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From Nature.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN DOCTRINE
uncle, selling new lamps for old) - Here

SOULS.
you are, you see ! “ Ali Baba,” got 'em
all here, you see. Never read your “ Ara.

In the second of two interesting papers bian Nights,”, either? Is that the way on the manners, customs, superstitions, they bring up boys nowadays ?

and religions of South African tribes Percy, Well, the fact is, grandfather, (Journal of the Anthropological Institute, that unless a fellow reads that kind of vol. xix. No. 3, and vol. xx. No. 2), the thing when he's young, he doesn't get a Rev. James Macdonald, who has had am. chance afterwards.

ple opportunities of studying the subject, The Aunt (still quoting): "In the fa- has a good deal to say about the doctrine mous work,” Bobby," by which we know of souls which prevails among the aborigMasûdi, he mentions the Persian Hezar ines of South Africa. It is extremely Afsane-um-um-um - nor have commenta difficult, he explains, to discover what the tors failed to notice that the occasion of people really believe about the spirit the book written for the Princess Homai world, so many and varied are the tradiresembles the story told in the Hebrew tions relating to it. There are, however, Bible about Esther, her mother or grand certain outstanding facts common to all; mother, by some Persian Jew two or three and of these Mr. Macdonald gives a clear centuries B.c.” Well, I never knew that and instructive account. before! This is “ Sindbad and the Old All human beings are supposed to have Man of the Sea" — let's see what they souls, but their souls are not believed to say about him. (Reads.) “ Both the story | be entirely confined to the body. A man's of Sindbad and the old Basque legend of soul may, it is thought, occupy the roof of Tartaro are undoubtedly borrowed from his hut, and, if he changes his residence, the Odyssey of Homer, whose Iliad and his soul does so at the same time. Mr. Odyssey were translated into Syriac, in Macdonald takes this to be a loose and the reign of Harun-ur-Rashid.” Dear, indefinite way of expressing “the belief dear, how interesting, now ! and, Bobby, that a man's spirit may have influence at what do you think some one says about a distance from the place where he is him. "Jack and the Beanstalk?” He says: self at any time.” The people often use " this tale is an allegory of the Teutonic the word zitunzela from igitunzi, shadAl-fader, the red hen representing the allows: to express their ideas of human producing sun; the moneybags, the fer. spirits and the upseen world generally; tilizing rain; and the harp, the winds." | and this iis “ the nearest description that Well, I'm sure it seems likely enough, can be obtained.” A man is constantly doesn't it?

attended by the shadows or spirits of his [Bobby suppresses a yawn; Percy's of one who dies without speaking to his

ancestors as well as his own, but the spirit feelings are outraged by receiving a children shortly before death never visits tin trumpet from the 'Lucky Tub; his descendants except for purposes of general move to the scene of the evil. In such cases magicians or priests Hampstead Tragedy.

offer costly sacrifices to prevent misforBeforė the Hampstead Tableaux.

tune and death.

Great importance is attached to dreams Spectators. Dear, dear, there's the or visions, which are supposed to be due dresser, you see, and the window, broken to spiritinfluence. When the same dream and all; it's wonderful how they can do it! comes more than once, the dreamer conAnd there's poor Mrs. 'Ogg — it's real sults the magicians, who profess to rebutter and a real loaf she's cutting, and ceive revelations through dreams. If the the poor baby, too! Here's the actual dreamer has seen a departed relative,' casts taken after they were murdered. Oh, the magician says, “lle is hungry.” Then and there's Mrs. Pearcey wheeling the a beast is killed; the blood is collected, perambulator - it's the very perambula. and placed in a vessel at the side of the tor! No, not the very one — they've got but farthest from the door; the liver is that at the other place, and the piece of hung up in the hut, and must not be eaten toffee the baby sucked. Have they really! until all the flesh of the animal has been Oh, we must try and go there, too, before used. The “essence of the food is the children's holidays are over. And this "withdrawn” by the spirit during the is all? Well, well, everything very nice, night, and after a specified time all may be I will say. But a pity they couldn't get eaten except the portions which the magi. the real perambulator!

cian orders to be burned.

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Ancestor-worship is not only professed | not a blow was struck, and every man took by the South African tribes, but “they to his heels, making for the nearest hidactually regulate their conduct by it." ing-place in the mountain or forest. That Says Mr. Macdonald :

army never reassembled. Black-hearted " If a man has a narrow escape from fear utterly demoralized it." accident and death, he says, “My father's Water or river spirits play a great part soul saved me,'and he offers a sacrifice in South African mythology. They inof thanksgiving accordingly. In cases of habit deep pools where there are strong sickness, propitiatory sacrifices are offered eddies and under-currents. They are to remove the displeasure of the ances. dwarfs, and are of a malignant disposition, tors, and secure a return of their favor. which they display by greedily seizing on Should any one neglect a national custom any one who comes within their reach. in the conduct of his affairs, he must offer They are, of course, greatly feared; and sacrifice to avert calamity as the conse- the popular dread of them is shown in a quence of his neglect. When offering way which has been known in many propitiatory sacrifices, the form of prayer different parts of the world. Mr. Macused by the priest is: Ye who are above, donald gives the following example : accept our offering and remove "Some years ago a number of Gcaleka trouble' In freewill offerings, as in es girls were, on a fine summer day, bathing cape from danger, or at the ripening of in the Bashee. One of them got beyond crops, the prayer takes the following her depth, and began to struggle in the form : 'Ye who are above, accept the food water and cry for help. Her companions we have provided for you; smell our promptly raised the alarm, and two men offering now burning, and grant us pros- working close by ran down to the water's perity and peace.

edge. She was still struggling feebly, Animals are not supposed to have souls; but to the onlookers it was a clear case of neither are inanimate objects. But spirits being called 'by the river, and they made may reside in inanimate objects, and their no attempt to save her. The body was presence has an influence on many cus- recovered by the magicians the same day, toms and habits. A striking example of when it was found she had been drowned such influence was afforded during the in less than five feet of water. All this rebellion of 1879, when Umhlonblo, after came to the ears of C. G. H. Bell, Esq., the the murder of the British resident, was English resident, and he cited the parties, one day marching in a leisurely manner magicians and all, to appear before him across country with his whole army. The in court. The two men not only admitted forenoon was hot, and not a cloud was to that they could have waded to the spot be seen. Presently the magicians poticed where they saw her struggling, but also on the horizon a peculiarly shaped cloud : said the water would not be more than “ It rose rapidly in one mass and rolled breast deep.' They had made no effort upon itself. Its movements were intently to save her, as it would be “improper and watched till it approached the zenith and dangerous to interfere when one is called passed over the sun. This was an evil by the river.' Mr. Bell tried to argue

For some unknown cause the spir- them out of such absurd notions, but to its were mortally offended, and had come little purpose, and finally came to the conover the army in shadow at noonday. In clusion that .six months hard' might be grief and sorrow their backs were turned more effectual in eradicating superstition upon their children, and the result of this than all his philosophy, and six months would be certain defeat and disaster. hard it accordingly was. There was, however, no immediate dan- Mr. Macdonald says there is no periodger. That morning's scouts had reported ical process of purging or driving away that there were no troops within many spirits. Without the presence and aid of miles of their line of march, and they magicians, ordinary people dare not intercould repair to some sacred place to offer fere with these mysterious powers, howsacrifices and make atonement. While ever malignant and destructive they may they were discussing which place to repair become. Although a man is guarded by to for this purpose, the van of a small the spirits of his ancestors, they do not column of cavalry appeared unexpectedly protect him from demons or from wizards over a rising ground. Dismay struck into and witches. A certain measure of proevery heart. The war minister urged his tection can, however, it is supposed, be men to form into order of battle. No one obtained by the use of charms provided answered his summons. He did his best by magicians. . On one occasion, when to organize an orderly retreat, but in vain ; | war was being carried on with England,

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AND IDEALISM.

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768 ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON ON REALISM AND IDEALISM, the magicians gave the soldiers a charm volcano in the immediate vicinity. I do against English bullets. It was the blue not say it is not so in real life. I only say flower of a species of rhododendron. that in life nobody cares. If he is meeting • Those who carried this talisman rushed bis sweetheart or combating his enemy at forward against columns of infantry with the moment, cesspool, corpse, and volcano out a shadow of fear or hesitation, and are all blotted from his mind. He does only when men began to bite the dust in not look out of the window to analyze a all directions did the nature of the delu. smell and consider the iniserable fate of sion break upon the army, and panic en humanity or the geological conditions of sue.”

the earth. He does not care a farthing candle if the whole thing is going to explode to-morrow. At that moment he is all upon the present passion, and his being

thrills. It is this sympathetic thrill of From The Melbourne Argus. emotion that I miss in so-called realists. ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON ON REALISM Writers appear to bave become infected

with a desire to imitate painters. Labo I AM an idealist, so they tell me. Atrious and minute description became the least there are several gentlemen wbom disease of literature. We can make our everybody agrees to call realists whose hero speak, we can make him move, we talents I admire extremely, but whose can make him think, we can make him works I should not care to write, even if travel, we can let him grow old, we can I were able. I do not know whether they let him die and even hear what his survivadmire my talents, but some of them are ors say of him. But one thing we cannot kind enough to assure me that they would do: we cannot tell him what he looked rather die than write my works. I believe like. Observe the efforts of artists to realthe realists, or rather some of the sillier ize characters, even the most elaborately of them, object to invention altogether, described. Every draughtsman makes a and must have everything a document, as new thing of them. One-sense literature they call it, and taken out of a note-book. can only serve by a half-miraculous tour This is a question of sentiment. I sus de force, and that sense is the sense of pect most of our inventions are docu- sight. I believe they are blinded, on the mentary enough, and taken out of the one hand, by a techoical preoccupation, note-book of the memory. I will give you by the supposed necessity of perpetual a couple of examples from my own case. minute and always original observation ; Some five or six years after I had written while they are blinded, on the other hand, " Treasure Island” I picked up Washing: by the habit of living in towns, in a mean, ton Irving's “ Tales of a Traveller," and poky, hole-and-corner civilization, where there I find Billy Bones, with his voice, they live in clubs and restaurants, never his mander, his talk, his sabre cut, his sea seeing people in the open air, in their chest, and all that is Billy Bales's. I had working clothes and undergoing healthy read it long ago and, if you will allow me toils and dangers. Pierre Loti and De a bull, I had forgotten but my memory had Maupassant are the two that are by far the remembered. Again, I fondly supposed most sympathetic to me in their methods, I had invented a scene when Alan Breck and the only two of whom I absolutely quarrels with one of the McGregors in a know that they have had some good expehouse in Balquidder. Here in Sydney, rience of the open air and of a healthy not two days ago, a gentleman informs life. I am like a Highland skipper, of me that I had read the outlines of that whom I once asked the meaning of a scene, even to the names of the three Gaelic name, and who replied, seemingly principal characters engaged, in “Pit. in physical agony: “A canna say it, but a cairn's Criminal Trials." We authors all feel it in ma breest.” Any way that I rearrange that matter of observed life with could put it in words would sound somewhich our memories are charged, and the thing far harsher than I mean. I will deal most we can mean by the word invention perfectly frankly with you. I do not know is some happy congruity or surprise in what idealism means. I do not know the method of arranging it. The realists what realism means. I try to represent will not let themselves enjoy anything. what seems to me conspicuous and repreThe moment anything enjoyable appears sentable in the world in which I live. I they must remind the reader that there is try to give pleasure or to awaken intera cesspool under the kitchen floor, a est. I see the defects, I see the inherent corpse in the back parlor cupboard, and a l untruths.

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Fifth Series, Volume LXXIII.

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No. 2439.- March 28, 1891.

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From Beginning Vol. OLXXXVIII.

771

783

CONTENTS.
I. FORGED LITERATURE,

Nineteenth Century,
II. THE FLIGHT OF THE SHADOW. By: George
MacDonald, LL.D. Part II.,

Sunday Magazine,
III. THE CORRESPONDENCE OF AN OLD SCOTCH
FACTOR,

Scottish Review,
IV. THE EARLY DIARY OF FRANCES BURNEY, Church Quarterly Review,
V. THE CASTLE OF ALNWICK,

Cornhill Magazine,
VI. TEMPERATURE IN THE GLACIAL EPOCH, Nature,

** Title and Index to Volume CLXXXVIII.

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POETRY.
770 “IN TERROR'S TRAP
770

DOME THRUST,”

I LOVE YOU ALL,
STONE-BROKE,

WITH THRAL

770

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY
LITTELL & CO., BOSTON,

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

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your sweet

I LOVE YOU ALL.

" The House ?"

No, better WHERE'ER I go, whate’er I see,

To die instead, Whatever ladies smile on me,

Or go on living This, this the only truth can be,

On naught but bread.” That love's a burden if not (ree.

And so through all of The bee, that hums a few brief hours,

The long grim frost Is free to kiss a thousand flow'rs;

He worked, as grimly,
And free are bird and wind and sky,

Counting the cost
Then, lovely ladies, why not I?
I love you all, petite or tall,

The windy wayside
Whate'er your beauty or your grade is,

Was bare and bleak, Coy or coquette, blonde or brunette,

The icy east blew

Week after week. I love you all, bewitching ladies !

His eyes grew dimmer, But if perchance one maid there be,

His back more bent, Who takes my passion seriously,

Slower and slower l' faith I scarce know how to woo,

His hammer went.
Loving a thousand as I do.
I tell her she is sweet and fair,

But he hammered early,
I praise her lips, her eyes, her hair;

He hammered late, But if the truth I must aver,

Till his heap had gathered Why, this is what I say to her:

To yonder gate. "I love you all, petite or tall,

He hammered, hammered Whate'er your beauty or your grade is,

Till all was done, Coy or coquette, blonde or brunette,

The whole heap finished I love you all, bewitching ladies !!

To its last stone. So, ladies, let me live and love,

The last stone broken, From flow'r to flow'r of beauty rove,

He did not stir; With eyes to smile on me,

He seemed a watcher
I am a captive, but yet free!

Or listener.
With you to fire me, like the sun,
How can my heart be true to one?

He sat, nor heeded
So let me live, to none a thrall,

The cold snows blown Because — because I love you all !

His own heart broken,

Himself a stone.
I love you all, petite or tall,
Whate'er your beauty or your grade is,

Longman's Magazine, A. H. BEESLY. Coy or coquette, blonde or brunette,

I love you all, bewitching ladies ! Temple Bar. FREDERIC E. WEATHERLY.

IN Terrors trap with thraldome thrust

Their thorny thoughts to taste and trie,

In conscience clear from cause unjust
STONE-BROKE.

With carping teares did call and crye

And said o God, yet thou art he
Two battered hurdles,

That can and will deliver me.
A heap of stones,
A hayband wrapping

Thus trembling there with teares I trod
The hurdles' bones.

To totter tide in truth's defence;

With sighes and sobs, I said O God
A sack in tatters,

Let right not have this recompense,
And in it thrust

Least that my foes may laugh to see
Straw half-rotten

That thou wouldst not deliver me.
And grass half dust.
There through the Autumn

My soul then to repentance ranne,
A grey old man

My ragged clothes all rent and torne;

And did bewaile the losse it wanne
Began to hammer
Ere day began;

With loathsome life, so long forlorne

And said o God, yet thou art he
And there, while lingered

That can and will deliver me.
A ray of light,
He sat and hammered

Then comfort came with clothes of joy
From dawn till night.

Whose seames were faithfull steadfastnesse,

And did bedeck the naked boy
And through December

That earst was full of wretchednesse
He hammered still,

And said be glad, for God is he
Though cold and ragged,

That shortly will deliver thee.
And old, and ill.

W. HUNNIS.

A.D. 1550.

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