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female trinkets by Ulysses. There is an are also the pigmies, which are chiefly extraordinary vividness about this picture, represented to caricature humanity. A and the conception, with all its mastery of representation of a scene like Solomon's detail, has led to the supposition that it Judgment, where the pigmies are actors, might be a copy of an old Greek master, has much exercised the minds of the critpossibly Athenion, who, as we know from ics. It is thought more probable that it Pliny, painted this subject, and who, represents some Egyptian occurrence than though he died young, attained great skill that it should have been taken from the in his art. The excitement of Achilles Old Testament. Occasionally we find the stirred at the sound of the trumpet, the pigmies in their own 'element the Nile, alarm of the beautiful Deidameia, the climbing up a palm-tree to escape from eagerness with which Ulysses, and prob- the inundation, or riding on a crocodile. ably Diomed, grasp Achilles by the arm, Landscapes, still life, or animals some. are rendered with great power and truth. times take the place of the figure-paintings. Agyrtes blowing the trumpet was so dam- Among the still life there is a dish of figs aged that this part of the picture, which with a glass water-bottle the transparency Zahn, who was present at the excavation, of which is admirable. The Greek painter still saw, was removed.
Pausias, who studied nature in all her Among several curious pictures relating aspects, may be pointed to as the model for to the worship of Isis, there is one, found this kind of composition. In Pausanias's in the temple of Isis, representing the time there was still at Epidaurus a picture arrival of Io in Egypt, and illustrating the by him of Methe (Drunkenness) drinking links which the Greeks found between the out of a glass bowl, through which her Egyptian cults and their own. lo, the face could be seen. The aniinals are true heroine of Argos, symbolized the moon. to nature, and painted with much humor She wandered over the world under the and delicacy in situations that are very shape of a cow; and, though Isis was not probably taken out of fables. The landoriginally a lunar goddess with the Egyp-scapes either cover the whole wall — and tiaos, she was also represented with cow's this is generally a garden wall — or, like horns, which led the Greeks to believe the figure-paintings, they form imitations that she personified the moon. Herodotus, of panel pictures. No less than seven on visiting Egypt, first notices the likeness hundred and fifty to eight hundred landin form between lo and Isis. He remarks scapes have been found at Pompeii, about that he saw Isis with the cow's horns the fifty of which are on the walls of gardens same as the Greek lo. The Greeks, who or peristylia. They represent mythologtried to recognize their own gods in those ical subjects, sacred trees, seacoasts with of other nations, began to identify them. towns or villas, gardens, sea views with But it was not till long afterwards, under naval battles, and sometimes Egyptian the Ptolemys, when Egyptian religior so scenery. deeply influenced Greek thought, and the The sacred trees are a very curious feamyths themselves were changed to fit into ture. They hold as conspicuous a place the new order of ideas, that the notion crept in the landscape-painting as in the worship in that lo, on arriving in Egypt after her of the ancients. Long before the temples wanderings, was worshipped there as the made with hands, trees were the abodes goddess Isis. On the picture she is repre. of the divinities, and they remained insented as a beautiful woman with cow's separably associated with their worship. horns, borne on the river Nile, and wel. Those whom the gods loved and protected comed by Isis. The scene has all the were often themselves changed into trees. Egyptian elements. We find the sphinx There are many examples of these metacrowned with the lotus, the crocodile, the morphoses, but there is none that gives a serpent; a priestess of Isis holding the better illustration than the charming story sistrum the musical instrument used in of Philemon and Baucis. Ovid tells how the worship of Isis the situla, a little this poor but pious couple were the only receptacle with a handle for the holy Nile inhabitants of Tyana in Phrygia, who water, and the caduceus ; Harpocrates received the disguised gods Zeus and the child Horus — with his forefinger on Hermes after they had been turned away his mouth, as we see the infant Christ on from every door. They offered them the the old Italian pictures pointing to himself best of what they had, and were rewarded as the Word. A similar picture was found for their hospitality by seeing their small at Herculaneum, with slight variations in hut transformed into a lofty temple, while the details.
the town disappeared in a marsh. They Among the importations from Egypt were, at their desire, made the guardians
of this temple, and begged, as a boon from was one of the last heathen superstitions the gods, that, having lived in the most that survived. Fathers of the Church and perfect unity, they might die together. councils inveighed against it, and urged When their appointed time came, they those who had sacred trees on their land were transformed into trees near the altar to lay the axe to them; and as late as the
Philemon into an oak and Baucis into a eighth century an edict of the Lombard lime-tree. Ovid saw the trees, surrounded king Luitprand punished any one who had by a wall and hung with garlands and honored a so-called sacred tree with the votive offerings such as those we now see confiscation of half his property. in the Pompeian pictures.
The greater number of the landscapes E’en yet an ancient Tyanean shows
represent coast scenery, and there are A spreading oak, that near a linden grows;
many representations of the villas which The neighborhood confirm the prodigy
the Romans erected on the Bay of Naples Grave men, not vain of tongue or like to lie.
in the latter days of the republic, and I saw myself the garlands on their boughs in the early days of the empire, and And tablets hung for gifts of granted vows; which Pliny the Younger describes in his And off'ring fresher up, with pious pray'r, letters. Some of them were built out on The good, said I, are God's.peculiar care, substructions in the sea, and their ruins And such as honor heav'n, shall heavenly may be seen even now, deep below the honor share.
clear blue water on the Sorrento or Baiæ The wall which enclosed the trees was coast. Others, like the villas of Marius, the so-called “Sacellum,” the earliest form | Pompey, and Cæsar at Baiæ, were built of temple, open at the top to let in air and on the rocks, towering high above the light. Sometimes there was an altar near dangerous allurements for which that them, with lamps burning and the image lovely spot, the favorite resort of the of the serpent, the guardian god of the gay Roman world, was notorious. These place (genius loci), which is so often seen in were more like fortresses than villas, says the Pompeian houses and streets. Among Seneca, who thought it a reproach to have the objects hung from the trees are the a villa at Baiæ, and who fled from its sacred vitiæ, or sashes, and the oscilla, dangers the day after his arrival. The little votive images to Bacchus, connected ancients had a great love for the sea, but with the introduction of his worship into in their sea pieces they never painted Attica. Icarus - so runs the myth — had a stormy sea. They were most familiar first cultivated the vine there, and the peo- with its softer aspecis, and the wild beauple having become drunk, thought he had ties of nature, which exercise such a spell poisoned" them, and killed bim. His over the modern mind, inspired them only daughter Erigone hanged herself in de- with awe and terror. It is more difficult spair over his grave. Dionysus, to pun- to trace the origin of the landscapes than ish them, sent a drought over the land, that of the other compositions, as they and an
irresistible desire among the have a much more mixed character, partly women to hang themselves as an expia- Greek, partly Roman. Landscape-painttion. This ceased when the murderers of ing had probably its origin in scenic decIcarus were punished; but the symbol of oration, and it developed in Greece during swinging in the air as an expiation sur- the period of the Diadochi, when the feelvived in the festival of the Aiora, and in ing for nature assumed a more detinite the suspended images.f The oscilla may form. This tendency is reflected in the be seen in the museum at Naples in the poetry of the time, and was probably form of a medallion and crescent-shaped due to the conquests of Alexander, by marble slabs, with bas-reliefs sculptured which the Greeks acquired a wider knowl on both sides. These were at one time edge of the world and of nature. The believed to be disks, but the fact that landscapes, with dramatic, mythological they are intended to be hung up, and also scenes, the idyllic ones which correspond that similar objects have been found rep. with descriptions in Greck poetry, the resented hanging on trees and buildings, Egyptian landscapes and the naval battles, has shown that they are oscilla. Origi. have no doubt all a Hellenistic origin. nally intended for sacred purposes, they On the other hand, the seacoasts with may have been also used at Pompeii as villas, and the representations of gardens, ornaments, having been found principally bear the Roman character, and are of a in peristylia and viridaria. Tree-worship later date. Pliny mentions that the painter
Ludius, in the time of Augustus, intro• Metamorphoses, viii., Dryden's translation. duced new motives into landscape.paint. † The three forms of expiation - by air, by water, and by fire - are mentioned in Virgil, Æneid, vi. 741.
ling, and he describes the very subjects
we see represented in those pictures. In a background from which the actors could landscape-painting the painter had more emerge;" a king's palace, a temple, or the free play than in figure.painting. The like," as Miss Harrison explains. These "landscapes, with one or two exceptions, were temporary structures, which were do not repeat themselves. The decorator probably partly contrived by painting. worked without model, according to cer- The studies of Agatharchus were contain given . precepts, and sometimes a tinued, says Vitruvius, by Democritus and more or less incongruous motive is put in Anaxagoras, who wrote to explain how simply to fill up the space. In the myth- the points of sight and distance ought to ological landscapes which can be traced guide the lines, as in nature, to a centre ; to Hellenistic models, we find the scenery so that by means of pictorial deception of the background in complete harmony the real appearances of buildings appear with the action represented. Much injus on the scene, which, painted on a flat tice has been done to the Pompeian land- vertical surface, seem nevertheless to ad-. scapes by comparing their perspective to vance and recede.” The panel-painters thai of the Chinese. It is true that of adapted the studies of the scenograph to the two kinds of perspective, the linear the backgrounds of their paintings, and and the aërial, the Pompeian artists best though scenography was an inferior kind understood the latter, which is more a of art which ministered chiefly to the taste question of artistic feeling than of geo- of the multitude, it had no doubt an immetrical rule. They must, however, have portant influence on the development of had a sense of the linear perspective, since painting, and Agatharchus prepared the they carried it out within certain limits in way for Apollodorus, who first painted their architectural drawings. In the front chiaroscuro. Pliny states that the painters views it is usually correct, while it fails of Sicyon made mathematical and geometin the more complicated side views. rical studies essential conditions of good
The question how far the Greeks un painting. Pamphilus influenced derstood the rules of perspective has been doubt by the capon of Polycletus, a native much debated. Materials are wanting to of Sicyon, like himself - first laid down enable us to arrive at a positive conclu- rules for painting as Polycletus had done sion. Though the perspective of some of for sculpture, and the painter Pausias, his the paintings that have come down to us disciple, put these rules into practice and is admirable as a whole, yet it has been excelled in foreshortening: maintained on good authority that not one It is highly probable that the Greeks, of them, either at Pompeii or in other who formulated the rules of geometry and Roman ruins, could bear the test of the who made drawing an essential part of ruler and the compass. As, however, no the education of their free-born children, masterpieces of Greek painting have come studied carefully the laws of appearances down to us, and the paintings that now and applied the rules of geometry to the remain represent decorative art alone, it representation of objects on a flat surface. is clear that we have not sufficient data to But beyond allusions to the most elemenform a correct judgment.
tary rules, such as those mentioned by Nor do the ancient writings supply the Vitruvius, there is nothing in the ancient deficiency. Attempts to produce in stage writings to show what their theory was. scenery the illusion of reality had, accord. Goethe, in his criticisms on the Pompeian ing to Vitruvius, been first made in the paintings reproduced by Zahn, says that days of Æschylus by the painter Agathar- gifted as the artists were and endowed chus, who left a treatise on the subject. with exquisite senses, especially that of According to Aristotle it was Sophocles the eye, they saw right in the main. “What who first introduced scene-painting, but a sharp and true observation could give these two statements have been reconciled they possessed. The abstract rule upon by Müller and Brunn. Since Dr. Dörp- which we pride ourselves, and which does feld's demonstrations have revolutionized not always agree with our taste, was, like the old ideas about the Greek stage, and so many others that were afterwards dishave shown that the action took place in covered, wholly unknown.” Phidias knew the round orchestra or dancing.place, some better than his critics that the statue of critics have disputed the statement of Athene would fulfil all its conditions when Vitruvius, or at least doubted whether it placed on a high column, and the horses refers to scene-painting ; but it is not so of the Parthenon are correct in all their easy 10 refute Aristotle, who uses the motions, though the zoopraxiscope had not word “scenography,” and, moreover, the been invented. Whatever knowledge the round orchestra did not exclude scenery, Greeks had of the rules of perspective has been lost to us, and, like much else, moral sense. That serene indifference had to be laboriously reconquered when of nature to human suffering, which exEurope emerged out of the darkness of torts from the modern poet the bitter. the Middle Ages.* Helbig points out that cry:the great difference between ancient and
O schöne Welt, du bist abscheulichmodern landscape-painting lies in the treatment of atmospheric effects. Cloud did not affect the Greeks. To them she scenery and mists, which gir
so great a was full of sympathy with man's fate. Io charm to the French, Dutch, and English Bion, one of the poets of the Hellenistic schools, are almost wholly absent from. age, the mountains, the trees, the rivers the Campanian landscapes. One reason, bewail the fate of Adonis. In Moschus's no doubt, is that southern nature does not “Lament for Bion " the trees cast down produce the same variety of effects as the their fruit, the flowers fade for sorrow .sombre, damp climates. of the North ; but over the death of Bion. In the picture of when due allowance is made for this differ- the death of Hippolytus, described by ence in the aspect of nature herself, there Philostratus, the mountain nymphs tear still remain the different ways of looking their cheeks, the water nymphs their hair, at her. The Greek genius was eminently the flowers fade in the meadows, in symplastic, and though this retarded the prog- pathy with the fate of Hippolytus. In ress of paioting, which did not reach its many of the Pompeian paintings a figure zenith till long after sculpture, it did not on a mountain-top, personifying the mounprove detrimental to the final development tain, looks down with interest on the scene of figure-painting, as it was combined below. But where man held such an allwith an exquisite sense of coloring. Their important place in nature, nature could not strong love of form rather prevented the be dissociated from man. She was ever artists from crowding their pictures; but the theatre, the witness of his actions, and it was less favorable to landscape-paint- the artists only represented her in relation ing, where color is more important than to him. It follows, from these various form. The landscape-painters never lost reasons, that in spite of the incontestable sight of the outlines which in nature so idyllic beauty and poetry of the Campa. often seem to melt away in the distant nian landscapes, they are restricted to a atmosphere. They uniformly selected a narrow scope, and it is doubtful whether high horizon to give more prominence to landscape-painting ever was more than a the topography of the scenery. And the subordinate branch of art in Greece. monochrome landscapes, painted either There is no evidence of any Greek in green or yellow on some of the Pom. painter having practised landscape-paintpeian walls, show the same tendency to ing. The only Greek landscape-painters attach greater importance to form than whose names have come down to us are color.
Demetrius and Serapion, who were both The anthropomorphic conception of na- from Alexandria and worked in Rome. ture, which was a stimulant to the devel. Demetrius was the friend of king Ptolemy opment of sculpture, was also unfavorable Philometer, who took up his abode with to landscape-painting. While the Greeks him when he came to Rome as an exile. peopled nature with gods and goddesses Nothing is known of his paintings, and
dryads, oreads, naiads, nymphs that the name topographos, which Diodorus inhabited the woods, the mountains, the gives him, has led to much discussion as streams — the landscape itself was but a to the nature of his work. Serapion lived background; and though in Hellenistic at a later date, and all we hear of bim is times a stronger feeling for its beauties that he painted scenery: The Roman developed, it did not destroy this anthro- Ludius, to whom Pliny gives a prominent pomorphism, but grew up side by side place, seems to have applied landscapewith it, for the number of personifications painting only to decorative purposes. of nature rather increased than dimin. There are good reasons for believing that ished. We do not find among the Greeks some of his work has come down to us in a less deep and tender love of nature, or a the paintings of a garden in Livia's villa less keen appreciation of her softer beau- at Prima Porta. They were painted in ties than in modern times, but it was of a his time, in the style introduced by him. different kind. She was in some ways They are superior to any other garden more to them than she is to us. In per- representations, aod they were found in sonifying her, they attributed to her a an imperial villa, where the best artists * Pietro del Borgo, in the fifteenth century, was the
were no doubt employed. first who elaborated the theory of modern perspective.
The time when the Pompeian wall-dec
orations were execated cannot be stated aims at ornamenting the wall. Imitations with precision, but their chronology prob- of marble are given up. The candelabrum, ably ranges over the two centuries pre- which already appears in the second style, ceding the destruction. We find in them becomes a favorite and elegant motive. an almost complete illustration of the de. The mythological landscapes, of which the scription in Vitruvius of the successive finest examples that exist are the scenes stages of wall-painting. Though examples from the Odyssey found on the Esquiline of these various styles have been found in Rome, belong to this style, as well as in other Roman ruins, nowhere can we to the former one. Single figures, frefollow them up chronologically as well as quently of an Egyptian character, occur, at Pompeii. Mau and Overbeck distin. however, more often than imitations of guish between four styles. The earliest, panel paintings, which only became genin which there is no figure-painting, is eral in the later style of decoration. The characterized by imitations in painted colors are chaste, and little use is made stucco of colored marble panels, and its of minium. “Beauty in simplicity, the duration corresponds with the period of true stamp of a refined and highly develpeace between the Hannibal and Social oped taste, is the special characteristic of wars, when Oscan culture, under Hellenic this style,” says Mau. It probably exinfluences, reached its highest develop- tended over the early half of the first cenment, and the finest buildings in the town tury. The style that superseded it dif
This is generally known as the fered from it chiefly in being more highly tuff period — a name which Nissen has ornamental, more vivid in coloring, more given it, because the houses were mainly varied in design, and altogether more dazbuilt of volcanic tuff instead of the limé. zling to the eye. The two favorite colors stone from the Sarnus, which had pre- are yellow and sky-blue, especially the viously been used. Examples of the first former. Less use is made of minium, and style of decoration may be seen in the cheaper reds are used instead. The relaBasilica, the house of Sallust, and the tive merits of the pictures in the third house of the Faun; and traces in various and fourth style of decoration are difficult other houses show that it must have once to determine, as, through the earthquake, been very general. The colors are few many of the earlier ones were destroyed; and decided — violet, yellow, bluish green, and when the town was restored, probably and sometimes brick red, besides white only the best were preserved. A few also and black. In the house of the Faun it have been inserted into the wall. The was combined with magnificent mosaic pictures that are of Campanian origin befloors, executed at the same date. The long exclusively to the latest style, while chasteness of the walls and the richness those of the third style all go back to Hel. of the pavement form so tasteful an en- lenistic models. The tendency of the semble that their combination may well earlier period is, on the whole, more ideal. bave belonged to the style, which probably istic; that of the later one more realistic. originated in Alexandria, for marble pan. The heroic and pathetic prevail in the elling itself was not introduced into Italy third style, the sensuous in the fourth. till a later period.
The former excels in its draperies, the The second style is no longer entirely lines are carefully drawn; while in the ornamental. It consists of architectural latter the figures are more often nude and designs which, by means of perspective, the coloring is more brilliant. Greater and light, and shades, are almost always expression is given to the faces as the intended to produce the delusion of an painter is brought into closer contact with extension of space. Marble is still imi reality. Some of the finest Pompeian tated, but in painting instead of panelled paintings, such as the Homeric ones from stucco. Painted masks and various other the house of the tragic poet – Zeus and objects are introduced as ornaments, and Hera, and the carrying off of Briseis. finally, the architectural designs, by divid. Achilles and Chiron, Achilles at Scyros, ing the wall into compartments, become Zephyrus and Flora, lo and Isis, have tha framework of centre pictures. The been found in decorations of the latest lights and shades give more variety of style, as well as the majority of the aërial coloring, and vermilion is used for the figures; and the exquisite Herculaneum first time. This style probably dates from painting, Telephus suckled by the hind, Sulla's colonization.
also belongs to this group. The third style differs from the second The painted architectural constructions, in being purely decorative. It uses the which were originally true imitations and same means, but modifies them, and solely seemingly capable of giving real support