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to denote any special progress either sionaries in the world; and in proportion amongst Christian or heathen natives." to the number of agents compared to the The magistrate at Umtata makes a careful population, the success may be inferior. to analysis which is too lengthy to tran- most other countries where efforts have scribe. He describes the Anglican, Wes- been made.” What would the great misleyan, and Moravian propaganda, and sionary say to the magistrate's report for sums up : “ The mission work does not, the district of Kokstad, where there is a therefore, appear to show a very striking population of fifty-eight hundred (including result, as little more than three hundred six hundred Europeans) for whose benefit scholars out of a population of eighteen “work is carried on by the Church of En. thousand souls, or something less than gland, Roman Catholic Church, Wesleyan two per cent., receive instruction, and Society, and Congregationalists ? School of this instruction the greater portion is work by all the above is being carried on, barren of results.” Half-a-dozen similar the number of schools being seven." quotations might be made, and I can only If missionariés accepted the good things find one district magistrate who reports the gods provide for them in the same favorably, the commissioner of Tsolo, who spirit in which in the old days the old adds, however, that he has arrived so re- school of parsons accepted fat livings, cently that he has " had no opportunity of they would be less open to criticism ; but visiting the district."

when one reads, in a review which is sup: During my travels in Africa I re-read posed to represent the prosaic fag-end of the “ Personal Life of Dr. Livingstone, a practical century, about these individuand it is necessary to travel in Africa to als " flinging to the winds all considera. understand the force of much that he says tions of wealth, and ease, and social on the mission question. As long ago as position, and worldly honor, having left 1843 he wrote, from South Africa, to the behind them friends and country, everydirectors of the London Missionary. So- thing which is ordinarily supposed to ciety: “ The conviction to which I refer is make life worth having - one turns for that a much larger share of the benevo refreshment to the journals of Livinglence of the Church and of missionary stone. That greatest of travellers, who exertion is directed into this country than had some little knowledge of what hardthe amount of population and the success ship and isolation are, repudiated with attending these efforts seems to call for. supreme scorn the idea of self-denial. ... I confess I feel grieved to hear of the One of the chief stumbling blocks to the arrival of new missionaries. There is success of missionary work, he said, was not a country better supplied with mis- cant of this sort, and he asked if British

officers ordered out to India ever boasted * My quotations are from the blue-book of the year of their self-denial. The sight of the of my travels in this region. Sir Charles Mills, the trim farmhouses standing in their cultiagent-general for Cape Colony (to whom I was indebted has supplied me with the latest report received from world made me wonder if many a parish for many pleasant incidents of my South African tour), vated lands in the loveliest climate in the his government. In it the seven magistrates of Tembuland independently and unanimously testify that the priest, working in the sunless dens of the natives have made no progress whatever in civilization great cities of Europe, would not some during the previous twelve months. In the adjacent times like to give up the advantages of territory of the Transkei, I am bound to say that one or two of the officials report a certain amount of prog- civilization to practise the life of self.

The most favorable account is that from Kentani, denial vaunted at May meetings. No a settlement mentioned above, of which the magistrate says: "The population is, approximately, European, wonder Livingstone wrote:“ I never felt a one hundred and fifty; Bantu, twenty-six thousand; single pang at having left the Missionary Hottentot, fifty. There has been perceptible progress in Church and school work during the year. Three

Society." A missionary society is no out-station churches have been cleared of debt, and place for a great missionary: In 1857 he three new ones will be opened very shortly. This again wrote : “My views of what is mis

are seeking to become Church members, is a very pleasing sionary duty are not so contracted as those indication that the steady and untiring labors of the whose ideal is a dumpy sort of man with a missionary are being rewarded.” I have no reason to Bible under his arm.' believe that the excellent functionary who makes this

The dumpy sort report is a master of sarcasm ; though it is evident from of man is still often to be seen in South his account that the missionary propaganda in this dis Africa, but as often wielding the scales trict are, in the prodigious proportions of converts to population, rivalling the achievements of the Society behind the store counter as carrying the for the Conversion of the Jews. The increase of the volumes of the sacred law. black population (which cannot be entirely accounted for by tribal migration) in two years at the rate of more

My strictures are not aimed against all than sixty per cent., is very significant for those who missionary, propaganda. The apostolic contemplate the future of South Africa, now that Brit- labors of the missionaries of Rome have ish rule has put an end to internecine wars which formerly kept down the numbers.

pioneered the


for civilization in many


dark places of the earth, and there are South African Commission on the Native self-denying men of Protestant persuasion Laws and Customs, and then let himn read who are enduring dangers not less than the report of and evidence before the those which Williams and Patterson in Royal Commission on the Housing of the the Pacific Islands endured to the death. Working Classes, of which I have some I am writing only of South Africa ; and knowledge, and he will fail to find any even there, there are men of single pur- description of life so degraded and barpose and of indefatigable energy who are barous in the African narrative as of what working hard in the interests of Christian is going on at our own doors. It is often civilization. The existence of the Love- said in answer to those who criticise the dale Institute, which belongs to the Free slowness of the results of missionary work, Church of Scotland, with its admirable that one forgets that it has taken nearly system of technical education for natives, nineteen centuries to perfect modern civis a standing proof of what can be done if ilization. For my own part, I do not think the right method be adopted. But Love that we need take this practically despair. dale is an oasis in the African desert. The iog view, for I believe that in less than a fact remains that the costly missionary fifth of the time which has elapsed since organizations which have representatives the landing of Augustine in Kent, our in South Africa far out of proportion to successors may see South Africa, under the native population, are doing practically European rule, reduced to the civilization nothing in the interests of civilization; now to be found in Southwark and in and it cannot be said that they have the Clerkenwell. obstacles to contend with which used to I should have liked, had space permitbeset the old pioneer missionaries. The ted, to have referred at some length to the climate of South Africa is superb; the question of the Mohammedan propaganda people are orderly, and in case of any out. in Africa. Mr. Bosworth Smith, who is break armed forces are at hand to repress perhaps the greatest English authority on it. The land is fertile, and I am absolutely Islamism, in his essay on " Mohammedancertain that there are at this moment hun- ism in Africa "gives a valuable account dreds of unemployed Oxford and Cam. of the West Coast religions, but lie has bridge men who, if they could be located impaired its worth by generalizations. in a comfortable Kaffrarian mission-house, The title he has chosen is far embracing, would undertake not to boast of the and the recurrence of expressions like "social position and worldly honor” they “pagan Africa ” would seem to include have given up, as is the custom of some the whole continent from Tripoli to Pon. of those evangelists who have previously doland, while distinct references to Moffat, failed in the minor walks of commerce. to the Kuruman mission, and to Cape

A curious feature of South African reli- Colony, show that his remarks must be gious life is this. A large number of the taken as referring to what is commonly Dutch pastors are annually imported from known as South Africa, as well as to centhe Scottish universities, as the doctrines tral and north Africa, unless expressly of the Reformed Church and of the Pres. limited. byterian Church are almost identical. It I will make no rence to Mr. Bos. therefore follows that two young grad- worth Smith's comments on the progress uates of Aberdeen may have been college of Islam on the Zanzibar and Mozambique friends, and have come out to the Cape coasts, as not germane to this article, together — one of them to minister to an though in some points my observations in opulent congregation of Boers, the other those regions would lead me to join issue to engage in the missionary propaganda ; with him. As, however, some of his re. and although their belief is presumably marks refer to the land of the Kaffirs, it the same, it will be the mission of the one will not be inappropriate to mention them. to preach down the mission of the other, He says there is no disguising the fact as the Africander-Dutch sternly discoun. that hitherto, with the exception of one or tenance missionaries. Perhaps the Boers two isolated spots, Christian effort has may be right in this respect. Our methods been anything but markedly successful in with the native races have not been so Africa. In this I have already shown that successful that we can sit in judgment on I am in complete agreement with him, but the Cape Dutch, who were in the country some of the causes he adduces seem a before us. And, moreover, what is the little far-fetched. He says that one reason civilization that we are bringing into Af- is that Christianity has come to the negro rica ? Let any one read the searching as an incident of slavery. As far as South and interesting evidence taken before the Africa goes, there is no foundation for

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this suggestion. The degenerate race of son why the religion of Mohammed has Hottentots who, it is perhaps needless made no progress in South Africa, and to say, are not negroes but yellow men why it will never make progress among may have associated Christianity with the the Kaffirs, is that the followers of the oppression of their Dutch masters; but Prophet have no slaves in that region, and that is by no means the case with the are never likely to form a majority of the Kaffirs, who, as far as servitude goes, are population there. as independent as in the earliest days of In conclusion, I may mention an inci. Moffat and of Livingstone.

dent in connection with the “ Black Ma. Christianity having failed, Mr. Bosworth donnas,” which were often referred to Smith says Mohammedanism is fast in the controversy on the Mussulman spreading ever the whole continent. His propaganda in Africa as significant of the words are :

“ It is hardly too much to say sagacity of the missionaries of Rome in that one half of the whole of Africa is their conflict with Islam and with paganalready dominated by Islam ; while of the ism among the dark-skinned races. In remaining half, one quarter is leavened the Roman Catholic Church at King Wiland another threatened by it.”. This is, ' liam's Town, my starting-point for Kaffirventure to say, an exaggerated statement; land, Dr. Fitzgerald of the Grey Hospital, and that he is thinking of Kaffraria is one of the greatest authorities on Kaffra. shown by another passage, where he says: rian lore, pointed out to me a handsome “ Southward they [the followers of the stained-glass window which is said to bave Prophet) are to be found scattered, always reconciled many Kaffirs to Holy Church, anxious to propagate their creed, even for on it is a representation of the temptaamong the unbelieving Kaffirs, and still tion wherein the devil is depicted,' not in further afield in Cape Colony." The facts his customary sable hue, but as a white of the case are as follows. Throughout man ! *

J. E. C. BODLEY. Africa, south of the Zambesi, there are vast and increasing numbers of Moham. • The mention of the Grey Hospital recalls a matter medans. In the seaport towns of Cape ellers on the frontier of Kaffraria are taken to see that

of special interest to the readers of " Maga." All travo Colony there is a relatively enormous admirable institution, founded for the benefit of the settlement of Malays especially at Cape natives by Sir George Grey, and administered by his

old friend Dr. Fitzgerald. The two objects which are Town, where they are the most prosperous chiefly pointed out to visitors are the pictures painted section of the working population. Their by. General Gordon for one of the wards during bis mosques are costly edifices, crowded with sojourn at "King" and the annexe devoted to the leper

patients. When the remarkable article appeared in worshippers, and their priests are con- ** Maga" calling attention to the condition of the unspicuous in the streets; but my most happy sufferers of Robben Island - remembering the

contentment of the lepers I had seen sunding themcareful inquiries could never elicit a single selves in the beautiful flower-garden of the hospital the instance of the conversion of an African day I spent with Dr. Fitzgerald and his colleague Dr. native to Mohammedanism, or even of an

Eyre - I wrote a letter to the Morning Post and

Standard affirming that there was one spot in Britishattempt to prosely tize.

South Africa where leprosy was treated on a more huAgain the Indian and Arab traders who mane system than that practised on the dismal pesthave nearly all the commerce of the Zan- to my letter by an anonymous donor, who sent a present

island of Table Bay. An agreeable response was made zibar and Mozambique coasts in their of one hundred pounds to the Grey Hospital, which hands, have spread down to Natal, and may be considered as one of the many excellent results thence inland into the Transvaal and the of the striking article which appeared in these columos.

E Orange Free State, where they undersell all other merchants and storekeepers. In Natal especially, they are brought into close contact with the natives, but never has an instance been known of proselytism.

From Murray's Magazine The same may be said of the coolies, who

SOCIAL BATH IN THE LAST CENTURY. are imported into Natal by the thousand. The fact is, the religion of Islam gains


MAN PROPOSES, its influence in these days by precisely the same methods by which it obtained its

CHAPTER I. power of old — by force. It will probably FROM King Bladud to Beau Nash is a be found that throughout Africa no con- far cry. And yet any account of Bath, verts are made to Islamism save in the social or otherwise, would be imperfect case of slaves of Mohammedans, or in without an introduction to the traditionary localities where the faithful are in such a hero whose romantic story is an idyl in majority that those who are not Moham. itself worthy of a poet's pen. medans are looked down upon. The rea- Bladud, son of Lud Hudibras, king of




Britain centuries before Christ, was uns springs. He watched them with astonishhappily discovered on reaching manhood ment. How they seemed to enjoy the to be a leper. Human nature among the bath as they disported in the muddy ancient Britons was, in its dread of infec- stream! He could not get them to leave tion, very much the same as it is now. it and only enticed them out after some All the gay courtiers, clad in their hides bours by a tempting meal of acorns which and war paint, were so alarmed lest they he spread before them. Thus he drew should catch the disease, that, notwith them on and on until he brought them standing the victim was their king's only safely out of the bog to a place of security son, they all petitioned that he might be on the heights. Here he hoped that by banished. The king, unable to resist the keeping them apart he might prevent the voice of the people even in those rugged ruthless disease from spreading. times, had to give way to the demands of He was in this spot (now known as his courtiers and send his son forth into Swainswick) some days when he missed the wilderness as “unclean," an act of one of his sows. Misfortune seemed to cruelty which roused all Bladud's resent- pursue him. Setting out along the valley ment against his father and the courtiers in search of the missing animal, he found who had instigated the deed.

her wallowing again in the same hot His mother, however, nursed a hope in springs. She had been one of those inher breast that the prince might yet be fected by the disease, and bad evidently cured. Before leaving to enter on his returned to the waters, remembering the terrible solitude she gave him a ring as enjoyment of the bath. Having enticed a token of recognition between them, her out and washed away the mud of the should he ever return clean and whole.

swamp, to his surprise and joy Bladud Heart-broken and ouilawed, our poor discovered that the sow was perfectly Bladud wandered forth into the world cured of the leprosy. This set him thinkalone. After travelling some little dis- ing. If the muddy waters had cured the tance, he met with a shepherd feeding his animal, why should they not cure him

? filocks upon some downs surrounding a At any rate, the experiment was worth fertile valley, the valley where the town of trying. He bathed, and in the end with Bath now stands. Weary of wandering the same happy result, not only for the and loneliness, he determined to seek for drove that were similarly diseased, but for some employment, and engaged with a himself. In a short time he and his fellowswineherd to take charge of his pigs. sufferers returned to their master What was his dismay, however, to find not Swainswick in splendid condition. long after that he had infected the pigs It was then that Bladud took his emwith his fell disease.

ployer into his confidence and told him all He was in despair lest his employer his story; who he was, and the miracle should discover what had happened. He the gods had worked for him. But his knew not what to do. At length he hit master was dull of belief, and only laughed upon a mild stratagem to withdraw the at him, calling him a mad.man. That he animals from his master's observation, and may have had a disease and been cured of so put off for a little the evil day of ulti- it might be true enough, as the gods could mate discovery. He proposed to take the do great wonders; but that he was the drove to the opposite side of the Avon, king's son — ah, no!” That was more where, the supply of acorns being very than the hind could be expected to credit. abundant, he could better fatten the herd. So Bladud bided his time, and by his good His master consented, and off he went with behavior at length won the heart of his his drove of pigs, bis heart sad and anx-low-born master, until the latter began to ious enough through this fresh calamity. think at last there might be some truth in

But soon a strange thing happened. his story, and went so far as to say that he Suddenly all Bladud's pigs started off as would go with him to the court of Lud if possessed which no doubt they were Hudibras and bear witness for him that he

and ran violeptly down the steep hill was no impostor. into the valley, never pausing until they And now behold these poor, travelcame to where some hot springs were stained wayfarers arriving at the court. boiling and bubbling up. Bladud could The king and queen were dining that day not understand what had come to them as in public, surrounded by the courtiers be saw them wallowing in the mud and when Bladud and his master appeared scum and débris of dead leaves which upon the scene. The queen had called for formed a quagmire covered over with wine. As it was being poured out, Bladud brambles that hid the oozy flowings of the took an opportunity to drop the ring into LIVING AGE.




the goblet. Standing apart with his un- ture's closest secrets. Or are we — on the couth attendant, he watches with a beating authority of those who could not form a heart the effect the discovery of the ring true judgment - charging him with being will have upon his mother. He sees her a magician, when perhaps, after all, he was raise the goblet to her lips. The wine is only an earlier scientist! No doubt Ediclear. As she drinks to the end she per- son and others, to the cultured ancient ceives it!

historian even, would be regarded as magiStarting from her seat, to the astonish- cians of the black art. Bladud may simment of the king, and those around, she ply have gathered a few secrets of science cries aloud in rapture : "Where is Bladud, while in Athens, which he tried as experimy child ?"

ments on his return to Britain. They think her mad as they look at her, Be this as it may, tradition declares that and then around them to find the cause of he strove to fly with a pair of wings he had her outcry. But Bladud has heard his invented for the purpose, and met with a mother's voice, and needs no second ap- tragical death by falling against the temple peal. Making his way through the crowd, of Apollo, and being dashed to pieces in he prostrates himself before the king and his own dear city of " the waters.' queen, who recognize and receive him with Bladud deserves, therefore, a place in great joy, notwithstanding his disguise, our social history of Bath, on the same and declare him then and there, not only ground as Balsac once claimed half the their son, but heir to the crown.

money from Théophile Gautier, for the But Bladud soon wearied of his life at article the latter wrote about him. Had court, and, anxious to be removed as far there been no such person as Balsac, Théas possible from those courtiers who had ophile Gautier could not have written been instrumental in his banishment, he about him ; and had Bladud not founded begged his father to send him to Athens, Bath, it could not have become the theatre that he might study.

of the fashionable social spectacle that the For some time Lud Hudibras refused to last century exhibited, whose interest, it listen to his appeal ; but finally consented, would seem, will never die out so long as , and then Bladud went to Greece, where he the names that sustained it as actors in remained for eleven years in Athens, the scene are engraved on its history, studying philosophy, mathematics, and The foregoing sketch of Bladud, therelast, but not least, necromancy.

fore, is the centre around which the wits, The occult had a charm for him since beaux, and beauties of a subsequent age he had been cured by a miracle. After will disport themselves for our wonder this lengthened sojourn in Greece, he re- and amusement, and his monument of the turned to his father's court, a man of cul. "cisterns” is a lasting witness of the ture of his period. He brought all the healing power of the waters. powers of his mind to bear upon the art But it is not of Bath as a modern pool of good government, and when at length of Bethesda that we purpose to talk ; but he succeeded his father he was accepted of Bath as the focus of a fashionable by the people as a most capable monarch. crowd of dead and.gone celebrities, whom

His first act on coming to his kingdom, we hope to “materialize,” to borrow a was to seek out the scene of his miraculous metaphor from the spiritualists — by the cure. Bringing all his learning and expe- medium of our pen; that the rank and rience to the service of nature, he built fashion, folly and beauty, which met tocisterns in which to gather the healing gether and made merry in this Homburg waters, and around them he erected a palo of the last century, may once more appear ace for himself, and houses for his cour. before us, and act their parts. tiers. Finally he removed his court to The legitimate successor of King BlaCaerbren, as it was then called, and it dud, as king of Bath, was Beau Nash, a became the capital of the British kings. very prince of adventurers, to whom be

Bladud did not forget the old master of longs the proud distinction of having his days of exile. He sent for him, and restored Bath. Before he appeared upon endowed him with a gift of land in the the scene, it was a sort of " cripples' north part of the town, which has been home,” the refuge of the valetudinarian known since by the somewhat uneuphoni- and splenetic, whose diseases, as a rule, ous name of Hogs-Norton.

do not contribute to the “ gaiety of paKing Bladud had in the end to pay the tions " from a social point of view. There penalty of all those who tempt the occult had been an attempt on the part of the to unlawful ends. His passion for magic residents and visitors to make the place induced him to practise it to arrive at na- otherwise attractive, apart from its waters


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