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these, with much lace work and brilliant When the service was over the bells red headdresses. Others were attired in again struck out, and the procession re

pinks, browns, purples, yellows, blacks, formed. The church was again filled to Ered, marone, blue, whilst many beneath overflowing. A well-sung hymn to the

these brilliant colors wore the white open- Virgin ended this, to us, strangely interworked muslin skirts. The churchyard esting service; but our artist friend had was soon filled with this mass of color, and been unable to resist the temptation, and we expected to see all go into the church ; when we came out we found him hard at but we awakened their curiosity and they work upon a color sketch of the church, examined us as freely as we examined dotting in the colors of the women folk them, especially when a note book and before it, but with such a crowd round him sketch book were produced. As one or as artist rarely has to criticise his work. two began to go into the church, so we On one side of him was a brilliant color also entered, and were struck with the group of girls, and on the other a grey strange sight that met our eyes.

group of lads and men. The church was already crowded with As we drove back into Tabor that night worshippers in every conceivable combina. and saw its towers and walls lit up by the tion of color, whilst at the altar were rays of the sinking sun, we felt that our standing two groups of children, the boys search for a mediæval Pompeii had given in quiet grey and brown on the right-hand us a bit of mediæval life such as even side with a banoer, the girls on the left Naples could not afford us; and we were in the same vivid colors as worn by their well content with our day at Pribenic and mothers. All were chanting in soft, low, Malesich. and musical tones some responses after the priest. For only a few moments did this last after our entry, and then the boys with their banner led the way down the church, the little girls with their banner

From Blackwood's Magazine. followed them, a brass band which we had

AN EVENING WITH SCHLIEMANN. not noticed behind the pulpit, then a priest

“ He needs no ship to cross the tide,

Who, in the lives about him, sees in his yellow robes, and then the women, Fair window prospects opening wide and last of all the men. We went out into O'er history's fields on every side, the churchyard to watch this strange pro

To Ind and Egypt, Rome and Greece."

RUSSELL LOWELL. cession, and as they streamed on, those in the churchyard joined in, and the whole The time of the year was April, the mass of color moved out on to the village thermometer stood at 80°, the days were common, out towards a clump of green lengthening, the barley was ripening, as chestnut-trees in its centre, beneath which some weary travellers reached a hotel in was a railed-in statue to St. John of Nepo. Cairo. They had seen early morning in muc. The bells struck out as the proces a small boat on the Suez Canal, while sion filed out of the church, and the scene devout worshippers were saying their was strangely fascinating as this marvel- prayers, and a camel was threading its lously intense mass of every hue moved on way on the banks near Goshen. They upon the green sward, backed by the old had felt the sup at midday at Ismailia, white gabled houses with their heavy dark seen the desert and the palms and the low, archways and barred gates that surrounded fiat mud-buildings of the poor fellabio. the common.

They noticed for the first time the precious When it neared the statue, the whole water sold in skin bottles at Tel-el-Kebir. mass of color sank upon the sward, and The sand lay in heaps on the uneven the priest's voice was heard rising, in the surfaces of the railway.carriages, and the hushed stillness, from whence he stood stifling atmosphere within was only less beneath the flowering chestnuts that half distressing than the clouds of dust outside. hid the statue of the holy Jan, and then the open ompibus of Shepheard's hotel the quiet, suppressed tones arose from the has passed through the crowded streets, whole mass in response.

avoided the runner before some wealthy As the low, musical responses arose from citizen's chariot, and at last stopped. the mass before us, and then the low, united | There, on the cool, broad verandah where voices were lifted up in prayer in the com- magicians ply their enchantments and mon tongue of the people, surely we vendors sell their wares, the new-comers thought no scene in Europe could surpass are investigated by the older inhabitants. what we were looking upon for strange The hotel became a home to us, because beauty and interest.

of the presence there before us of our

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friend Professor Virchow of Berlin; and, in life and pursuit of one aim always cap. that evening, without any previous ar. tivate one, and among a crowd of mere rangement, we found that his seat was pleasure-seekers often with soulless faces placed opposite our party at table. He - breathing wax figures - one learned introduced us to his companion, Heiorich much from the purposefulness of Dr. Schliemann, the discoverer of Troy. Schliemann. When asked how long they had known In that land where there is no twilight, each other, Virchow said Seit Adam in a city where almost every nationality is

.".Since Adam.' They looked like represented, on a soil which rewards the brothers. Schliemann was the taller and explorer at every turn of his spade, and broader, something between a jovial farmer the student every look at an old papyrus, and a German officer, but keen, genial, surely the living picture which was on impulsive ; while Virchow was shorter and that night to be painted for us had a fit. slighter, with the simplicity and intensity ting background." In our childhood we of genius marked on his features. Some went to dioramas, and great was our de. tiones they were accompanied by fellow- light as we watched the moving pictures, workers not then resident in the hotel the thunder-storms, moonlight effects, M. Naville, who was then exploring the sunrisings and sunsets. We used to go remains of the temple at Bubastes, and home to our attic nursery with the green Schweinfurth, the African traveller. They baize curtains and the sloping windows, are enamored of the land, and say they to reproduce to any audience we could lay could spend here a thousand years. hold of queerly made pictures on gummed

We have now before us the writing of rolls of paper, with lighted tapers behind three of these friends in our interleaved pin-holes in our illustrations, and musical Bible.

accompaniments, of what we had seen Professor Virchow, who knows his Bible, before. So, after that sixty minutes' expe. turned up Exodus opposite the story of rience in the large hall at Cairo, in our Israel in Egypt, and wrote: “Rudolf Vir little bedroom where mosquitoes hummed chow, in returning from a journey to Nubia round us all night in the sultry air, the and Upper Egypt in special research of whole scene was again enacted for us in the statues and pictures of Rameses II., the theatre of memory. As, after a stormy the king of the oppression."

voyage, the traveller, though on land, Dr. Schliemann wrote in Greek, with thinks he is still in the moving ship, so certain adaptations, two bexameter lines our mind surged and swelled under the from the Odyssey: “ King Zeus, grant me force of the impetus received from the that [Telemachus] may be happy among story of the dreams, hopes, fulfilments of [men), and may have all [his] heart's de- a single life. We felt when with him that sire.

we were in a great presence

- a life that Dr. Schweinfurth wrote: “ Ich glaube, had been built up of varied and costly dass die hohe Bedeutung der biblischen experiences, and which was always imGeschichte für die Erziehung des Men- bibing from every source. While he was schengeschlechts in der Natürlichkeit der speaking, waiters were hurrying to and darin enthaltenen Gedanken liegt, welche fro, sometimes whisking off the fies, stets die urmenschlichen Gefühle anrufen again purting down the quaint brass fingerund alle Unnatur ausschliessen.” Cairo, bowls; but the guests were scattering, 8 April, '88.

the chairs were creaking over the smooth [Translation.] In my belief, the deep surface of the polished floors, and the significance of the Biblical story for the dinner was over, before we thought it had education of the human race consists in well begun. The flight of time was the the fidelity to nature of the thoughts it only obstacle to his going on much longer. embodies, which always appeal to the Since the news of his death reached us deep-seated feelings of men, to the exclu- a week ago, busy workers have been in sion of everything that is contrary to na- our brain digging away the heap of mateture.

rial which has accumulated since that Next evening Dr. Schliemann ard my night two years ago, and we have refreshed husband exchanged places, the latter sit our memory by reading his autobiography: ting beside his old master of German The warm heart and the clear brain which student days, and the writer next Dr. has mastered so many languages, and told Schliemann. Some funny remark was the story with such artless simplicity, as passed about the exchange of their wine. if only for the first time, made an impresAs he sat there, Schliemann told us his sion not easily to be forgotten. Here are life-story. Intense reality and earnestness some of the results of our excavation.

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li was in romantic surroundings that and candles, came in this way. He lifted the boy's life was spent. Behind the a cask too heavy for him, spat blood, and garden-house of his childhood was a pond, could work no more ; and the next glimpse out of which, ran the legend, a maiden we catch of him is as a cabin-boy on the rose each night, holding a silver bowl ; Dorothea, selling his coat to buy a blanket. and in the village a small hill with burial. The brig was wrecked; he did not know place, in which a robber knight had laid the name of the land he was cast upon, his child, coffined in a cradle of gold. To but he heard a voice, as he writes, ihat add to all this, there was a living heroine “the tide in my earthly affairs had come, in that fairyland, the little Minna, whom and that I had to take it at its flood.” He he loved, and who always shared his was on the coast of Holland; and from dreams. When poverty blocked the way, that country wrote to a kind friend in he used to say to his father: “Why not Hamburg, telling him of his unfortunate dig up the golden cradle or fish for the position. His letter reached the friend silver bowl ? " His father pinched himself when sitting at a large dinner-party; a to afford as a Christmas gift to the little subscription was started on the spot, and lad of eight a Universal History,” with £20 forwarded to Schliemann. The recan engraving of Troy in flames. “If ommendation which accompanied the these walls were as thick as those in the money got him a situation.

His new picturę," said the boy to his father, “ there work was stamping bills of exchange and must be some remains of them; and I getting them cashed in town, and carryshall excavate them some day.' The ing letters to and from the post-office. agreement was made between father and His work was no longer exhausting, and

Not every bud opens to a flower, he now began his pursuit of learning. His not every acorn becomes an oak, not every whole salary amounted to £32 per annum, beginning has an ending so true in every but half of it he spent on his studies. detail to the ideal first raised in that child's Whether we look at him in his garret mas. imagination.

tering English over bis rye-meal porridge, Ainong his childhood's friends, besides reading a great deal aloud without transthe faithful Minna,' was the village tailor, lating, and writing daily essays in the new Wöllert, who had one eye and one foot, language, repeating in an undertone the and was for this reason called “ Hopping sermons in the English church after the Peter.” This man had a most wonderful preacher, running in the rain book in store of tales, which he told with inim- hand, or learning something while waititable skill, one of which was how he had ing at the post-office, his experiences are caught a stork which used to build a nestalike unique. He complains of his short on Schliemann's barn, and fastened a memory, but could repeat in each day's piece of parchment round its foot asking lesson twenty pages of the “Vicar of the proprietor of its winter's home to say Wakefield" to his English master; and where it lived; and that it had returned soon after he knew by heart the whole of in the spring with a verse of bad German that book, as well as Sir Walter Scott's tied to its foot, telling that it had been to “ Ivanhoe." St. John's Land. In the written story of He worked by night as by day, repeat. his life, he tells how this and several other ing aloud what he had previously learned. anecdotes of Hopping Peter stimulated English took him six months, and in the his desire to learn geography, and in same length of time he learned French, creased his passion for the mysterious. and then Dutch, Spanish, Italian, and

Another event which he loved to dwell Portuguese took him six weeks each. He upon was the entrance of a drunken miller found that reading in any new language he into the grocer's shop where, as a young was learniny a translation of some novel apprentice, he was working from 5 A.M. to with which he was acquainted, helped him,

This man recited a hundred lines and saved him from looking up the words of Homer, and the boy was so attracted in a dictionary. His knowledge of lanby the rhythmic cadence that he wept, guages got him a situation as correspond. though not understanding a word, and had entand bookkeeper in the office of Messrs. the lines repeated three times. He spent Schröder of Amsterdam, and now he comall his little savings in giving three glasses mences Russian. He told us how in this of whiskey as a reward to the man; and office a Spaniard brought in a bill which from that moment constantly prayed to no one could read; Schliemann translated God that he might learn Greek.

it on the spot, and at once got promotion. His deliverance from grinding potatoes, Who but Schliemann would have hired a sweeping the shop, and selling herrings poor Jew for the sum of four francs a week

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to come every evening for two hours to work, and during the night by enthusiasm listen to recitations, not one word of which in the work. he understood ? The lodgers complained

Duty done's the soul's fireside of the noise, and twice Schliemaon got

Blest who keep its ingle wide; notice to quit.

He who hath it hath no chill, It is too long to tell how tbis study of And may have it whoso will. Russian helped him in many ways; how we shall not speak of the books written, he became a successful Russian merchant; how his goods escaped the great fire which of the sights discovered, of the trophies destroyed Memel in October, 1854; and collected. When we know that a friend how he amassed a fortune. This we are

is still alive, it is as if we carry about a sure of, that the study of Greek and the watch in perfect order which we can ever discovery of Troy were always before him, life is gone, we carry about the same article

and anon time our lives by; but when the and formed his supreme motive in making without the mainspring, We are distinct money. But he did not let himself realize losers. It is pathetic to think how, in dying the dream of his life till the tidings of of the Crimean war; and it was in Janu. Herculaneum, which had early fired bis peace reached St. Petersburg at the end at Naples, his sun set nearly opposite the

scene of the buried cities of Pompeii and ary, 1856, that he engaged a Greek teacher imagination as a child, and a stone's throw In his autobiography, he clearly describes from the museum of the rare antiquities be his method of study, and the hints are so revelled in. We shall not see him now important that we quote the extract in in the home to which he invited us to see full :

his

young Greek wife in Athens, with his I again faithfully followed my old method; son Agamemnon and his daughter Ap. but in order to acquire quickly the Greek dromache, por hear him describe his rare vocabulary, which seemed to me far more collections of treasures; but the story of difficult even than the Russian, I procured a that self-denying struggle upwards and modern Greek translation of “ Paul et Vir- onwards to what he set as the goal of his ginie," and read it through, comparing every life has for us abiding lessons. word with its equivalent in the French origi- We are looking now at some rose-leaves nal. When I had finished this task, I knew which Professor Virchow laid on at least one-half the Greek words the book luncheon-plate in Cairo; and in memory's contained, and after repeating the operation I portfolio the scene of Schliemann's shipknew them all, or nearly

, so, without having wreck, the entrance of the drunken miller lost a single minute by being obliged to use a dictionary. In this manner it did not take me reciting Greek, the repeating of “ Ivan. more than six weeks to master the difficulties hoe” by heart, and the eager lad trans. of modern Greek, and I next applied myself lating the Spanish bill, are unfading to the ancient language, of which in three photographs. months I learned sufficient to understand The fruit of his toil remains. Merely some of the ancient authors, and especially to meet a nature like his made us feel how Homer, whom I read and re-read with the cold we are, how lifeless, how barren of most lively enthusiasm.

enthusiasm. Even to one listener he Before beginning the cherished Troy

poured out his life-story in a torrent of work of his life, he made a journey round eloquence. We may not have the genius the world ; and it was while crossing the or brain-power which was bis; but all can

learn from his indomitable energy and Pacific Ocean in a small English vessel to San Francisco that, during their fifty days sites of old battles and old graveyards, to

perseverance and toil, in discovering the at sea, he wrote his first book, “ La Chine et le Japon.” After this voyage he settled give at least time and energy in the search

after truth; and having found it, give to down in Paris for the formal study of

others the benefit of our search. archæology.

And now we must leave the well-stored mind, the keen brain, the warm heart, the willing hand, to pursue his investigations in the region round Troy. During the

From The Nineteenth Century. intense cold, when his wife and he were

THE PECLINE OF INDIAN TASTE. suffering from the icy north wind blowing RUSKIN tells us in one of his books on so strongly through the chinks of the painting that the artist's object should be planks of their house-walls, and they were io maintain the “innocence of the eye." not able to light the fire on the hearth, The great and insurmountable difficulty in they were kept warm during the day by art is the maintaining of that innocency.

our

The eye is dazzled and disturbed by in-, especially the Madras presidency, is now congruous colors, by lights and shadows, the centre of tinselly manufactures of by the introduction of bad example in the worthless, hideous goods, sold at exorbishape of bad work, by the attempts of tant prices. Color and shape, quality and eccentric artists to marry colors that workmanship, are a mixture of bad Indian Heaven never intended to meet, by the and bad English or French work. Take, constant resting of the eye on shapes and for instance, such a common thing as the forms and colors which take the fancy and black dye of Kanchipuram and the red dye attract the eye, but which are not built of Madura, in the Madras presidency, on the lines of true art, more especially which were famous throughout the world. in the attempt to revive ancient art in European black has taken the place of the modern garb. The eye, in the words of one, and that rich russet-red which deDante, is smarrita, lost in such a forest lighted the eye of the painter is replaced of puzzling variety and distressing combi- by “magenta.” The very cloths one ad. nation that it seems as if it will never find mires so much in India, wrapped round the true path again. When an artist first the graceful bodies of the Indian coolię begins to study, he probably does his copy women, made of one piece of eight yards, of a cast, or statue, or drawing, or figure and wound ingeniously round the body in better than he does later on; be only sees lovely folds without pin or hook or fasten. the outline, he can do neither shadow nor ing of any kind, are manufactured in Enhigh light, nor expression; he simply gland and dyed with English dyes. The copies what he sees, and at first he sees Hindu woman is captivated by the cheapvery little ; then, as he learns a little more ness of the machine-made cloth in the the gradations of shadow, the science of bazaar, forgetting that the old Hindu softening, the art of representing texture cloths used to last her two years where and substance, he is lost in a sea of the English-made one only lasts her four trouble ; he realizes too much, he sees too months, and even then the color goes, much, and his struggle henceforward is to where the old one used to be washed and see less, to simplify, to regain the outline rewashed without hurt or damage. through a morass of shading and high It is not too sweeping to say that the light and mouldiog and fashioning, till poverty of the Indian people arises in once more, after years of study and hard great part from the introduction of piecelabor, he returns to the purity of his first goods from England and the duty being work. So it is with uncivilized nations taken off them. The benefit is reaped like children they follow the instincts of only by Anglo-Indians, who send home for the eye. They have learnt no intricacies, their clothes, or by a few native shopmen, the eye is true, and true and beautiful who are enabled to sell English goods to shapes and colors are the result of an un- the English residents (which they do with tutored eye.

They follow nature, and extortionate profit); but in every district nature cannot err in her upbuilding of where there were hundreds of weavers, form, in her blending of color. But when there are now only so many tens, the other countries bringing so-called civiliza. greater portion of them having taken to tion introduce fresh cunning of the hand agriculture for want of purchasers for and new art, and build it on the old, there their goods, and finding it impossible to is confusion that cannot be unravelled. compete with machinery. Art must necesArt is crushed by art, the eye of the artifi- sarily decline where hand prevails over cer is wounded and strained and blinded, head. Formerly all a weaver's inventive and as a tender flower is choked by some powers were taxed to devise some new hardy plant that throws its powerful ten- design or fresh border for a rajah's cloth dops over its roots, so art is crushed by or for the favorite of some royal harem. art and dies. Here and there an appre. Each weaver could vary his border as he ciative government, an artistic enthusiast, went on, as an author alters his tale, trying makes one grab at sinking art as she suc- to outdo his neighbor or to execute some cumbs beneath the pressure; but this is masterpiece of handiwork, changing his

If modern art were a boon she ideas and his colors and his work every would be hailed with delight; but, like a two or three days, but the machine goes socialistic régime, she smells of what is on pattern after pattern all alike. vulgar and underbred and coarse and, The lace manufacture of Madura has worse still, unlettered and superficial. entirely vanished, driven away by the

Certainly in southern India art has not invasion of cheap machine-made French been improved by the introduction of mod- and English laces; even the manufacture ern and European art. Southern India, / of thread has vanished from the country.

VOL. LXXIII.

3779

rare.

LIVING AGE.

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