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CALDRON. be, Miss Brontë can barely reach his extra dish of biscuits was enough to mark elbow. My owo personal impressions are the evening. We felt all the importance that she is somewhat grave and stern, spe of the occasion; tea spread in the dining. cially to forward little girls who wish to room, ladies in the drawing-room; we chatter; Mr. George Smith has since told roamed about inconveniently, no doubt, me how she afterwards remarked upon my and excitedly, and in one of my excursions father's wonderful forbearance and gentle. crossing the hall

, I was surprised to see ness with our uncalled-for incursions into my father opening the front door with his the conversation. She sat gazing at him hat on. He put his fingers to his lips, with kindling eyes of interest; lighting up walked out into the darkness, and shut the with a sort of illumination every now and door quietly behind him. When I went then as she answered him. I can see her back to the drawing-room again, the ladies bending forward over the table, not eating, asked me where he was. I vaguely anbut listening to what he said as he carved swered that I thought he was coming back. the dish before himn.

I was puzzled at the time, nor was it aļi I think it must have been on this very made clear to me till long years afteroccasion that my father invited some of wards, when one day Mrs. Procter asked his friends in the evening to meet Miss me if I knew what had happened once Brontë – for everybody was interested when my father had invited a party to and anxious to see her. Mrs. Crowe, the meet Jane Eyre at his house. It was one reciter of ghost-stories, was there. Mrs. of the dullest evenings she had ever spent Brookfield, Mrs. Carlyle, Mr. Carlyle him. in her life, she said. And then with a self was there, so I am told, railing at good deal of humor she described the sitthe appearance of cockneys upon Scotch uation, the ladies who had all come expect. mountain sides; there were also too many ing so much delightful conversation; and Americans for his taste “but the Ameri- the gloom and the constraint, and how cans were as God compared to the cock. finally, overwhelmed by the situation, my neys says the philosopher. Besides the father had quietly left the room, left the Carlyles there were Mrs. Elliott and Miss house, and gone off to his club. The Perry, Mrs. Procter and her daughter, ladies waited, wondered, and finally demost of my father's habitual friends and parted also; and as we were going up to companions. In the recent life of Lord bed with our candles after everybody was Houghton I was amused to see a note gone, I remember two pretty Miss Li's, in quoted in which Lord Houghton also was shiny silk dresses, arriving full of expecconvened. Would that he had been pres. tation. We still said we thought our ent !- perhaps the party would have gone father would soon be back, but the Miss off better. It was a gloomy and a silent L's declined to wait upon the chance, evening. Every one waited for the bril. laughed, and drove away again almost liant conversation which never began at immediately. all. Miss Brontë retired to the sofa in the study, and murmured a low word now and Since writing the preceding lines, I have then to our kind governess, Miss True- visited Jane Eyre land, and stayed in the lock. The room looked very dark, the delightful home where she used to stay lamp began to smoke a little, the conver- with Mrs. Gaskell. I have seen sigos sation grew dimmer and more dim, the and tokens of her presence, faint sketches ladies sat round still expectant, my father vanishing away, the delicate writing in the was too much perturbed by the gloom and beautiful books she gave that warm friend; the silence to be able to cope with it at and I have also looked for and re-read all. Mrs. Brookfield, who was in the door- the introduction to “ Emma," that “last way by the study, near the corner in which sketch ” and most touching chapter in Miss Brontë was sitting, leaned forward the never-to-be-written book of Charlotte with a little commonplace, since brilliance Brontë's happy married life. The paper was not to be the order of the evening. is signed “W. M. T.; "it was written by “ Do you like London, Miss Brontë ?" she the editor, and is printed in one of the said ; another silence, a pause, then Miss very earliest numbers of the Cornhill Brontë answers,

di· Yes and no very Magazine. gravely, and there the conversation drops. My sister and I were much too young to be little hand, the great honest eyes; an impetu

I remember the trembling little frame, the bored in those days; alarmed, impressed ous honesty seemed to me to characterize the we might be, but not yet bored. A party woman. . . : I fancied an austere little Joan, was a party, a lioness was a lioness; and, of Arc marching in upon us and rebuking our - shall I confess it? - at that time an easy lives, our easy niorals. She gave me the



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impression of being a very pure and lofty and before hereditary surnames came into high-minded person. A great and holy rever- universal use have never had any need to ence of right and truth seemed to be with her take a surname, because they are clearly always. Such in our brief interview she ap- enough distinguished from other people peared to me. As one thinks of that life so


any. Some princely houses have noble, so lonely — of that passion for truth – of those nights and nights of eager study, surnames; but that is because they had


before they became swarming fancies, invention, depression, elation, and prayer; as one reads of the neces- princely. Such was Tudor in England; sarily incomplete though most touching and such was Stewart, first in Scotland, then in admirable history of the heart that throbbed in England. When Charles the First at his this one little frame — of this one among the trial was summoned as “Charles Stewart, myriads of souls that have lived and died on king of England,” the description was unthis great earth this great earth!- this usual, but it was strictly accurate. When little speck in the infinite universe of God, the French revolutionists, in helpless imiwith what wonder do we think of to-day, with tation, summoned their king by the name what awe await to-morrow, when that which is of " Louis Capet,” they made a ludicrous now but darkly seen shall be clear?

blunder. Charles was “ Charles Stewart," As I write out what my father's hand because Stewart was his real surname, has written my gossip is hushed, and inherited from his grandfather, Henry

, seems to me like the lamp-smoke in the Stewart. Lewis was not “ Louis Capet, old drawing-room compared to the light because “Capet” never was the hereditary of the summer's night in the street out- surname of anybody. Charles's grandside.

mother, Queen Mary, was equally Mary ANNE RITCHIE. Stewart, as a descendant of that Robert

Stewart who married the daughter of
Robert Bruce — another king with a sur-

The place-name, the name of

hereditary office, Robert of Bruce, Robert From The Speaker.

the Steward, easily passed into a heredROYAL SURNAMES.

itary surname in the modern sense. But THERE is a Guelph Exhibition ;” and “ Capet" was simply the personal surname a Guelph Exhibition is likely to call forth or nickname of the king who was in some an amazing flood of one particular form sort the founder of the dynasty. His of vain talk. In the days of William the nickname was therefore sometimes found Fourth, some very impertinent person convenient to mark the dynasty; people thought it smart to talk of the king and began to talk about “the Capets," and queen as “Mr. and Mrs. Guelph." The they at last fancied that Capet was the impertinence was instructive; it showed hereditary surname of the house. Other. that some people - very many people in wise there was no more reason for calling truth believed that the king had a Lewis the Sixteenth “ Louis Capet” than surname, and that that surname

was there was for calling him “ Louis le Long,” Guelph.” One does not know whether“ Louis le Bel,” “ Louis le Hardi,” or any they have gone on either to think that the other nickname of any earlier king. present queen changed that surpame for

The Guelphs, in the queer spelling that some other when she married one whose they have gradually come to, in their natname certainly was not Guelph, or to think ural shape, the Welfs, are in a somewhat that Prince Albert changed his surname, different case. We need, not perplex whatever it was, for that of her Majesty. ourselves to find out how the first man that That everybody must have a surname is by was called Welf came by his name. There no means a new delusion. Perhaps Shake is a pretty story about Whelps in a basket, speare himself was not free from it when which anybody may believe if he chooses. he called Queen Gruach “ Lady Macbeth." The name is not more wonderful than He hardly meant the title in the same way many other names. A Duke Welf is not in which one now speaks of “ Lady John more startling than the patriarchal Caleb, or “Lady George.". Many people seem than the Roman Catulus, than Can' unable to fancy a man without a hereditary Grande della Scala, who looks specially surname. Yet there have been many ages strange in his Latin shape of “ Dominus and countries of the European world in Canis." The difference between Welfs which hereditary surnames have been and Capets is that there were real Welfs, unknown, and one class of people goes and that there were no real Capets. A without them still. That is to say, those long line of nobles and princes, one after princely families which became princely another, bore the name of Welf as their


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personal name. Their house came nat. Stewart” was the hereditary office of urally to be spoken of as the house of the his forefathers, still not forgotten. He Welfs; their political party was known as would have been “Stewart” in that sense the party of the Welfs. The name, fa- if he had been the son of Bothwell or mous as a party-name in Germany, became of Francis the Second. But if a son of yet more famous in Italy. It took an Bothwell had come to the crown of EnItalian shape, and the “parte Guelfa” gland, we should surely know his house, spoke to the heart of every citizen of not as Stewarts, but as Hepburos. Florence. Further, as “Welf” became Capet never was a hereditary sur. “Guelf” by

a very natural process, name; but the modern descendants of "Guelf” has further become "Guelph” Hugh Capet seem to be taking to themby a very unnatural one. How Ulf be. selves hereditary surnames. The Spanish

• Úlphus,” how Ligulf or Liulf branch have long used the name of Bourbecame Lyulph," how Guelf became bon in a way which comes very near to a “Guelph,” must be left to those who have surname. They use it constantly, in a tender consciences about spelling, and way that our Tudors and Stewarts never who will let no man's name be written as used their surnames. And when the be wrote it himself. Lord Macaulay talks Duke of Aumale signs himself “ Heori of “the blood of the Guelphs,” and he d'Orléans,” that comes very near to a surwell may. No description could better name too; and a like question may soine mark the descent and history of the house. day arise among ourselves. The Dukes Yet to fancy that Guelph is a hereditary of York of the fifteenth century were the

if anybody still really does so last men of royal descent in the male line fancy it is just as great a blunder as who found that a surname would be that of the French revolutionists. To convenient. Since then princes and their speak of any duke or king of the house as children have always died out in an aston. George or William Welf, Guelf, or Guelph, ishing way; all the male descendants of a is quite as grotesque as to talk of “ Louis king have been so near to the crown that Capet.”

the question of a surname has not again One or two more things may be said occurred. But let our imagination go on while we are on the subject of these to conceive the children of the tenth Duke

Many, perhaps most, people of Connaught. Surely they will not be all fancy that Plantagenet was a hereditary princes, princesses, and royal highnesses. surname' from the twelfth century on- Surely they will be Lord John and Lady wards. Scott talks about “Edith Plan- Mary, like the children of other dukes. tagenet," a very queer mixture of names, Only Lord John and Lady Mary what? though one has seen" Margaret Atheling," Doubtless, if the case occurs, the question which is queerer still. But no man, king will have been settled before the lime of or otherwise, was ever called Plantagenet the tenth duke. The sovereign can confer as a hereditary surname till the fifteenth any title and precedence on anybody, and century. Then the Dukes of York found it is reasonably held that any man may that they wanted a surname, and they take any surname that be pleases. Mr. chose the nickname of their remote fore- Bugg was foolish only in changing so father, Count Geoffrey, known as Plan- ancient a name as Bugg for one so modern tagenet. There was no more reason for as Norfolk Howard. The Hunt who called calling themselves Plantagenet than for himself De Vere, and the Morris who calling themselves Bastard,” “ Lack- called himself Montmorency, were wiser land," " Longshanks,” or any other nick- in their generation. Assuredly no law or name of any other forefather; only Plan custom at present fixed can settle now tagenet certainly sounded better. It would what the younger children of the tenth be perfectly accurate to call the kings of Duke of Connaught will be called. The the house of York " the_Plantagenets," sovereign of that day may give them any just as we talk of the Tudors and the title that he chooses; they themselves Stewarts; only the name has been oddly may, like the Dukes of York in the fif. carried back for three hundred years. teenth century take any surname that And people hardly distinguish between they choose. If they should choose to the use of the name Stewart as applied to take Guelph, then the impertinence of the the elder kings of Scotland and as applied days of William the Fourth will become a to those who were kings of England also. fact in the days of Edward the Eleventh James, Sixth and First, son of Henry and or Elizabeth the Third. The children of Mary Stewart, was proclaimed “ Prince Lord John Guelph, if not promoted by and Stewart of Scotland” as well as king. their very distant kinsman on the throne, will assuredly be plain Mr. and Mrs. Le Graveur à l'eau-forte” and “ L'At. Guelph, without even the epithet of tente” to the French nation were made in “ Honorable.”





compliment to that statesman in Novem. E. A. FREEMAN. ber, 1881. We may, however, on the

whole, be glad that, in spite of all temptations to adorn other vocations, Meisso. nier remained from first to last simply a painter

His work has come to be considered as From The Saturday Review.

the highest expression of a certain view of MEISSONIER.

nature which is far from being as limited The death of Meissonier removes a most as some critics have alleged. It is true important personality from the art world that. Meissonier is not a colorist. The of Europe. Although in a few days the word cannot be used of a painter who obmaster would have completed his eightieth tains his effects by the positive eliminayear, his power and skill haà scarcely tion of color, whose reds are deliberately abated; the vigorous little old man, with rendered by mud-tints, and his blues and the vast white beard which made him look greens by greys. But in most other direclike a river-god in miniature, still kept the tions his characteristics are so wide as world about him in a turmoil with his en. almost to defy criticism. In light, in tone, ergy and his martial fervor. The place in veracity of impression, in completeness which he had gained as the undisputed of knowledge, he has no rival, even among leader and president of French art had not those masters of the Low Countries whom been won without a lifelong struggle. In he loved to emulate. The microscopic the laudatory notices of Meissonier's life proportions of his pictures, his fondness which have appeared this week, in France for seventeenth and eighteenth century as well as in this country, that fact has costumes, the realism that shocked his scarcely been alluded to, so completely in early critics, are no longer looked upon as the glory of success are the disappoint- detracting anything from his merit; for ments of the past forgotten. But it is all eccentricities may easily be forgiven to worth recollecting that so lately as 1861 an observation so precise and a touch so Meissonier was elected into the Academy broad and true. His realism has always by a narrow majority over a certain M. been inspired by great thoughts; it has Hesse, now forgotten, who was then the never been vulgar nor mediocre. There favorite with the critics ; that later than are, perhaps, no French pictures of forty this it was the custom to mention his years ago which have suffered so little name in the same breath with costume from the change of fashion as those of painters such as Fichel and Plassan; and Meissonier. that in 1864 the jurors positively refused His artistic conscience, as has been well the grande médaille to him at the Salon. said, was inexorable. For his great effects

It was the conviction that this great he trusted neither to memory nor to conpainter desired, above all things else, to struction, but, at vast expense and under glorify French art, and to prove himself a extreme difficulties, insisted on working sincere patriot, which won for Meissonier from nature. When he was painting that astonishing popularity which his old " 1807," he bought a cornfield, and hired a age achieved.

There were wonderful troop of cuirassiers to gallop over it, he legends about him, and some of them have himself riding at their side and noting the now proved to have been true. M. An- attitudes of men and horses. Then, and tonin Proust has written this week to a not until the field was in the right condiFrench paper to say that it is literally his- tion of corn ruined by cavalry, did Meistoric that on the 8th of September, 1870, sonier sit down before it to paint his Meissonier went to Gambetta and asked middle distance. A similar story is told to be made military prefect of_Metz. of the ploughed and snow.covered field in Whether he would have served France “ 1814. It was his artistic copscience with success if this request had been which led him, as long ago as 1830, to granted may be doubtful, but certainly his break with the convention of the classic training, his audacity, and the breadth of school, and which kept him so consistently bis conceptions might have made an ex- isolated from the passing fashions of cellent amateur fighting general of him. French art for sixty years. No one has Gambetta, at all events, never ceased to ever used the model so faithfully and sintry to make use of Meissonier in public cerely, and it is this, his invariable vision life, and we now learn that the gifts of of the man inside the doublet or the coat

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of mail, which distinguishes him from all sire to reach perfection, attempted a comthe ephemeral host of mere painters of pleteness of plane upon plane, beyond the costume.

capacity of any eye but his own. Το It is an interesting fact that he has left another class belong his isolated subjecton record which of all his innumerable figures, reading, etching, painting, smok. productions he himself preferred. His listing, or merely sitting calmly in a roseof his own four favorite pictures consists colored or a sky-blue coat. Throughout of “ La Rixe," “ 1807," L'Attente," and his life the muse of Meissonier, in the

Le Graveur à l'eau-forte," and the study old phrase, brought forth none but male of these alone would teach us what Meis- children. Much as he loved drapery and sonier was.

In the first of these “La costume, he very seldom consented to Rixe the two young fellows flying at draw a woman; when he did, as in the each other's throats, and scarcely held hostess in “La Halte," or the servantapart by their friends — we see Meisso maid in “ La Culotte des Cordeliers," he nier's gift for presenting violent action succeeded just well enough to send us suddenly arrested in a composition su. back contented to his troopers and his perbly balanced, and yet natural and easy philosophes. Meissonier's unique posiin the extreme. In " 1807 " we have the tion in the art of our time is very curious. most triumphant and the most fiery of He sprang out of nothing, full-armed, those battle-pieces, crowded with small without a master; and he dies at eighty, figures in which Napoleon, without any the most honored and the most popular of undue emphasis, is given the central and French painters, without ever having had, inevitable place of honor. This is the in any serious sense, a pupil. He has type of those ambitious works in which been, like Cowley's Phænix, “a vast spe. Meissonier, carried away by his own de. cies alone."

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CURIOUS DISCOVERY IN THE STOUR. introduction of the chrysanthemum into En. A correspondent writes: “A most interesting gland, a word on the subject from its native discovery has just been made at the old place, Pekin, may not be out of place. It is Cinque Port of Sandwich. The Stour, a river not generally known that the Chinese grow which has, perhaps, more frequently changed the chrysanthemum as a standard tree, espe its course than any other English river, has cially for selling. They graft them on to a lately entered an old channel near its con- stalk of artemisia. There is a species of artefluence with Pegwell Bay, laying bare a wreck misia that grows wild and covers the waste which has probably occupied its present posi- ground round Pekin; it springs from seed tion for several centuries. The vessel is one every year, and by the autumn attains to a of foreign build, and the wood is in a fair tree eight or ten feet high with a stem one and state of preservation, owing to the fact that one-half inch thick. The Chinese cut it down, it has for many years been entirely embedded and, after drying it, use as fuel; the small in the sand. On inspection it would appear twigs and seeds are twisted into a rope, which that from time to time various attempts had is lighted and hung up in a room to smoulder been made to cut down the wreck, but the for hours; the pungent smell of the smoke hull of the vessel is as yet pretty nearly intact. drives out the mosquitoes. This plant, after It is a matter of local history that a little over being potted, is cut down to about three feet three hundred years ago, in the reign of Henry and used as the stock, the twigs of chrysan. VIII., an Italian vessel, belonging to one of themum are grafted round the top, and it the popes, sank at the entrance to the then quickly makes a fine tree, the flowers grow flourishing port of Sandwich. The sand and open, and as the stock soon withers the silted round it, forming a great bank, and whole tree dies, and folks say, “another inblocking up the entrance to the haven, and it genious fraud of the Chinaman.” A favorite is recorded that from this date the prosperity style of growing chrysanthemums is in the of Sandwich as a seaport greatly declined. It shape of a fan, with eight or ten flowers inis believed, with some show of reason, that different parts of it. If the flowers are not the ancient wreck now discovered is identical grown on the plant they are tied on, which with the papal Caryke, or Carrick, which sank also does for selling. The winters in Pekin at this spot in the reign of Henry VIII." are very cold, and last about four months,

and having no glass houses the Chinese gardeners do not have the chance of producing such a variety of such fine flowers as their

European brethren, but in the case of chrysTHE CENTENARY OF THE CHRYSANTHE- anthemums they have many curious and

- This being the centenary year of the beautiful varieties. Theo. Child, in Nature.



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