sharply, saying that he was either a fool tendants having fled, he tied a belt full of or guilty of gross impiety. This rather gold coins round his waist, and took refreminds one of a story of Frederick the uge in the porter's lodge, tying up a dog Great. One evening a new chamberlain, in front of the door, and putting a couch saying grace at table, began : “ The Lord and a cushion against it. That is a pabless you," instead of " thou.The king thetic touch; the pathos consisting in the interrupted grace.

" You hound ! In ludicrous inadequacy of the means he took God's eyes you and I are a pair of scurvy to stave off impending, destruction, as dogs. Read grace aright." Augustus there is pathos in Homer's account of how was offended with the timidity with which Hector took from the head of the dandi. his subjects approached him, as if he were fied Greek he had slain the cap, the little a being from another sphere, and asked weasel-skin cap, which he had put on in some one who was presenting him with a the morning, pleased at heart with other petition why he held it out to him as if he thoughts than those of Hector's spear were giving alms to an elephant? He which should gride through bone and liked well enough to unbend, as where he sinew. With true sense of fitness, Suewrites to Tiberius: “We have passed the tonius does not tell us if the dog laid about holidays right pleasantly. We played him with his teeth, or the sofa and the every day, and kept the dice-board warm. cushion were thrust back by main force. Your brother kept shouting at the top of "In a moment,” says he, " the leaders in his voice all the time. On the whole, the pursuit had burst in, and were searchhowever, he did not lose much. After ing every nook and cranny." Vitellius is heavy losses he gradually pulled up be- drawn from bis hiding-place. His hands yond all expectation. I lost twenty thou are bound behind his back. A halter sand sesterces on my own account, but is placed on his neck. Half-naked he only because I was profusely generous, is dragged into the forum, and along as I generally am. If I had insisted on the sacred way; his head is pulled back having the stakes which I let people by the bair, and he forced to hold it up off, or kept to myself what I gave all by the sword-point beneath his chin. How round, I should have won quite fifty thou changed a man from the Vitellius of a sand. But I prefer this way of doing few months earlier who, entering Italy things. My kindness will raise me to ce with all the elation of newly acquired sovlestial glory." Here we have a trace of ereignty, had hailed the mule drivers and that light irony wbich is exemplified so foot passengers so affably, inquiring if strongly in Augustus's death-bed remarks. they had breakfasted, and showing clearly

It must have been a nuisance sometimes by the guttural noises he emitted that he being an emperor. So felt Tiberius when had done so himself. having casually expressed a wish to see

M. S. DIMSDALE. some of the sick people in the town, he found, on going out, all the sick people in the place ranged in classes according to their ailments on the steps of a temple. He was much embarrassed, and went and

From Chambers' Journal. apologized to each individual, not omitting

OUR FIRST-COUSINS. the poorest. But more to be pitied than Who does not know “ Sally" at the those men who recognized the falseness Zoo? This great educated Chimpanzee of their position, were those of weak and has been taught by her keeper to do many common mind who took it as it came, en things which excite the wonder of the gapjoyed themselves as gods, and then, casting crowd around her cage, the onlookers in no heroic mould, found themselves face being especially surprised to see that she to face with the tragic fate which so often is able to count up to five. We have seen cut short their exercise of supreme power. dogs taught apparently to count much From such a point of view we may pity larger amounts, and elephants are credited Vitellius when his licentious gluttony was with considerable powers of calculation interrupted by vague rumors of approach- untaught; but we always expect inore of ing danger; when apprehension gave way the Quadrumana, because of their close to alarm, and alarm to deadly terror; when simulation of humanity, and their posseshe first laid down the crown and then re- sion of those adaptable hands, which we sumed it; fed from his palace and then are accustomed to regard as the special returned, to find it desolate but haunted symbols of capability. by alarms. Suetonius tells the story how, There is, however, something." uncanafter searching and finding no one,. his at. | ny” in the hand of a monkey ; it is held out to you with such an air of demand ; The monkeys we see in the streets are there is nothing deprecatory or beseeching pot usually interesting specimens; they about the action; it is always imperative ; jump about, crack nuts, and amuse chiland if you, by mistake, seize it in friendli- dren, and thus draw coppers from the ness, as that of a man and a brother, it is pockets of mammas and nurses ; but somegenerally snatched from you with an angry times they show some originality. We chatter, as much as to say: "I want none were greatly interested, one day lately, by of your sentiment. Give!” It is not watching one of them. It was quite a always food that is demanded, but some small monkey, evidently young, and very thing, no matter what, to gratify their active. Some one had given him a paper acquisitiveness or love of mischief. bag ; this he investigated minutely, picked

We once unintentionally excited the out every crumb carefully, then tried to anger of a monkey at the Zoo by giving it put it on his head as a cap; but sudsomething to which it had not been accus. denly an idea came to him. At a little tomed. In searching for scraps to put distance there was a fox terrier barking at into the provision bag for a party of young him; so Jacko thought he would try to people who were accompanying us to see frighten him. Seizing the paper bag in the animals, we came across some maca. his teeth so as to hide his face, he crept roni, and the thought struck us that prob. towards the dog on all fours, and then ably tbe monkeys might like it; and so jumped at him. The success of the masome of them did; others did not attempt næuvre was complete ; tle dog turned, and to eat it, but held it up to their eyes like a ran away down an area with his tail bespyglass, to look through the little hole, tween his legs. Then the monkey skipped then broke it, and examined each piece with delight, and proceeded to try the minutely. But a little girl of our party same experiment upon a cat, who lay baskoffered a piece to a monkey, who took it, ing on a window ledge. Climbing the tasted it, and did not like it; whereupon area rails, he jumped most skilfully on the his fury knew no bounds; he seemed to hind legs (or' hands !) over the spikes till think the child had intentionally insulted he came opposite the cat, and sat down him, or had perhaps intended to poison before her, still holding the paper bag behim. He rushed at her, chattering, and tween his teeth. But the cat was not so trying to seize her with those nimble fin- easily frightened ; she only made a hasty gers ; shook the bars of the cage with movement forwards and crouched, ready impotent rage, and followed her all round to spring. So the monkey sat still, apparthe room vociferating angrily.

ently indifferent, put the paper bag on his The Hottentots say that baboons can head, and tried to tempt the cat by swingtalk, only they will not, for fear they ing his tail in front of her, evidently preshould be made to work, and there cer pared for a bit of fun; but the master, not tainly is but little work to be got out of wishing to encourage a squabble, pulled those cunning hands. Nevertheless, we the string, and made him return to his read of some baboons who have been perch upon the organ. There was certainly taught to do useful work. There was an originality in that monkey, as well as the obituary notice a year or more ago in all usual love of mischief, notwithstanding the Cape papers of one of these trained the air of repression which must inevitably baboons, well known in the colony, who surround these little ministers to the poor used to act as signalman on the railway, organ-man's pocket. Apropos of which, in place of his master, who was lame. we were told of one monkey who sought The story was doubted by the English for a penny which had fallen unobserved, papers, who copied it; but we have met held it up to show the donor, whom he diswith many people who had seen the ani- criminated among many spectators, that mal at his work. Mrs. Carey Hobson, too, he had found it, and then climbed up and in one of her pleasant little “ South Afri. put it in his master's pocket. can Stories," tells of a baboon who had We have often wondered whether these come under her own notice, who had been street monkeys are kindly treated ; but ao taught to ride after a Dutch Boer as incident we witnessed would seem to show groom, and to dismount and hold the that they are often petted and cared for horse by sitting on the bridle when his almost like children. An Italian woman master went into a house; and we have had a monkey and an organ, in the front of seen a troop of monkeys of various kinds which was the monkey's bed. The little taught to do a great many curious tricks; creature being tired, began to pull aside but in these, again, they have been rivalled the covering, which the woman perceiving, by dogs.

immediately left off her organ-grinding, opened the bed carefully, and then placed to retain two armed men, until the leader, the monkey in it as tenderly as though it believing he had seen all his enemies had been a baby, fondling it and kissing it safely off the premises, led his troop to as she laid its head upon the pillow; and raid as usual, and was shot dead; his folthe way in which it received the caresses, lowers rushed away helter-skelter in conand then shut its eyes and went off to sternation, and carrying off the young to sleep contentedly, was absurdly humad. a place of safety.

Whatever may be the intelligence of It is not always, however, that monkeys tame or domesticated monkeys and ba- and baboons forsake a wounded comrade. boons, the measure of their capacity must They will moan and weep over the dying be judged by their actions in a state in a manner so intensely human, that of nature. It has often been said that hunters used at one time to avoid shooting baboons will sit and warm themselves at them, looking upon it as little short of a fire, but cannot be taught to put on a murder. Especially is this the case when stick to keep it alight. Emin Pasha, how there are females with their young ones. ever, declares he has seen them carrying If the mother be shot, the little one will torches; but most people think he must cling about her, weeping like a human have mistaken the dwarf aborigines for baby, will dip its hand in the blood and baboons. The following account, how- hold it up imploringly; whilst a wounded ever, given by an eye-witness, shows a monkey will try to stanch the blood with wonderful amount of intelligent cunning its hand or with leaves, all the time crying in a wild baboon, even to the point of and groaning in a way which is most discounting to a small extent.

tressing to a tender-hearted sportsman. As is well known, baboons always have But of late, the depredations of baboons a leader, whom they obey implicitly: A at the Cape among the lambs, which they troop of baboons, led by an old male of catch and rip open in order to drink the great size, had for a long time done much milk found in the stomach, have hardened mischief in a certain mountainous district the hearts of the farmer against them; of Cape Colony, so it was determined to and he shoots them without compunction, shoot the leader. It was easy to resolve, especially as they now begin to eat the but not so easy to do; for at the most dis- flesh of their victims, and seem likely, as tant sight of a man with a gun, the whole in the case of the Kea parrot of New Zeatroop would vanish ; whilst for unarmed land, to become true carnivora, instead men they cared nothing. The leader of, as formerly, eaters of fruit and insects would march down the mountain defiantly, only. with a large bough in his hand, which he used as a stick, followed by the whole tribe, and commit terrible depredations in gardens and vineyards, destroying much more than they ate, but always keeping at

From Chambers' Journal. a respectful distance from anything like an ambush. At last the farmers round

CIVILIZATION. determined to build a wall in a vineyard, Most savage tribes possess two things and shoot the enemy from behind it. The in common with one another — a national wall was built, the baboons watching the beverage, which they use at special seaoperation from a safe distance, and com- sons of rejoicing and festivity; and a ing down when the workmen were gone, poison of some description, which they to examine it mioutely. It seemed also employ to test the guilt or innocence of as though they were in the habit of count. their offenders ; or, in times of war, as an ing; for if, by way of experiment, one arrow-poison to ensure a fatal result to the man remained behind, no baboon ever put wound inflicted by the weapon. Both of in an appearance. But at last man, the these are always composed of a very pow. tyrant, contrived by superior cunning to erful product of the vegetable kingdom, outwit the baboon, who had certainly and it is therefore not surprising that most shown himself to be no ignoble foe. By of the known agents have been taken introducing behind the sheltering wall an advantage of by doctors and hygienists, extra number of watchers, in batches of and form important additions to the scitwo or three at a time, with carefully ence of medicine and dietetics. concealed guns, and then sending away Amongst the native beverages thus the usual number, and repeating this ma- utilized may be mentioned the coca of the nouvre several times, they succeeded in Peruvians, the kola of the West Africans, fairly puzzling the baboon, and were able the kava-kava of the Fijians, the guarana



of the Brazilians, and the maté of the Para- | disease. Curare is mainly used hypoderguayans; whilst amongst the poisons may mically in cases of tetanus; strophanthus be included the wourali or curare of the has also been used internally for the same South American Indians, the ouabaïo of complaint; but its name was made by its the Somalis, the Strophanthus hispidus of importance as a cardiac tonic. Ouabain, the west coast of Africa, and the Calabar the glucoside derived from the ouabaïo, or ordeal bean of Calabar. The three has the same chemical and physiological first-named poisons are used by the natives properties as strophanthus, but it is very as arrow-poisons; whilst the last, as the much more toxic. In some experiments name implies, plays the part of a relent- recently made in Paris upon frogs, it was less judge, and very often of an execu- found that after a subcutaneous injection tioner at the same time. No doubt, many of one-fortieth of a milligramme of crys. of our readers are aware of the mode of tallized ouabain, the heart was stopped in procedure. A meeting of the tribe is six minutes ; while the same quantity of called together under the presiding genius strophanthin took twelve minutes. The of the medicine-man, who, after sundry injection of even so small a quantity of gesticulations and howlings, selects the crystallized ouabain as one-eightieth of a victim, and forces him to partake of the milligramme stopped the heart in eight or poisonous beans. If report speaks truly, nine minutes. Generally, the toxic dose à favorable or fatal result rests entirely of ouabain for a rabbit is one-tenth of a with the prisoner. The natives say that milligramme per kilogramme of the weight if the man has a free conscience he will of the animal, death ensuing in twentynot be afraid, but will eat largely of the five minutes; whereas of strophanthin beans, relying upon his fetich to preserve four-tenths of a milligramme are required him; whereas, a guilty man will be fearful, to cause death in about fifty minutes. and eat as sparingly as possible. Taken Introduced by the stomach, the poison in quantity, the beans act as an emetic; acts far less powerfully. A young dog whilst small doses ensure death. In this weighing three kilogrammes two hundred country, pharmacists extract the active and eighty grammes, being given eight principles, which are known to oculists milligrammes in thirty cubic centimetres and surgeons under the names of Eserine of water, was seized with all the symptoms and Physostigmine, and are employed by of ouabain poisoning, but survived. Quathem with most gratifying results in the bain was found to have an anæsthetic various diseases to which the eye is sub- action on the eye, but produced at the ject.

same time irritating effects. The experiThe arrow-poisons proper, as a rule, act ments were conducted upon rabbits; but as muscular poisons; the minute quantity subsequent experiments upon the cornea which finds its way into the blood from of man have not been sufficiently favorable the arrow is hurried round with the cor- to warrant its use for this purpose. The puscles, and as soon as it reaches the last complaint for which it has been tried heart, paralyzes the muscles and stops its is whooping-cough, and the infinitesimal action. Their great importance, there- doses given have produced marvellous refore, in medicine is in cases of heart sults.

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Short Cuts has unearthed a peculiarly de- that he would himself see the toad well fed, lightful letter of the Duke of Wellington's, and by further promising to let the boy hear which runs as follows: “Strathfieldsaye, July, as to its welfare. During the time the boy 27th, 1837. — Field-Marshal the Duke of was away at school, he received no less than Wellington is happy to inform William Har- five autograph letters similar to that given ries that his toad is alive and well.” During above; and when he returned for the Christone of his country walks, the duke found a mas holidays, the toad was still alive to gladlittle boy lying on the ground, bending his den his heart. The story is even more dehead over a tame toad, and crying, as if his lightful than that of the duke's indignation heart would break.

On being asked what when he found that a party of children at was the matter, the child explained that he Strathfieldsaye — among whom, we believe, was crying “for his poor toad." He brought was the present prime minister – were having it something to eat every morning, but he was their tea without jam. The incident roused now to be sent away to school a long distance him to immediate action, and he at once rang off, and he was afraid that nobody else would the bell and issued a general order that "chilgive it anything to eat, and that it would die. dren's tea” was never to be served in his The duke, however, consoled him by saying house with such "maimed rights.”


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Scottish Review, II. EIGHT Days. Part XII.,

Cornhill Magazine, III. OUR WITTIEST JUDGE,





Nineteenth Century,



Longman's Magazine,


Melbourne Argus,

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