opposed to an offensive war. In those

From Blackwood's Magazine days, by means of the Secolo, to which he

A RIDE IN KAFFIRLAND. is a constant contributor, and taking as [THE following pages were written during the basis for his operations the province of a coasting voyage along the tropical littoral Lombardy, he succeeded in imposing a between Mozambique and Guardafui, tranlittle more caution upon Crispi.

scribed from notes which, still impregnated In all this Cavallotti is greatly belped with the indescribable odor of Africa, recall by Imbriani, a far more sympathetic and they were made — sometimes in a Kaffir hut,

vivid reminiscences of the scenes wherein amiable character, also a gentleman by where a hospitable headman shared with me, birth and feeling. He is not as eloquent sheltering from a storm, his noonday meal of as his comrade, but he bears better with curdled amass; sometimes on the high veldt the interruptions and tumults of the or beneath the shade of a mimosa-tree during Chamber of Deputies. In Imbriani are the happy hour of off-saddling. The only accentuated the defects and qualities of merit of the descriptions is that they were the Tribune of the People, accepting the made amid the local coloring of the country; word in its old latin sense.

Until now

otherwise the narrative is wofully tame comthis temperament has been, perhaps, a

pared to the thrilling recitals of more adven. trifle exuberant, but with time it will be the dark continent. As, however, everything

turous tourists, the commercial travellers of come modified, and there are those who African is nowadays of interest, it has been think that this young man has a great thought worth while to print this account of a future before him. It is interesting, to forgotten corner of the land protected by the know that he is not unpopular at court, his British flag for half a century, yet less known very real virtues and his sincerity of than are the remoter regions between the conviction causing him to be appreciated Vaal and the great Equatorial lakes, which even by those whom he would overthrow now occupy the chanceries of half the capitals from their place.

of Europe. - J. E. C. B.] Imbriani gave the measure of his moral ONE cloudless summer morning, in a courage when he attacked the Freemasons month associated in England with fog and in the Chamber - a society which, in sleet, the brilliant South African sun was Italy, is still alive and active. The Italian lighting up the red mass of the Parliament Freemasons, according to the rules of the Houses at Cape Town, in striking contrast fraternity, are allied with those of the of coloring to the green background of other nations, but, in contrast to their Table Mountain and to the deep blue of colleagues abroad, they are active in polit- the sky, as I made my way from among ical life. During the period of the Italian the trees of the Botanical Gardens to the Risorgimento the Freemasons enrolled a primitive building which contains the large number of men under their banner. public offices of the colony. Sir Thomas Their leader at the present moment is Upington was waiting for me to talk over Adriano Lemmi, a rich industrial, a for- the route he had planned for me with his mer friend of the Mazzini party, but who colleague and successor, Sir Gordon has never taken a leading political place. Sprigg, for a tour in the western and eastIn a land like Italy where the people ern provinces. Nothing can surpass the dearly love a flavor of mystery, it is dat kindness of all persons in authority in ural that an exaggerated influence should South Africa to English travellers who be attributed to the Freemasons. We are anxious to see the country, aod willbelieve, however, that their influence is ing to give time and energy to so dorelatively slight.

ing. Sir Hercules Robinson, who was Such in a bird's-eye view is the present approaching the term of his memorable state of Italian politics, and such are the governorship, not content with giving me men who lead in them. It would appear letters and information of great value, had to an outsider that from this terrible chaos put me in the hands of the prime minister little good can result. We can but con. of the Cape to help me farther on my way. clude by quoting the words of Cairoli, The commissioner of works had placed at when he too one day felt depressed about my disposal a pass over the goveromet the future of his nation :

railway system ; but as it was my intention " Parties dissolve, one assembly suc. to travel chiefly off the beaten tracks, by ceeds another, ministers pass away, but Cape-cart and in the saddle, still more the nation, born in tears, matured in mar. valuable were the good offices of the pretyrdom, built up by the valor of her sons mier in providing me with a budget of

- this is an edifice that does not crumble introductions to the magistrates and other to decay, this is a Pharos whose light does functionaries stationed throughout the not dim."


Sir Thomas Upington; as he went The whole of the first day's journey through the pile of letters with a map of was over ground made historic in the war South Africa, remarked : “Now, if you of the Axe in 1846, and in subsequent could only extend your tour into native Kaffir wars. My one travelling companion territory, you would at the end of it have the post-contractor at Umtata, had held a seen more of Africa south of the Trans- lieutenant's commission in the more recent vaal, not only than any traveller from the Gcaika and Gcaleka campaign, and enterold country, but than any Africander.” tained me with his adventures. He pointed Just as he was uttering the words the door out a spot where in one engagement he opened, and in walked Mr. de Wet, the could not extract the cartridge from his secretary for native affairs, who had that rifle. A native, seeing him thus helpless, morning returned from an official tour threw an assegai at him, which struck his in the Transkei. “ This is providential,” saddle. A friendly Fingo now came up said the attorney-general ; and before the and went for the Gcaika at close quarters. interview ended I had decided to visit The two Africans pointed their guns at Kaffraria, the minister for native affairs one another's foreheads, and the officer, promising to ask the chief magistrate of incapacitated from helping his ally, gazed Tembuland to summon a pitso- - a great expecting to see two black heads blown gathering of pative chiefs.

to atoms; both pulled their triggers — and A month later, after a wonderful jour- both had forgotten to load ! ney of over a thousand miles through the In our first stage, the grass of the rollsouthern parts of Cape Colony, I left King ing veldt looked as green as English pasWilliam's Town on my way into Kaffirland. tures in June, beneath the deep blue sky; The people in the old frontier town had but presently heavy clouds began to advised me, as my time was not unlimited, gather, and a terrific thunderstorm raged to push on by post-cart from Kei Road all round us. We escaped the worst of it; through the Transkei as far as Uintata, but later in the day we climbed a mounthe capital of Tembuland. The road attain road, strewn with giant boulders first lay through miles of monotonous washed down by the deluge, and the next rolling veldt, and after an hour or two of morning we passed a kraal where three driving in the low Cape-cart drawn by six native women had been struck dead by the horses, the air was so clear that our desti- lightning the Kaffir huts, notwithstandnation at night was plainly visible when ing their lowness, frequently attracting still fifty miles away. This was the thunderbolts. As the Kei River was ap. Amaxosa country, the scene of the great proached, beyond the straggling village of cattle-slaughter of 1857. To a young girl, Komgha, the country became very picturNongquanse, a Kaffir Marie Bernadette, esque, the mimosa-trees, fragrant after the there appeared on the banks of a stream rain, giving it the appearance of a park the spirit of a dead chief, who bade her laid out amid mountain terraces, till sudtell the nation to slay all the cattle of their denly the Kei bridge came in sight — the vast herds, and to destroy all the corn finest bridge in Cape Colony - uniting the stored in pits. Then on a certain day old eastern province and Kaffraria. myriads of oxen would issue from the earth On the river-bank squatted a group of to take the place of the slaughtered kine; Red Kaffirs - six young men, all well fields of ripe, waving corn would spring built, and all adorned with great care up; the ancient warriors of the past would - Fingo mashers. On their heads they reappear; and the sky would fall to crush wore a fan-like erection of feathers; their the whites and the Fingo dogs. Agents blankets had slipped down and they sat in of the British goveroment and mission complete nudity, excepting for their neck. aries vainly tried to stem the frenzy: Two laces of beads, armlets and anklets of hundred thousand hides of slaughtered metal, rings or feathers pierced through cattle were bartered to traders for trifles, their ears, and the minute adornment and great kraals were prepared for the which Kaffir modesty ordains for its males. promised herds. Thousands of the Amax. They sang a monotonous chant, swinging osa race were famishing even before the their arms from their heads to the ground, appointed day; at sunrise the whole na. and when it was done they got up, threw tion was watching for the morning, and their blankets over their bodies as graceas the hours went by without any of the fully as a Spaniard adjusts his poncho, portents appearing, the Kaffirs awoke to the and with an insolent air swaggered into reality hat they had been duped. In Brit. the canteen of the Kei Bridge Hotel. ish Kaffraria alone there perished that year These boys are the worst class of natives of famine nearly seventy thousand natives. I to deal with, in their pride at having

passed the age of circumcision. They | buland ran up to help us outspan. The refuse to work, but when brought before horses being unloosed, the Kaffirs drove the magistrates plead that they are poor them into the river, shouting and clapping blacks. They form the class in which the their hands as they were borne down the native difficulties will lie in the future. stream by the current. On to a primitive English rule has disestablished the author. pontoon the blacks lifted the cart with ity of the chiefs to which their fathers loud cries of " hamba,” in sound not uslooked, and these youths are growing up like the Neapolitan jammo, and of equivbereft of their tradition, with nothing else alent meaning; and so we passed out of to reverence in its place. Tembuland liad Fingoland. just been given the franchise; but though At Umtentu, in Tembulaod proper, the black population is estimated in pro- that afternoon we espied a great multitude portion to the whites as two hundred to of kaffirs assembled in a kraal, and found one, the restriction which disallows the that the headman had just completed his qualification in respect of property held brewing, and was entertaining all the tribally makes the proportions of the elec. neighboring kraals at a beer-drioking. torate in the opposite ratio of black and Most of the men squatted within a watwhite.

tled enclosure ladling out the beer from We lay that night at Toleni, where, on barrels, and drinking it from pumpkin a mountain-top, a long, low building con. calabashes; while the women sat in rows taining post-office, store, and inn, stands before the huts, many of them carrying among a cluster of Fingo huts, shaped children slung in blankets behind. For å like beehives, with roofs of thatch and consideration the men, and afterwards the walls of mud. From this point to Umtata women, agreed to dance. The dancers the postal authorities allow twenty hours did not lift their feet from the ground, for the mail-carts, but as the swift Kaffir but, letting their blankets slip, they adhorses can do the distance in fourteen, vanced slowly with a quivering motion, the hour for starting is four in the morn their breasts protruding and all their mus. ing instead of ten at night, thus giving the cles shaking, while they brandished their rare passengers a little rest. The solitude clubs and assegais aloft. The women of the green plains at sunrise is unbroken meanwhile chanted a wild accompani. save for some flocks of stork. The na- ment, clapping their hands till their turn tives are not matutinal, and nothing stir- came, when they stripped themselves to ring is seen round about the frequent the waist, and advanced in line with ani. kraals till the day is well aired. The first mated postures and gestures.

The only signs of life we encountered were at dignified figures in the dance were the Ibeka, a station of the Cape Mounted unhappy babes, who, swathed in blankets, Rifles, one of the smartest military bodies had their young heads whacked against in the empire, and most serviceable in their mother's glossy backs, without for a native warfare. The men came running moment losing their imperturbable com. round the cart from the native huts they posure. This early discipline more probinhabit to receive the mails, the enormous ably accounts for the hardness of the size of the bags being explained by the Kaffir skull than the theory of exposure to fact that many of these young braves are the sun. After the remuneration had been Englishmen of respectable family, whose distributed, and as we were driving away, chief link with the old country is the re- a dozen boys and girls followed us asking ceipt of newspapers from regretful rela- for directions about the division of the tives.

money, as some of the visitors were of Whenever we ascended a rise we could the Pondo nation, which neither loves nor now see before us the great Drakensberg respects the Fingos, who were present in range, which, rising in Pondoland, runs large numbers ; so we departed leaving a right through Natal into the Transvaal. likely prospect of black wigs on the green On all sides scenes of native life met us. that night. Two tiny boys, black as jet and stark Umtata, which we reached before suo. naked, ran among a flock of goats; each set, after a drive of ninety miles, is a long, seized one by the horns, and, leaping on straggling village, which, from the chartheir backs, they galloped after us for a acter of its architecture, looks in the mile. Now we descended to the Bashu distance like the preparation for an agri. River, so swollen by yesterday's storm cultural show. The rolling hills above that the drift could not be forded. As we the river, which is the frontier of inde. went down the steep declivity to the roar. pendent Pondoland, resemble the Sussex ing stream six naked non-electors of Tem- downs, and the Kaffir huts, like stumpy


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ricks, keep up the illusion that the scene ger from Umtata had announced the comis in England. Here, in the little town, ing of the stranger, and the “leopard's Major Elliot dwells in a cluster of native tail” had forth with been sent round to all huts which stand in a large garden, and the headmen. This is the fiery cross of administers justice as chief magistrate of the Pondos. The tail of a leopard mounted a great native province, with power of life on a rod, when found within a kraal, is and death over the people, who consider known to be a silent summons for the themselves his subjects, and himn the em- headman to repair to the chief's “great bodiment of British rule in South Africa. place,” or wherever the chief is. The My time being somewhat limited, the Eastern family is paramount in Pondoinajor decided that as it would be impos. land, but the Western chief, who is not in sible to assemble a "pitso” of large pro- the succession, is the grand elector, and portions, in the absence of the principal Nquiliso's uncle, Mquikela, being dead, tributary chief at an exhibition at Gra- our entertainer was in the unpleasant pohamstown, a better plan would be that sition of having to nominate a successor Mr. Merriman, the magistrate of Umtata, from among four more or less powerful should take me for an expedition into candidates. Pondoland, and a messenger was forth with Nqailiso, who looked rather like Aida's despatched to the chief Nquiliso to re. father in the opera, thanked the magisquest him to summon a meeting of his trate for the friendliness of his message to tribe to welcome a visitor from over the the effect that the visit was not for the great sea.

purpose of making any claim, but merely Two mornings later we set out on horse. to introduce a traveller, and he added: back, accompanied by two young officials, “ The stranger must eat of my bread.” one of whom was an admirable interpreter, This is the modest form which the Bantus and our sole escort was a mounted Kaffir of the coast use to offer a guest “a white policeman. A few miles outside British ox of the herd.” As it appeared to me territory we passed through a prosperous. rather embarrassing to have to go through looking kraal, full of sleek oxen. This Africa for the rest of my travels driving a belonged to an opulent headman, whose cow, it was explained that after accepting wealth so excited the chief's cupidity, that it I might offer it again to the tribe for a the witch-doctors were bidden to find a feast - the Faste of flesh being a rare pretext for “smelling out” the owner of treat for the natives, notwithstanding the the fat cattle. It was a time of drought, vastness of their herds, which are kept and the witch-doctors soon discovered that unimpaired as an outward sign of wealth, he had large stores of grain in his pits, so excepting when used for purposes of barthey charged him with sorcery, inasmuch ter. "Immediately half-a-dozen naked Pon. as he had defied the elements by making dos rushed into the drove, and seizing by a disrespectful gesture at the sun. The the horns a white ox, they threw it on the rain, however, came, and his life was ground and cut its throat barbarously spared for that occasion. As we were up with assegais. While it was being skinned saddling after our midday rest, there almost before it was lifeless, a circle was passed us a man driving a small flock of formed of the chief, his counsellors, and goats and several head of cattle. This people. Nquiliso and bis guests sat on a was the husband of a lady physician who bench, which was probably a missionary is ruining the practice of the local witch- relic. Outside our circle sat a wild-looking doctors, and he was taking home his wife's group, a deputation from the Konjwayi — fee for attending a patient.

the people of Gwadiso, the most consid-At last we reached the chief's kraal. erable of the minor chiefs, who were wagA large drove of horses showed that a ing war with the Pondos, and had come numerous gathering had assembled. The to talk over a demand of cattle as war inkraal was not unlike other Kaffir villages, demoity for men slain in battle ; but our but the round enclosure for cattle was host had said that as he was entertaining rather bigger, and there were a greater he could not talk till to-morrow. number of mud-and-wattled huts grouped When we had settled ourselves in a around. Outside a vast herd of cattle circle, the raw, smoking liver of the ox was grazing, of which hereafter. Nquiliso, was handed round, which the Pondos dechief of western Pondoland, was easily voured, holding the meat aloft in the one recognized by his cap of royal leopard's hand, and with the other slicing off a gobskin, and as we dismounted he advanced bet which fell into the mouth. Nquiliso to meet us, and received us with imposing then asked if we had brought him a presdignity. The previous night the messen-lent, whereupon the magistrate produced a


small jar of whiskey. A rude cup was and title connected with the Beaufort fambrought, and the chief himself fished out ily, as if it were a London building estate. from a bag of beaded skin a corkscrew! Sir Hercules Robinson, whose rule in days Our native constable had first to taste, to to come will probably be accounted more show that the drink-offering was not poi- successful than that of any British adminsoned. Then the chief drained a bumper istrator who preceded him at the Cape, himself, and after offering the cup to us, may congratulate himself that as yet no he passed it to some of the counsellors Herculaneum has been dedicated to him; sitting on his left hand, who drank with but it will hardly be credited that the name much dignity, one of them remarking that of a brave and unfortunate commander is the liquid was "softer than fat." Then vilely travestied in a Kaffrarian settlement Nquiliso beckoned to a young and hand- called Colleywobbles. After that, the some boy with almost Grecian features, suburbs of Kimberley named Gladstone not to drink himself, but only to act as and Beaconsfield are models of Cockney cup-bearer to the chief's “great son refinement and originality. Boklène, who sat a little in advance of the To return to the

young Pondo chieftain. circle upon a kaross of buckskin. The I beckoned to me a native who was smok. cup was thus borne to him, this distinc- ing a curious inlaid pipe, and he had tion being reserved for the heir, all the agreed to sell it to me, when Boklène, who others, counsellors and headmen, coming bad been eying the transaction, arose, up to the chief till the jar was exhausted and with a gesture of great dignity ordered Boklène is a good-looking, disdainful indi. the man to return the money, saying: vidual of eight-and-twenty. He has seven “ The stranger is our guest; whatever be wives and as many children. For two desires must be a gift;" so the coin had years he was a student in the Wesleyan subsequently to be slipped surreptitiously seminary at Buntingville, about twenty into the pipe-owner's palm. Conversation miles from the kraal where we were, but then became general with the aid of our he has completely relapsed into the habits clever interpreter — the old chief, with of his tribe ; perhaps the name of Bunt. all the courtly unction of an Italian moningville was too much for his fastidious signore, repeating his expressions of gratifeelings.

tude for a friendly visit of ceremony The expansion of the Anglo-Saxon race, without any disagreeable business in the with all its civilizing benefits, is vulgarizing background, and of hope that it was the the habitable globe, and in no particular beginning of a new era. We asked if the is this more striking than in the nomencla- tribe had any grievance. Boklène said ture of new settlements. In South Africa that their chief trouble was an epidemic this importation of Americanisms, like of pleuro-pneumonia ; that they hoped that Buntingville, is the more wanton, as the the English surgeon of Umtata might old Bantu names of places are singularly come and inoculate them, as similar musical. The Dutch were offenders in treatment for smallpox had saved the this respect before we came, but where a tribe. His own powerful arms bore tbe name has historical significance, whether vaccination marks; and he added, amid Boer or British, there is some excuse for much laughter, that the witch-doctors asit. For instance, it is not uninterest.ng cribed the present epidemic to the masig. to trace the etymology of the quaint town nant influence of a monkey and a snake, of Stellenbosch to a combination of the but that the day of the witch-doctors had patronymics of Governor van der Stell and ended upon which assertion we received his wife Constantia Bosch, whose Chris- a gruesome commentary that very night. tian name also lives in the famous vine- There was an aged counsellor, whose yard beneath Table Mountain. Or again, noble features were Arab rather than no one could complain if each English Bantu, who plied me with questions about governor or colonial statesman of mark the great white chief over the seas left his name attached to one burgh or subject, as Livingstone testifies, always of province. No one would grudge this the deepest interest to the children of the amount of immortality for the valiant and African wilderness. I explained that she eccentric Sir Harry Smith ; but Har: was a woman - a queen; that she had rismith, Ladismith, “ Aliwal North, and reigned for more than half a hundred Aliwal South, are reiterations as ugly as years; and that her fiftieth anniversary they are needless; and because Lord had been celebrated by “a great dance Charles Somerset once governed Cape given to all the nation, at which many Colony, that is no reason why South oxen were slain.”

" Has she a great son, Africa should be studded with every name and what is his age?” I told him of the


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