« ElőzőTovább »
AS IN A GLASS.
The day is done: the tired land looks for Dear, hast thou ever learned to thy surprise She prays to the night to keep
night: On entering a chamber mirror-lined, That all the friends thou didst appear to In peace her nerves of delight: find
While silver mist upstealeth silently, Were but thyself reflected several wise ?
And the broad cloud-driving moon in the clear The room seemed full to unaccustomed eyes
sky Whilst thou wert there; but when thou wert Lifts o'er the firs her shining shield, inclined
And in her tranquil light To leave it, nothing then remained behind
Sleep falls on forest and field. But emptiness, proportioned to its size.
Seel sleep hath fallen: the trees are asleep: So if thou lookest in my heart, dear love,
The night is come.
The land is wrapt in Such overflowing fullness wilt thou see
sleep. That thou shalt seek a vacant spot in
ROBERT BRIDGES. vain : But on a close inspection it will prove To be completely filled with naught but
thee And wert thou gone, then nothing would FOR A PICTURE OF WATTEAU'S. remain.
HERE the vague winds have rest;
The forest breathes in sleep,
Lifting a quiet breast;
An autumn pallor blooms
Upon the cheek of day.
Come, lovers, come away!
But here, where dead leaves fall
Upon the grass, what strains,
Mournfully rise and fall?
Light loves that woke with spring
This autumn afternoon And one by one,
Beholds meandering, Proclaiming aloud their care,
Still, to the strains of spring. Renew their peaceful chant.
Your dancing feet are faint, Torn and shattered trees their branches again
Lovers: the air recedes
Into a sighing plaint, reset, They trim afresh the fair
Faint, as your loves are faint. Few green and golden leaves withheld from
It is the end, the end,
The dance of love's decease.
Feign no more now, fair friend !
It is the end, the end. Their remnant of loveliness :
ARTHUR SYMONS. In quiet days for a time Sad Autumn lingering warm Shall humor their faded prime.
But ah! the leaves of summer that lie on the
ground! What havoc! The laughing timbrels of June, That curtained the birds' cradles, and screened
That sheltered the cooing doves at noon,
brown, The high year's flaunting, crown Shattered and trampled down.
Down the stormy garden-ways,
Gather roses, gather bays,
Not a flower but grows for her!
That have lain in lavender;
A. MARY F. ROBINSON.
From The Scottish Review, Thirty Years' War. Not a few Scottish THREE FINNISH SCHOLARS."
names are to be found in the land, who THE town of Abo, the ancient capital of got" name and fame " in the same great the Grand Duchy of Finland, on the river struggle. Samuel Cockburn, a Scottish Aura, has some things worthy of the at- colonel in the Polish wars, sleeps here in tention of the passing traveller. Foremost the cathedral beneath his marble monuof these is the ancient cathedral, within ment. which, on the left hand side of the altar, Outside the church, in the open encloshe is shown a memorial window of greature shaded by trees, we came to a statue, beauty, in which a mother richly appar- the thoughtful attitude of which, as it elled stands holding close to herself, two rests in an academic chair, points to a sons, also in court apparel. The figures later and more peaceful time. It is the recall historical names and events, palpi-effigy of Henrik Gabriel Porthan, protating with passionate life. Eric XIV. of fessor of eloquence in the Finnish univerSweden formed an attachment to a beauti- sity from 1777 to March, 1804. We have ful peasant girl named Karin or Katarina elsewhere said that the Finnish high Moosdotter. Kings usually know few school has filled almost a unique position obstacles to their will in such attachments, in the history of universities, from the and Eric, furious, if not mad by nature, fact that, while successfully feeding the kaew less than most men. But he became light of classical culture, it has turned the so passionately attached to the fair young illumination derived from this upon matmaiden, that he resolved, notwithstanding ters connected with the antiquities, the the opposition of the nobles, to make her natural history, the geology, the language, his queen. This purpose he carried out the folk-poesy, and the wizard lore conShe was solemnly crowned queen, and her nected with the Grand Duchy, as also son Gustavus declared heir to the Swedish upon the practical and economical questhrone; but Eric, being thrown into tions connected with the life and wellprison, mainly at the instigation of his being of its inhabitants. brother, died there with scarcely concealed We propose, in what follows, to give an indications of foul play ; and Karin Mons- account of the lives and the life-work of dotter came over to Finland to dree out three of the most eminent typical men, who her widowhood. She received here as have named the Finnish university their her widow's portion the king's garth of Alma Mater, and whose lives were spent Linksiala. Her eldest son had to go into in making use of that power wbich univerbanishment, where he died; the two sity culture had given them to glorify and younger languished in their long imprison- enrich the life of their fatherland. Not ment with their mother, and passed away; that they were the men of greatest genius a daughter, Sigrid, alone remained. Mar- or most varied and original power the ried to Henry Classon, otherwise Tott, she Grand Duchy has produced. There are became the mother of Ake Tott, Gustaf others, such as Runeberg the poet, who Adolf's famous field-marshal, whose im is now accepted not only as the greatest posing monument is also found in Abo poetical genius of Finland, but also of the Cathedral — rich in memorials of the sister country Sweden. But they are the
men who have become typical, not only 1. Henrik Gabriel Porthan; Tecknad of Gabriel by the possession of great original power, Rein, Helsingfors, 1864.
but also by using their powers to the great 2. H. G. Porthan's Bref till M. Calonius, Helsingfors, 1866.
advantage and exaltation of their country 3. Nordiska Resor och Forskningar af M. A. in her historical, literary, and scientific Castrén, Helsingfors, 1870.
place amongst surrounding peoples. AsBand 1, 2. Reseminnen and Reseberättelser. Band 3. Föreläsningar i Finsk Mythologi. 4. Ethnologiska suredly the man who, beyond any other, Föreläsningar. 5 and 6. Smärre Afhandlingar och has taken the lead from this point of Tillfälliga Uppsatser. Helsingfors, 1870.
view ; who has been in German parlance 4. Elias Lönnrot, Biografink Utkast af August the Tonangebender in this direction, was Ahlquist. Helsingfors, 1870. 5. Kalevala, 1862. Kanteletar, etc., etc.
Henrik Gabriel Porthan.
Born in the interior of the Grand Duchy, | also the author of a variety of economical the son of Sigfrid, clergyman of Wiita- treatises, as also of some treatises on the saari and of Christina Juslenius, youngest topography of Finland. Peter Adrian daughter of the theological professor in Gadd, another professor in the arts facthe Finnish university, Gabriel Juslenius, ully, labored in the same direction; while he came of people very poor, as regards the professor of mathematics and physics, material wealth, but a good stock with Jacob Gadolin, carried forward trigonometrespect to their intellectual gifts and their rical measurements in the Grand Duchy, exertions to promote the welfare of their and determined more accurately the geocountry.
graphical relations of the country. AnHis father died when Henrik Gabriel other young man of science, Samuel was still young, and this would have been Chydenius, carried forward measures to indeed an irreparable misfortune, but for deepen the navigation of rivers. Tbis his maternal uncle, who took him into his widespread activity must have done much house. After some stay with this gentle to stir the mind of Porthan and give bis man, who was, like his father, a clergyman, spirit that peculiarly mixed theoretical he went to reside with another maternal and practical direction, which it afterwards uncle, who was in the legal profession and took. Porthan gave himself to the study occupied a position somewhat analogous of the classical literature and philosophy. to that of our Scottish sheriff-substitute. In the last, he adopted Lockian rather This gentleman pressed forward the young than Leibnitzo-Wolffian views, which were Porthan's education, so that in 1754 in then very current on the Continent; and his fifteenth year he was able to enter the showed the clear, calm, good sense which Finnish university. The Finnish youth marked him through life, io avoiding para. would seem to have emulated our Scottish doxes and extremes. The leading clas. youth in the early age, when they became sical professor was Henrik Hassel, who for members of the university.
a long term of years urged forward with Sweden had been previously involved great zeal the study of the Greek and in a great war, from which Finland had Latin languages, and the culture connected specially suffered ; and the attention of with them. Porthan, one of his more disthe leading men in the Grand Duchy was tinguished students, was, after completing then directed to those practical and eco- his course at the university, elected docent nomical questions, by which they could in eloquence, which gave him the opportuhope that prosperity would, in some de. nity to lecture to the students on Cicero's gree, be restored to their country. The orations, Virgil and Horace, which lecBishop of Abo and vice-chancellor of the tures soon rendered him very popular. university, Brovallius, was a distinguished Employed besides in the university linaturalist. Mennander, a leading man in brary, all Porthan's work was marked by the theological faculty, afterwards Arch- the utmost conscientiousness. About this bishop of Upsala, had in the earlier part of time, his attention was drawn to the tradihis career published a variety of treatisestional literature of Finland, and he was on economical and scientific subjects the first to awaken his countrymen to its which brought him into notice as a prac- importance, and to give that direction to tical worker for the advancement of his university studies in Finland which seems country. The only medical professor, to mark it, as we have seen, above every John Leche, labored with great zeal to other land, — the application of the light establish a dissecting room, a chemical of classical culture to the native and tralaboratory and a botanical garden, in con- ditional literature and antiquities of the nection with the university. In the philo- Grand Duchy. Attention had been awaksophical or arts faculty to which Porthan ened about this time to such studies in continued to belong during the whole of other parts of Europe. In Scotland, the his academical career, one of the leading somewhat turgid poems of Ossian by Macteachers was Peter Kalm, a distinguished pherson, had attracted attention on the disciple of the great Linnæus, who was I Continent; in England, Bishop Percy
had collected the Border and other bal- , points connected with the history of his lads and relics of ancient poetry. In native country were treated by him; and France, the “ Chant of Roland," and in we have the right to say, that the ideal Germany, Herder's “ Stimmen der Völ- direction to which we have called attenker” had called the attention of these tion, — the careful study of traditional nations to the treasures of their ancient mythology and literature and history, in literature.
the light derived from classical study and In such circumstances it was natural culture, - was mainly initiated by Porthat Porthan should think of the ancient than, and that so far as it has been carsongs of the Finnish people, gather them ried out, it has been carried out in his together, and call the attention of his coun- spirit. trymen to their value and beauty. His The position which Porthan held as collection of them appeared in five parts, docent for some twelve or fifteen years, is of which the last was issued in 1778, and one which well deserves consideration. fully accomplished the object which he The docentship is the first step in the adhad in view, to wit, to awaken the atten. vancement from student to professor, and tion of the Finnish people to these native differs but little from the next grade of flowers of poesy, which, like the wild flow- lector or reader, an office nominally reers of the country, had bloomed amid the tained in the English universities. In dark forests, and on the desert heaths of those days, and even to a much later time, their northern land. A subsequent edi- the docent received no salary, and in the tion was projected in Sweden, but was few academical offices, there was scarcely never completed, and it scarcely lay in the much hope for the future. Still, the office nature of things that it should. It was was of great practical importance. It enough for him, however, to call the atten. brought round the ordinary professors a tion of the rising talent amongst the youth staff or school of earnest young men, of the Grand Duchy, to this mine, hitherto eagerly.bent upon the furtherance of the unworked, and the end was fully attained. science they represented, and it is not too Two works appeared some years later by much to say that the lack of the docent. different authors: one, on the supersti- ship, the lectorship, and the extraordinary tions of Finland ; the second, a Finnish professorate is that which reduces our mythological lexicon, which brought for- Scottish universities to the impotent barward the whole circle of native traditional renness they manifest in the fields of scithought and literature. Both of these entific criticism and research. We have authors fully recognized the service done said elsewhere that the power and success by Porthan in bringing the subject before of the German professor lies in the fact the Finnish people. In his post of libra- that he is a working specialist, actively rian, Porthan also did good service to the engaged in the solution of the problems of Finnish university. He not only brought the science which he professes, and the tbe stock of literature there accumulated student is literally, an apprentice to him into the best and most available condition, as specialist for a certain term of years. but he made unwearied efforts, and with The fruitfulness of the Continental unino smaller amount of success, to increase versities in large measure depends upon it. On the death of Professor Hassel in this. But the existence of the docent, the 1779, he was chosen to succeed him, and, lector, or the extraordinary professor by remained in this post, as professor of elo- the side of the ordinary professor really quence, in reality of classical literature establishes a school of research, in which and rhetoric, until his death. His pro- a select number of the best students are jected history of Finland he did not com.actively engaged in checking the results plete, but left the materials to be wrought reached by each other and the ordinary up by others. The earlier history had prosessor ; while at the same time they mainly engaged his attention, and to the are undergoing the very best training for present day little has been added to his filling the highest posts in the university researches. A number of interesting litself. No doubt the self-contradictory
position of the Scottish universities, as his activity as docent. Besides the small jumbles of the university, the gymnasium, fees he received as docent, he was emand the elementary school, has a good deal ployed as amanuensis and also in the to do with their low position as schools of library; while a number of his fellowscience; and by science we do not mean workers set up an educational institution merely physical studies, as seems to be in the town of Abo. He also felt the netoo much taken for granted in Great Brit- cessity for a literary organ for himself and ain, but grammatical, mathematical, phi- his fellow-workers. Besides the academlological and theological science.
ical publications, he established a semiThe lack of an academical literature is scientific newspaper, Aurora, and conanother cause of this barrenness and im- ducted it for many years. potence. In this respect, as well as in On his appointment as ordinary prosome others, the English universities are fessor in 1779 to succeed Professor Hassel, little better off, and this accounts for the he was able to carry out what is now proincreasingly poor figure which British vided for by a special university fund. scholars are making in assemblages of He made a journey into central Europe Continental Gelehrten, such as the Orien. to increase his experience and proficiency, tal Congress. A professor or academical and visited Hamburg, Göttingen, Kassell
, worker cannot be a working specialist, Gotha, Erfurt, Leipsic, Jena, Wittenberg, without a literary organ, to which he has Halle, Berlin, Greifswald and Copenhagen. access in order to publish the results of During this journey, besides many others, his work. On the Continent this is pro he made the acquaintance of Heyne, vided by the many technical journals or Gatterer, and particularly the bistorian collection of treatises published either by Schlözer, to whose journal he supplied a the learned societies or by the universities mass of scientific materials concerning themselves. The multitudinous weekly, Finland. This was indeed the beginning monthly, quarterly, or yearly publications of an extensive literary and historical corin Germany in classical criticism, philol. respondence, not only with Germany, but ogy, theology, and science of every kind, also with Denmark; particularly with such afford to the working specialist the means writers as Nyerup and Suhm. In Swe. of publishing his researches; and besides den our professor was sufficiently well a really extensive literature is published known already. On his return the expe. by the universities themselves. The Rus rience he had gained was turned with sian universities, even the more insignifi. energy to the working up of his own cant, issue such acta or collections of special Fach. Latin literature, in prose treatises. The Finnish Literary Society, and verse, was expounded as became the with its publications and its printing-press, special work of his chair, as a chair of bas rendered the greatest services to eloquence in its æsthetic aspects, so as to Finnish students; while in Sweden and contribute to the formation of a classic Denmark, yearly collections of treatises style, both in poetry and prose. Cicero's are issued by Lund and Upsala, and also philosophical works furnished rich maby Christiania and Copenhagen. Such terial for a criticism based on philosoph. journals or treatises are an absolute neces. ical grounds. Nor were the practical sity, and their non-existence in Great results brought to bear only upon the Latin Britain, so far as the universities are con- tongue, which Porthan wrote often with cerned, is both a cause and an indication classic eloquence; it was carried into the of the scientific barrenness which prevails. Swedish, then, more than now, the cultiIf a purely theological journal exists at vated language of the Grand Duchy. Nor the present time, it is only a very little were Porthan's pupils neglectful of his one; the Classical Review is smaller still, unwearied efforts for their improvement. yet we see from the report of the society In many a manse throughout the land, the for the promotion of Hellenic studies for Old Roman speech was heard as fellow. $1889, that American scholars are to be in students met one another in after life. vited to join in it; and it may be hoped Nor was he forgetful of the practical work that with the two hemispheres room may of the orator and teacher, as about to be also be found for Scotland. Where work- exercised in the instruction of the coming specialists are to be found in Britain, mon people. His wide circle of knowlsuch as the late Professor Wright of Cam. edge also found application in private bridge, they contribute for the most part courses on logic, metaphysics, psychology, to Continental journals.
anthropology, and even natural law, ethics, After this digression, which we hope is pedagogics, and encyclopædia. When not unprofitable, we return to Porthan and Kant's new system of philosophy was