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retreat easily enough, but the sight of that an ancient Mazzinian, an eminent Gariarmed band, of the dead man in the road, baldian, at one time a coadjutor of Cairoli renders that impossible. He must now in the ministry of the interior during the keep his onward way; he must get to the first years of the reign of the present Wyoos' as soon as he can.
king. He is a convinced Liberal, an excellent man, but difficult to discipline. As minister of public works he showed a rare competence for his post, a matter
which does him the more honor as his From The Leisure Hour. STATESMEN OF EUROPE.
studies were those of jurisprudence and not of technical affairs. He has reformed
the Italian penal codex in a modern scienPART II.
tific and liberal sense, making it the most
advanced codex of the kind which any GIOVANNI NICOTERA.
European nation at the present moment GIOVANNI NICOTERA, alternately friend
possesses. Although Zanardelli's intiand colleague of Depretis and Crispi, (mate sympathies are not with Austria, nor whether in the Cabinet or on the opposi-, with the Triple Alliance, were he to come tion benches, was in 1849 a lad of Calabria to power in place of Crispi he would main. whom exile had launched into Piedmont. tain the existing compacts, whose renewal He suffered all the misery of a life of in 1892 depends far more upon events than exile, and went through the education of upon the men who happen to be in office. a conspirator in the days when all patriots There remains little for us to say
about were forced to be conspirators. In 1858, Guido Baccelli, Frederigo Seismit-Doda, an ardent follower of Mazzini, he joined and Alfredo Baccarini. The first, an emiColonel Pisacane in the famous and un- nent Roman doctor, has been minister of fortunate expedition of Sapri. Taken public instruction, but during his term of prisoner and condemned to death, his office did not give proof of those powers punishment was changed to lifelong de which were expected from him. Seismittention. Liberated by Garibaldi, he took Doda, an excellent patriot of Dalmatian part in the Garibaldian campaign, became blood, is not so well known among the a deputy, a brilliant orator, and a fiery, great European bankers as was Magliani, but not always logical disputant. Towards his predecessor; and in the very difficult 1874 this convinced Republican became a moment which Italian finance is now pass. Monarchist – how and why does not ex- ing through there is required above all a actly appear, but with the result that in man who offers to the great banking houses 1876 he found himself minister of the of Berlin, London, and Paris those moral interior, where he showed qualities and sureties which belong to the category of defects both equally great. What harmed imponderous but important things. As to him in public opinion was an imperious Alfredo Baccarini, dead but a few weeks manner to which Parliament in those days ago, his name will be associated with the was not accustomed, and which it ill sup- vigorous opposition which he made against ported, but which under Crispi's rule has Depretis when the latter decided to prebecome but too familiar. To-day Nicotera sent to Parliament his project that the heads in the southern provinces of Italy railways should pass into private hands. a somewhat tame opposition against the The measure was necessary at the time government of Crispi. He holds, how- because the State had need of funds. In ever, the same views with regard to foreign former times, while sitting on the benches policy as his adversary. if he were to of the Left when the Right was in power, rise to power, the music would not change ; Baccarini would have hotly favored the it would be merely a change of the first project. This little trait gives the measure violin. It is improbable, however, that of the logic of political parties, and espeNicotera will be the successor of Crispi, cially that of the excellent man,
but by no or that Taiani will take his place - another means eminent statesman, recently deof the companions of Depretis and a parted. member of the last Cabinet.
Admitting for a moment that the parlia. mentary dictatorship of Crispi, like that In this rapid review of the active forces of Depretis, should cease only with his of Italian statesmanship we must say a death, the heir whom public opinion des few words about Agostino Magliani — the ignates to the post is the Minister Giu- minister under whose direction the corso
He, too, is a lawyer, forzoso or forced paper currency was
abolished. He contracted under suffi- | themselves for parliamentary candidature ciently favorable conditions a European | in journalism and by stumping the coundebt to favor this reform. Nevertheless, try. Magliani did not prove the regenerator of Every government, to maintain itself in Italian finances, for the simple reason that power, has directed its attention to the they are not yet regenerated. When the timorous and fluctuating mass of people grist-tax was removed, which gave to the who can only be held together in a com. State seventy million francs, and when pact whole by the constant waving of public opinion insisted that the paper cur. scarecrow before their eyes. In rency should cease and give place to bul this the Crispi ministry does not differ lion, Magliani was obliged to make up the from its predecessors. It holds at its deficit with taxes of divers natures, which disposal two scarecrows - a black and a proved no less heavy and burdensome. white one. The timorous consciences of Thus nothing has been gained by either the great party of order are, therefore, of these measures, Italy finds herself with made to understand that the old men of a heavy debt upon her shoulders, and is the Right are all more or less steeped in taxed altogether beyond her resources. clericalism, and that if they were to reasMagliani, although he was an excellent cend to power Italy would be once more financier in the sense that he could calcu- chained to the Vatican. The same tame late well, had the grave defect of exagger- and unthinking consciences are made to ating, as Crispi, too, exaggerates, the believe that if the extreme Left which Italian capacity for paying; and too readily sympathizes with the French republic consented to the demands of the ministers came into office, the most tremendous radof war, of marine, and of public works, for icalism would devastate the whole of ever new funds to help their various de- Italy, that anarchy would result, and that signs, believing that the Italian imposts the land would be nothing but a slave of would produce an increasingly greater France. These two scarecrows, the black sum. For a short time the income derived and the white, alternately held up, have from the taxes did increase slightly, done their office for twenty years, and are though not as much as was expected by not yet worn out. It is worth while to inthe optimistic ministerialists, until the quire whether the two extremes are quite day in which the Italian discord with as black as they are painted. France severed the close commercial communication between the two countries.
BONGHI AND BONFADINI. There remains always to Magliani the
AMONG the extreme Right may be found merit that he understood how to make the men like Bonghi and Bonfadini leading a great European bankers share his own band of deputies who hold that Italy must faith in an increasing Italian prosperity ; remain faithful to her diplomatic stipulaand it is certain that, if Crispi had not ac- tions without accentuating them more than centuated too violently his "German sym-is needful, and who hold also that it is pathies, which caused a constant irritation useless to irritate the Vatican more than to French ears, the previsions of Magliani is necessary, since, after all, its power has would in a modified sense have been veri. been entirely subdued since the conquest fied.
of Rome in 1870. Indeed, it was Bonghi, His post is now occupied by Giolitti, who drew up, the “ law of the guarantees a Piedmontese, a youngish man much which is the juridical platform for the relathought of in his own province, little tions between Italy and the papacy. They known outside of it, who continues the also deem that it is imprudent for the land work of his predecessor, but who has to to throw itself into colonial enterprise, fight with far greater difficulties than stood while the grapes of Puglia cannot be sold in Magliani's road.
for a higher price than six francs the quinCrispi's Cabinet, which, as we write, is tale, from lack of barrels to contain the on the eve of appealing to the country to wine, which might be made on the spot renew its mandate,* has to combat a latent and could produce for Italy riches in calcuopposition, composed of the old members lable. They further hold it imprudent to of the Right who refused to surrender have made so great a demonstration in their ideas in 1876, and of a handful Rome about the statue of Giordano Bruno, of young men, some already members of for which there was no imperative necesthe present Parliament, others preparing sity. Not forgetful of 1859, they have for
Napoleonic France a sympathy of grate• The elections have resulted in such a victory for ful memories, and though they are sincere the Liberal-monarchical party as surpassed even their most sanguine expectations.
monarchists they retain a kindly feeling
towards the Transalpine Republic, so long France. By the mouth of the poet Cavalas it does not wish to carry a republican lotti it openly accuses the Cabinet of propaganda into Italy. They do not think having artificially exaggerated the characit wise or desirable that in public educa ter of the discord between Italy and tion the name of God should be entirely France. The organ of this party is the cancelled, and that religious ideas and a Secolo, and in a measure the Tribuna, a liberal basis should be forbidden in the much-read Roman paper belonging to schools ; and they do not expunge from Prince Sciarra. The extreme Left is the list of the country's glories such names composed of old and young Garibaldians, as those of Santa Catarina da Siena and and among these shines in conspicuous San Francesco d'Assisi.
mode the Deputy Matteo Renato Imbriani The attitude of this party towards gove - a frank, elegant, versatile young man, ernment is that they desire to have a part deaf to the cajolery of any special party, in the management of affairs, and some an ardent partisan for the liberation of the security that the ideas of their party shall Trentino and Trieste. He is constantly be in due measure considered. It is true calling the House to question, and always that to a certain extent it is represented, in the most correctly parliamentary form, for Boselli, minister of public instruction, and it would seem as if he had been put Brin, minister of the navy, and General into the world on purpose to make Crispi Bertole.Viale, minister of war, are in sym- lose his temper and self-control. He is pathy with it, though the government the most vigorous force that the opposiitself, pushed on by certain free-masonic tion has at its command. He sits for the currents, has combated its proposals, mak- pacific district of Bari, whose cruel agraing them pass before the eyes of the rian sufferings inspired them to send to public as clericals and reactionaries. Parliament a tribune who should plead
Bonghi and Bonfadini are the most emi- their cause. nent orators of this party, which finds The popular platform held by the exspecial favor in Tuscany, in Venetia, and treme Left is the double agitation against in the small towns of Lombardy and the clericals and against Austria. Crispi Piedmont, but less support in the great willingly lends his support to the movecentres, which are rather dominated by the ment against the former, and waves his extreme faction of the rival right. The black scarecrow; he does not approve the Fanfulla and the Corriere della Sera may outcry against Austria, but makes use of be considered as the authorized organs it to strengthen the hands of his red bugof the former faction, which is also repre. bear. sented in a cultured and well-written Does the extreme Left desire a repubmonthly review not widely read lic? It does not say so, but we are percalled the Rassegna Nazionale. Belong. mitted to believe it. Is it subsidized by ing to this party are also the so-called foreign gold, as the upholders of the red Agrarian gentlemen, that is to say, the spectre pretend? We do not believe it, deputies for the Piedmontese and Lom- and in favor of our disbelief we point to bard districts, which suffer from con- the thoroughly honest and patriotic charstantly increasing emigration, with the acters of the men who compose it - men result that the lands remain uncultivated, mistaken no doubt, but incapable of perand that Italy, which formerly not only fidy so great as this.* produced enough rice for its needs, but was able to export it, has now to import We have already spoken of the relathis grain from Burmah, India, North tions which exist between Italy and the America, and the Valley of the Euphrates. Vatican, and there remains little more to
The Agrarian League, which was consti- say on this subject. We cannot however tuted about a year ago, has become slowly impress too strongly upon foreign readers, but surely a force with which the govern- that it is here that must be sought the ment will have to reckon. Their spokes- keystone of the arch of Italian politics, man is the Deputy Lucca of Vercelli, no because it is these relations which are the lawyer, but a landed proprietor who speaks principal cause of the difficulties which of what he knows.
bamper Italian statesmen. The Italian
people never were, and are not to this day, CAVALLOTTI.
religious in the true sense of the word, THE extreme Left, among whose rank and scepticism predominates. Notwithand file were numbered in past years the standing this, they do not throw over the present Cabinet ministers, does not dis. guise its sympathies for republican optimistic and generous in passing this judgment.
* Recent events prove that we have been a little too LIVING AGE. VOL, LXXIII. 3782
forms of the Roman Catholic Church to As for the probability of a future repubwhich the population, especially in the lic in Italy, for the moment such an idea country, is accustomed, and which, with may be dismissed as an idle dream. The its spectacular effects, and appeals to the present mode of government in Italy is as senses, especially attracts Southern na- democratic as that of the United States, tures. This artistic tenacity in favor of and it would be only a question of name to their creed, side by side with religious change it from a monarchy to a republic. indifference, is one great cause why the It would be impossible for any president reformation of the fifteenth century never to be more easily approachable than is took root in Italy.
King Humbert; no president opens his The Roman Curia is not ignorant of ears more readily to the miseries of indi. this, it knows perfectly well that Rome viduals and of the nation than does the has been entirely conquered for Italy, and king of Italy. that no political party, of whatever color, A very real plague-spot of the country, will ever cede in this respect. Indeed, if and a cause of further expense, is the enor. Rome were given back to-day to the pope, mous army of small employés that fill he would not know what to do with it. every post and office, doing their work Rome is no longer the city of the popes, it indifferently, serving the public badly, has doubled its size since 1870, and it miserably paid, and living upon the profits must er be remembered that the Rome of the State. But a republic could change of to-day, has become entirely dependent little with regard to this, for every Italian for its daily bread on the masses of people aspires to hold a post under government, attracted within its walls by the govern- and would rather earn a small income in ment of Italy. The pope knows this as such a position than make his way jode. well as the State; but for historic and pendently. Nor would a change in the financial reasons, and also for the sake of form of government do anything to lighten outsiders who contribute to Peter's Pence the obligations which Italy has assumed - which find but few subscribers in Italy towards the central powers. However - Leo XIII. continues to repel all diplo- odious these obligations are to the majormatic relations with the existing govern- ity of Italians, they nevertheiess recognize ment, and every amicable step in advance that under the existing state of things which the Italian state is willing to make they are necessary and imperative. to him. The same policy will have to be continued by his successors, whether they
It is natural that in England the ques. believe in it or no.
tions should be asked: What has become That which frets the Vatican is not so of the old Mazzini party? Does it still much the presence of the Italian nation in exist? Has it still notable representaRome, as the residence in the Quirinal of tives? We will try to answer these questhe royal family. The struggle may be tions rapidly. Mazzini was, above all said to be between the two palaces. things, an educator, and his influence
It has seemed to the dweller on the upon Italian politics did not extend beother side of the Tiber, that the inhab. yond the limits of an educative mission. itants of the Quirinal rob him of part of It was Mazzini who implanted into the the lustre which he desires shall in Rome Italian people the double sentiment of belong to the papacy alone. The Vatican independence and of liberty. His axiom, has not yet absolutely abandoned all its “God and the people,” was well adapted hopes on this subject, and it puts its for a period in which life was easy under trust, strangely enough, in the Republican all aspects. The few poor that then excause in Italy, hoping that this party will isted received even more help than they restore it to its ancient splendor. A required from public and private charity. prince of Savoy in Rome casts a shadow There was little commerce, no industry, over the Vatican; a president of an Italian and agriculture flourished. It may be said republic in the same place would cause it that in those days the struggle for life was no annoyance whatever. It is on this unknown in Italy. Under such conditions account that the crown is forced repeatedly the two ideas of independence and liberty to manifest its presence in the Eternal easily took root and grew. From the City by ceremonious deeds and words, bosom of the Mazzinian party there gradsuch as the king's now famous phrase of ually issued a number of men, disciples of “ intangible Rome.” To this cause is the master, who either rose to power in also due the raising of monuments to the ministry or to eminent posts in the heroes of the Italian wars of indepen- government. Among these we may name dence.
Daniele Manin, Emilio Visconti, Venosta,
Cesare Correnti, Giuseppe Garibaldi, so only in an indirect manner. They hold Ninio Bixio, Giacomo Medici, and various firmly that the monarchical system does others who were among the first not pre- not educate the people to practise certain cisely to depart from the Mazzinian doc- simple virtues which, according to them, trines, but to modify the political methods fourish in lands purely republican. They employed by him.
believe that under the monarchical régime Crispi, Depretis, and Nicotera were it is more difficult to substitute internaalso old Mazzinians, but, like those above tional arbitration for war. They deem named, abandoned their faith in popular that the monarchy is an obstacle to that, insurrections, and in the fascination of the for them, holy cause, progressive taxation. mere word republic. The only other dis- They believe, finally, that modern monciples of Mazzini of whom it is necessary archies demand for their basis an insolent, to speak were Quadrio and Alberto Mario. grasping, and pampered bourgeoisie. In These still preached the doctrines of their the same manner that monarchs seek allimaster, as did Aurelio Saffi
, who was the ances and friendships with other montruest follower of Mazzini; but when Saffi archs, the Italian socialists, who may be died the Mazzinians, though remaining all called Radicals, seek friendships with nominally faithful to the republican tenets, their brethren in other lands — especially felt themselves in a certain measure more in France; and this party is entirely Franfree to act according to their ideas. The cophile. This love for France makes their solid virtues of Saffi had kept the repub- enemies call them traitors to their country, lican party together, but meantime new but this is a calumoy, for they are true problems had arisen to be solved by patriots, though they perhaps understand thinkers. The people had obtained, patriotism in a manner diverse to that of thanks to the doctrine of the Mazzinians the majority of their countrymen. who had become ministers, all those political liberties which they desired. The Has the extreme Left a leader? it will idea of God, on the other hand, had lost be asked. To all appearance their chief its value with the masses ; these ask to-day is Cavallotti, a poet and orator of merit, nothing else but their daily bread and who speaks with elegance and eloquence, better economic conditions for their coun- but who is man in many respects resemtry: It is no longer possible to quiet the bling Emilio Castelar and Victor Hugo Italian lower class with promises of a that is to say, a dreamer. He lacks all change of government. The social re- the qualities essential to a statesman. If forms that have become necessary do not Cavallotti were called to represent the depend upon the existence at Rome rather king in the post of prime minister he of the president of a republic than of a would find himself in a position not very sovereign. The burden of the taxation dissimilar to that in which Crispi found and national debt, the oppressive and himself – that is, he would have to submit almost prohibitive duties put upon indus- to the necessities of the political State try which have closed factory after factory, such as his predecessors liad created it. the strikes, the emigration constantly in- Nor could he suddenly overthrow the creasing, in fact all the symptoms and all colonial policy, since the abandonment of the effects of adversity, could not be Massaua would not only provoke much mended by a mere change in the name of opposition at home but would probably the government. It is therefore natural bring objection from England, who counthat the original Mazzinian party, having selled Italy to take possession of that port, exhausted its password, remains nothing in order that it might not become a Rusbut an historical record. There is rising sian harbor. Unless the Italian policy in its stead a group which desires reforms should change, root and branch, it is not of every kind, some of them logical and possible that Cavallotti should ever bejust. This party is au fond a socialistic come minister either of the interior or of party, but it is divided into so many dis- foreign affairs. Notwithstanding, he may tinct sections, according to the intelligence have, and has, an important influence over or the sufferings of those who belong to it, national events. He is useful as a check that it is less likely to succeed. In Par- and a counteracting force, and it is always liament it is represented by Andrea Costa, possible that he might make a ministry now living in Paris, who was obliged to fly fall by means of legal agitation. It is from Italy because he was condemned certain that during 1889, when the Triple to imprisonment for having assaulted a Alliance had assumed towards France a policeman. The Italian socialists are not too menacing attitude, Cavallotti did real absolutely republicans, or rather, they are service to Italy in declaring himself openly