted a dead man out and laid failed, wherever ye see it. And I mind, him on the sand, covered wid a sail. The there was onst a moonlight night that other

man — he

a mate — vent month o' May, and a bhoy was frightened straight up to the lookout ground and nigh out of his seven senses, be rason, he spoke to the head boatman. said, that passin' the fairies' thorn in the “We've brought you a man,” says he ; dark, he seed a sperit sittin'in among the died at sea - name, Randal MacNale." branches, wid white rays round its head, “ Drowned ?” and long arms stretched out, singin' a “ Not drowned. Fell from the mast. spell. And I heard an old woman say head yesterday, and never spoke again. that what the bhoy see'd was the sperit But seein' one o' his mates knowed that o the fairies' thorn; and that every May this were his home here, and we bein' time, before the flowerin' o' the thorn- bound for Derry, and Portnasilla in our trees begun, the sperit would sit there, course as it were, Captain Grady, he says : in undher the branches, a whole night. Lay the poor chap in a spare berth, and through, and sing, to keep the spell alive to-morrow he can be rowed to the coaston the ould tree. But however that might guard station and get buried in the place be, I belave meself it was Mauriade yon he belongs to. It's not three hours lost.' night, wid just a crown on her hair o' the Captain Grady, o' the schooner Kelpie, white, Auffin' ceanabhan.f And be the from Liverpool, bound for Derry. Goodsame token, she would sing too, as I'd mornin'. No time to spare.” heard, long hours in the night; though They rowed away. The schooner spread she never was knowed to have sung when her sails, and rounded Turnamona Head, she had her wits by her. 'Twas always and the coastguard carried poor Randal • Tramp, as opposed to authorized beggar.

up into the boathouse. + Eerie. 1 Bog-cotton.

• Will it be thou, my bright faced darling!


Next day he was buried. Not one o' This was all the old woman's story. I them all, not Randal's own brothers, have told it as she told it to me. koowed what we did, Mick and me.

MOIRA O'NEILL. Brought back dead !” they said, " from his first voyage. Not a year since he Note. -Founded on fact. Randal's started, poor lad ! 'twas a pity of him.” grave may be seen to-day. And no one ever knowed where Randal had sailed to, from the time he left Queenstown, to the time he joined the Kelpie at Liverpool. Dead and buried; rest his sowl! But

From The Nineteenth Century. Mauriade alive and wandherio', clane left

CONSTANTINOPLE REVISITED. to herself;" that was the worst. Many a I HAD last visited Constantinople and time I beard it said since, “ How did she the Bosphorus in the year 1857. Going know?" Well, there's no sayin'. She by rail via Vienna to Belgrade, i journeyed never saw that boat come in ; 'tis still the thence by road in a very rough way to way. What we watch for longest, we Sofia, Philippopolis, and Adrianople, seewake when it's past. So Mauriade nevering in this way something of the then looked on Randal again. She was far Turkish provinces of Bulgaria and Rouaway, who knows where? at the time they melia. I returned by Athens and Rome. buried him. But the truth was borne to I spent the month of September on the ber some way that Randal was dead. Bosphorus at Therapia, going most days

Now Hallowmas that year fell on a Sun. to Constantinople by steamers, then reday. And goin' to the chapel to hear cently established — a voyage of which mass, there was a little crowd standin', one never wearies, so great is the beauty not at the chapel wall, but inside on the and interest of the Bosphorus and its buryin'-ground, all round Randal's grave, banks. under an eldher-tree. The stone was over

Lord Stratford de Redcliffe then reigned it now, flat on the grass, and his name on supreme at Constantinople; his mode of it,

dealing with the Porte was most imperi. RANDAL MACNALE. Died at Sea.

ous, and rather that of a master than of But beneath that — och, the pity to think the Turkish ministers with the utmost

an agent of a friendly power. He treated of it! - and this was what they were look- hauteur; with some of them, whose hands in' at. Poor Mauriade had graved wid a sharp flint on the stone a ship, like as if it he declined to communicate personally.

were supposed to be stained with blood, was lyin' still, anchored fast; and undher If his demands were refused he went di. that had written wid the flipt,

rect to Sultan Abdul Medjid, and fairly Mavourneen, mavourneen!

bullied that weak but gentle and wellYour ship is in harbor.

intentioned sovereign into acquiescence. Your soul is in heaven.

While at Therapia, I saw much of the Sorra one o' them standin' there but blest staff of the British Embassy, and somethe poor girl in their hearts. Maybe it thing of their chief, who occasionally was the first time too. But there ! some asked me to join him in his rides in the blest her at last.

forest of Belgrade. The relations beAy! for that was the last known o'tween the ambassador and his staff, at the Mauriade. Next day but one the tide time I refer to, were very strained, and washed in a poor drownded crayther; many were the stories current at the Emwashed her into this cove and left her lyin' bassy of conflicts between them. The bere, at the foot o' the cliff Carrigmor. It description of the great Elchi, under the was Mauriade.

name of Sir Hector Stubble, in the “ RovWould ye not think they'd have laid bering Englishman,” by the late Mr. Granto rest beside her bhoy that she loved to ville Murray, who had served under him, the last? Och, no! but she had drownded though overdrawn, cannot be wholly disherself, they said. She mightn't lie with regarded in an estimate of his character, the dead that God had called. And they and of the personal part which he had in buried her outside ; alone, forever on. bringing about the most useless of all

To my thinkin', the dead would have wars, one which entailed misgovernment rested no worse for one poor misfortunate and bankruptcy on Turkey. girl laid among them.

Lord Stratford spoke freely in conver.

sation of his policy, of the condition of • Out of her mind.

Turkey and its prospects, and of the

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character of its statesmen. He was under and from which she emerged only by surno illusion as to the misgovernment of the rendering provinces to every one of the country; he knew that if left to themselves great powers. the Turk's would do nothing, and that all In the autumn of this year I agaio the reforms promised by the Hatti Hu. visited Constantinople, passing again mayun, which he had obtained with such through Vienna, Belgrade, and Sofia, this labor and difficulty at the conclusion of time by rail the whole way, and returning the Crimean War, would remain unexe. again through Athens and Italy. It was cuted and be a dead letter. He considered most interesting to recall the many that England had been betrayed at the changes wbich bad occurred in the interCongress of Paris, that the clause in the val, and to compare the Turkish Empire treaty which embodied the Hatti Humayun and the condition of its capital with what was oullified by the provision that its rec. I had recollected. What more remarkable ognition did not entitle the great powers, series of events in disintegration of a great either collectively or separately, to inter- empire have ever been crowded into so fere in the internal affairs of Turkey. He short a period? The only comparison is held that this was fatal to the enforcement with its predecessor, the Byzantine Emof the new reforms. He maintained that pire. There is, indeed, a strikiog parallel the only way to induce the Turks to act between the stages of accretion and con. in accordance with them was through quest by which the Ottoman Empire was threats and fear, and that some external founded and those by which it has of late power should bring such pressure to bear years been rent and reduced.* on them. This might be done by England Looking broadly at the result of these alone, or by England in alliance with changes, it cannot be denied that in sub. France, or by the great powers collec- stance the great powers have, during the tively. He preferred the first of these ; last fifteen years, divided between them he had little hopes of the last; but the the spoils of a great part of the Turkisb treaty had' extinguished all methods Empire, under whatever phrases and so equally.

called temporary arrangements they may In spite of this much might have been please to conceal the operation. done in the years succeeding the Crimean War, when the influence of England was • It may be interesting to compare the dates of the still great, by the vigorous action of the several accretions and shrinkages of the Ottoman Emambassadors. Lord Stratford, however,

pire. was succeeded by Sir Henry Bulwer, Lord Ottoman Empire founded in Asia Minor Dalling, who, although a man of great The Morea

conquered 1346 diplomatic skill, was of very different char. Thrace and Adrianople

1361 acter and calibre, and who appears to have


1396 cared little for reforms in Turkey. He Constantinople allowed himself to be placed under per

1458 sonal obligations to the sultan, which de. Northern Greece stroyed his influence in this direction. He Wallachia

1463 was succeeded by other ambassadors, and Crimea. during nearly twenty years no effective Syria pressure was exercised on behalf of En. Egypt

1516 gland for the enforcement of reforms and Belgrade

,1518-39 good government as solemnly promised. Cyprus. The Treaty of Paris in this respect re- Bagdad


1638 mained unexecuted. The influence gained by England, as the mainspring of the al.

Shrinkage. liance against Russia, which cost us so Crimea.


1784 much blood and treasure, was allowed to Oczacow lapse. No effort was made by the great Wallachia and Moldavia

Moldavia (part of)

1830 powers, singly or collectively, to compel Union of do. or induce che enforcement of the treaty.


Belgrade They fell back on the old intrigues, rival


Bulgaria ries, and jealousies which formed the Bosnia main work of the ambassadorial clique at



Kars and Batoum Constantinople. Finally, misgovernment Cyprus. in Bosnia and Bulgaria culminated in fresh Tunis outbreaks and in another war with Rus- Egypt

Thessaly sia, in which Turkey was without an ally, East Roumelia


A.D. 1290




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1430 1453


1459 1460




1471 1475 1515




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1521 1571 1575

A.D. 1770

1791 1812

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1861 1862

1880 1881 1882 1886

Austria has possessed itself of Bosnia color of an intense blue, and courting the and Herzegovina; England is in practical rays of an almost tropical sun, sometimes occupation of Egypt, and has acquired dark, solemn, and mysterious under the Cyprus ; France has taken political con- influence of gusts and storms from the trol of Tunis; Greece has annexed parts Euxine. It is the constant changes beof Thessaly and Epirus; Russia has had tween these two extremes, with a thou. a comparatively small share of the plunder, sand subtle influences of clouds and wind,

less we hold Bulgaria to be a mere de- of reflected hills, and of varying currents, pendent province io it, ready to do its which constitute the charm of the Bosbehests at any moment, and prepared to phorus; while the deep historic interests become a part of the Russian Empire -a with which it is connected can never be proposition which is absolutely disclaimed absent from the mind. This swift and by its leading men. Apart from this, deep stream divides not merely two contiRussia's share has been inconsiderable nents, but two civilizations, that of the pamely, Kars and Batoum, and a small | East and of the West. From the begin. part of Roumania – though its position, ning of history these two civilizations from which it may demand more, is have contended across the Bosphorus for greatly strengthened.

the mastery, each in turn attempting to There can be no doubt that the sum of invade the domain of the other, but with.. buman happiness has been enormously out either being able to effect more than a increased in all these disjecta membra of temporary lodgment on the other side. the Turkish Empire; and nowhere more In spite also of this long-maintained so than in Bulgaria and the provinces struggle, each has practically remained added to Greece, which have had the without permanent influence on the other, benefit of self-government. It would be either in respect of race, or ideas, or very instructive to make a full and de- morals, or any of the main elements of tailed comparison of these provinces with civilization. It was the stand made_by those which still remain under the rule of Constantinople under the Byzantine EmTurkey.

pire which for generations and centuries In the short time I spent in Turkey, resisted the power of the Ottomaos and Greece, and Bulgaria I could not attempt broke the wave of their advance on to do more than arrive at certain general Europe. When at last the city fell, the impressions in comparison with those wave rolled on into Europe, but with much formed in the previous visit, at the distant diminished force. The action has since date I have referred to.

been reversed, and Constantinople has The general outward appearance of become the same kiod of bulwark against Constantinople and its suburbs as seen a counter-advance from Europe on Asia, from the Bosphorus is the same as ever. a movement of which we are now the There is the same splendid array of witnesses. mosques with their domes, so well set off Landing at the bridge of Constantino. by minarets, and forming so great a fea-ple, the changes on either side of the ture in the view of the city when ap- Golden Horn were far less than I expected proacbing from the Sea of Marmora; the - less, probably, than in any capital of same picturesque variety of many-colored Europe certainly less than in Vienna or houses on the Stamboul side of the Rome. In Stamboul many of the streets Golden Horn ; the same Genoese-looking have been widened. Fire ratber than suburbs of Pera and Galata, surmounted design has been the cause of improveby the ponderous palaces, from whence ment. From time to time great fires have the ambassadors of the great powers have occurred, which burnt down quarters of watched the decay of the Turkish Empire, the town, enabling the widening of the in jealous bope of sharing in the spoil or streets before rebuilding. It has fol. of preventing others from doing so; the lowed, also, that the picturesque wooden same line of marble palaces on the Bos. houses have in many parts disappeared phorous, and clusters of kiosks and villas and have been replaced by buildings ibe whole distance to the Black Sea ; the of stone, of a third-rate French type. same mixture of nature and art, of gardens Enough, however, remains of the old and buildings maotling the hills on either town, of its bazaars and mosques, its foun. side, which give to the Bosphorus the tains and khans, to supply endless piccharm of variety and beauty.

tures of picturesque interest. There is also the same ever-flowing Above all, there remains unchanged the rush of water from the Black Sea, dividing Mosque of St. Sofia, which internally sur. Asia from Europe, often resplendent with passes all other churches in the world as

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much by its great impression of space, in preference to the European side, under its beauty of proportion and richoess of the belief that the day is at hand when they materials, as it does by its age; there re will be driven from Europe. There is main also the triple walls of the Byzantine much less appearance of wealth than there city with their high flanking towers, used to be. The trade of Constantinople stretching for seven miles from the Sea is greatly reduced. It is no longer an of Marmora to the Golden Horn, jotact in emporium. Steamers pass through the every respect, save where the breach was straits to the Danube and Sea of Azof, effected in that fatal year when the city and do not stop for trans-shipment. There fell to the Moslem invaders — the most are very few wealthy Turks, other than perfect and most successful fortifications those in official positions, with the means which man has ever erected, for they with- of levying backshish. The number living stood for centuries and through twenty on independent means not in the employ sieges the attacks of invaders. It is need of the government is very small. There less, however, to advert to the many is no hereditary class of men of high birth points of deep historical interest.

or wealth. Few Turks die possessed of With respect to the appearance of the high means. The bulk of them leave people, I was struck with the fact that their affairs in an embarrassed state. Constantinople is much more cosmopoli- The great ministers of past times, the tan than it used to be. It is no longer contemporaries of Lord Stratford – Res. easy to distinguish the Turks from Greeks chid, A'li, Fuad Pashas — have left no or Armenians. They all wear the same descendants whose names are known fez, and are otherwise dressed in Euro- either for their wealth, status, or capacipean style; with the exception of the ties. The ministers of the day have risen mollahs, a very numerous class, and a few from the lower ranks; many of them have hadgis, no Turks are seen in the Eastern little or no Turkish' blood about them. garb. The women also have given up The present prime minister, Kiamil their slippers, and have adopted French Pasha, was a native of Cyprus, and, shoes with their high heels. The yasmak though a Moslem by religion, is believed is also greatly reduced, and no longer to be a Jew by descent. He began life as really hides the face when there is any. an employé of the government in a very thing to attract. So far as I could judge, humble position. The present finance the laboring classes seem to be well minister, Hagop Pasha, an Armenian, was clothed and well fed; there are very few a clerk at a low salary in the Ottoman beggars as compared with olden times, Bank; from thence he was recommended and little appearance of abject poverty to the sultan to look after the Civil List, pothing, in fact, to compare with the slums and was soon after promoted to the post of our great Western cities. There is of finance minister, retaining also control evident change in the relations of the of the Civil List. He is a man of great Turks to the Christian population. In financial capacity. He is said to have 1857 it was common to see Turks pushing enormously increased the income of the their way through crowds with haughty sultan derived from the crown property, disdain ; they now jostle with a common partly by reviving inany rights which had herd like others; one seldom sees black gone into abeyance; partly by calling upon eunuchs about, once a common feature of private owners to produce their titles; Constantinople.

partly by judicious investments. It is said In Stamboul itself, which in the earlier that the sultan has of late made great sav. years was almost confined to Moslems, ings in spite of his large expenditure, and there now appears to be a large proportion has invested them in foreign securities. of Greeks and Armenians. The principal The sultan, by reason of his great streets are held by them. There are prac wealth and unlimited power, and by his tically few Turkish merchants or trades religious status, completely overshadows men. One is struck by the great increase all his countrymen; he is a personality, in the number of soldiers, due to the con- however, not only by reason of his excentration of troops at the capital. Vast alted position as the ruler of what is still barracks crown the heights in all direc. a great empire, and the religious head of tions, and form an unsighily feature in the a hundred millions of Moslems throughotherwise beautiful views.

out the world, but also of his own capaciThere has been a great increase of ties, which within a certain range are buildings on the Asian side of the Bos- unquestionably great. Brought up in the phorus, and this seems to justify the cur- strict seclusion which, in consequence of rent statement that the Turks build there the law of succession to the throne, is the

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