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fying spectacle. Each regiment had its clusion of the war. The civil strife ended, chaplain. Every morning public prayers Huguenot and Catholic fought side by were offered for the king and themselves, side to expel the English from France. that God would keep them “vivans en They might temporarily unite in the pres. toute sobriété et modestie, sans noises, ence of a common enemy, but they could mutineries, blasphêmes, paillardises." not live at home in peace. Coligny from But none knew better than Coligny the the first regarded the treaty as a rope of value of this appearance. “ J'ay com- sand." He spent the greater part of the mande,” he said, " à l'infanterie longtemps, comparatively peaceful years which the et la connois; elle accomplit souvent le truce secured to France at Châtillon. proverbe qui dit de jeune hermite vieux There he set an example of religious tolera. diable.After the first success everything tion to the world. Nowhere was a priest went against the Huguenots. Bourges safer than under the walls of the castle and Rouen were taken. Guise's general of the Huguenot leader. At Châtillon ship turned the battle of Dreux from a also he founded his college for instruction defeat into a victory. Condé was a pris in Greek, Hebrew, and Latio. He made

Hard pressed, Coligny drew off his own house a model of sober and godly his defeated troops to Normandy to create living. Prayers began and ended the a diversion and receive the aid of Eliza. day. Singing and preaching preceded beth. Orleans itself was on the point of dinner. Audiences to the deputies the surrender when Guise was murdered by churches of the provinces occupied much Poltrot de Méré. The assassin was of his leisure. But he found time to de. known to Coligoy, who had once assisted vote to his colonial enterprises and to him with money. The admiral was ve- foreign politics. As he had organized hemently suspected of complicity with the Villegagnon's expedition in 1555, and crime. His defence was in some points equipped the expedition of Jean Ribaud halting. He admitted that he had heard to Florida in 1560, so now in 1564 he reof Poltrot's threats, and that be made no turned to his project. The new expedi. effort to divert him from his purpose, but tion was led by Laudonnière, one of he repudiated all connivance at the mur- Ribaud's companioos. But the enterprise der. "In his letter to the queen on the failed, like all its predecessors, because subject * he adds:

the colonists could not endure the hard. Your Majesty must not think, from what I ships and monotony of colonial life. have said, that I feel any regret for the death Meanwhile his plans of foreign policy of M. de Guise. On the contrary, I consider assumed definite shape. His great idea that his death is the greatest blessing that was to detach France from her Spanish could happen to this kingdom, to the Church alliance, and to place her at the head of a of God, and particularly to me and my house, league to resist the enormous power of and also, if it please your Majesty, that it will Spain. In this he anticipated the policy afford the means of giving peace to this king- of Henry IV., Richelieu, and Mazarin. Á dom.

war with Spain would, he believed, prove Though Coligny was formally acquitted a safety-valve for domestic discontent; it of the crime by a decree issued from would bring, religious toleration in its Moulins.f the Guises, and above all the train. He himself would gain honor widowed duchess, afterwards Madame de against the foreign foe. He would defeat Nemours, never accepted his acquittal. Alva and avenge St. Quentin. The death of Guise gave the Hugue

Catharine still temporized. She refused nots the Peace of Amboise (March, 1563), to adopt Coligny's plan. On the other which promised liberty of conscience hand she repudiated the policy proposed everywhere, and permitted the public per- to her by Alva and her daughter Elizaformance of Protestant services on the beth. Her conference at Bayonne with estates of great nobles, in the houses of the Spanish agents and the queen of the gentry, in one chosen town within each Spain in 1565 aroused the darkest suspi. bailliage, and in the strongholds of which cions among the Huguenots. Was she the Huguenots were possessed at the con preparing another Sicilian Vespers? The

recent publication of Alva's letters proves * Response à l'interrogatoire qu'on dict auoir esté that, so far as Catharine and Charles IX. fait à un nommé Jean de Poltrot, soy disant Seigneur were concerned, the suspicion was un. de Merey, sur la mort du feu duc de Guise. Orleans, founded. But at the time the alarm and 1562.

+ Décret declarant le dit Sieur de Châtillon, Amiral misgiving were general. Very little was de France, purgé, deschargé, et innocent du faict dudit required to cause an outbreak between homicide, et des charges qu'on luy a voulu, ou pourroit, pour ce regard, imputer. Moulins, 1565. two parties, each prepared to take the

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field, mistrustful of the others intentions, that one salmon was worth the beads of and determined not to be surprised. In ten thousand frogs ? A warning reached 1567 a Spanish army was on its way through Condé and Coligny. A horseman galBurgundy to execute the vengeance of loped past the castle of Noyers, sounding Philip II. on the Netherlands. The bis horn and crying out: “The stag is in French troops watched its progress. But the snare ! the hunt is up!” Royal guards the Spaniards reached the Low Countries, held the gatehouses, fords, and bridges. and iostead of the royal troops being dis. Instant flight was necessary. At midbanded they were ordered to Paris. Wil- night on August 25, 1568, the Huguenot liam the Silent sent despatches warning leaders, with their families and one hunthe Huguenots that both armies were to dred and fifty men, left Noyers to run the be combined for their destruction. A gauntlet of their enemies and reach Rohasty council was summoned. 'Coligny chelle. The pursuit' was hot. Led by a as usual recommended patience; but the huntsman, who knew the fords and forest daoger seemed urgent and he was over. paths, they reached the Loire at a spot ruled. In the second war of religion the above Cosne, near Sancerre. They crossed perfection of the Huguenot organization the river, their horses only wading kneewas strikingly exemplified. Spies were deep. As day broke, thé river rose in seot to watch the movements of Coligny food, and the fugitives were saved. They at Châtillon. They found him dressed as fell on their knees on the farther bank, a farmer, pruning his fruit trees. Two singing the 114th Psalm 6. What ailed days later the Huguenots had risen all thee, O thou sea ?" etc. They reached over France, and fifty towns were in their Rochelle in safety. The Huguenots rose hands. The court only saved itself from to arms all over the country. The court capture at Meaux by a basty flight to issued an edict, forbidding under pain of Paris. Condé endeavored to 'starve the death any other worship except the Cathcity joto surrender. But it was “the antolic, offered a free pardon to those who besieging the elephant.” The battle of would acknowledge their errors, and banDreux (November 10, 1567) compelled ished all ministers of the Reformed relihim to retreat. Catharine opened nego- gion from the kingdom. In this spirit tiations with the Huguenot leader, and, began the third religious war. against the advice of Coligny, he signed Coligny commenced the war under disthe treaty of Longjumeau (March, 1568). couraging circumstances. His eldest son,

Peace was again restored. The Hugue. Gaspard, was dead. His wife died a few nots laid down their arms, returned home, weeks later. Shortly afterwards his daughdismissed their mercenaries. Catharine ter Renée and his brother Andelot died. had succeeded in her object. She had been His castle at Châtillon was taken and taken by surprise. She only wished to sacked. But his energies were not regain time. She believed the Huguenots laxed. His wife had died entreating him, io be losing, the Catholics to be gaining by the love he bore to her and his children, ground. Her hesitation was at an end. to fight to the last extremity for God's She did not disband the Switzers. Cita- service and the advancement of true reli. dels were raised in all the Protestant gion. Averse as he was to war, no alterstrongholds. L'Hôpital was dismissed native was possible. His first step was from the chancellorship. Nothing was to fit out a navy of thirty ships, in order done to restrain the violence of the Cath. to keep the communication open with En. olics. Coligny could obtain no redress for gland. His fleet was subjected to the the seizure of his treasures. Shots were same rules of discipline which William of fired at him; he was ordered to reduce Orange afterwards introduced among the his retinue; one of his gentlemen was Gueux. A minister sailed with each ship; murdered. He removed to Tanlay, Ande. only men of good character were permitted lot's castle near Tonnerre, so as to be to serve ; one-third of the booty went to close to Condé at Noyers. He wrote to the · Cause.”. Onland he and Condé held complain of the way in which he was de- the field with the most powerful army pied justice, and in which the king was which the Huguenots had ever raised. In blinded to the real state of the kingdom. the spring of 1569 the Catholics, largely In reply Catharine appointed Tavannes, reinforced, assumed the offensive. At his rival and enemy, to investigate his Jarnac they gained a victory over the Calgrievances. Meanwhile troops were se vinists, in which Condé was killed. The cretly gathered in the neighborhood of blow was at first sight crushing; but the Noyers and Taplay. Had not Alva said / widowed Jeanne d'Albret, with her young

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son, Henry of Navarre, revived the en- | the determined enmity of Catharine. Over thusiasm of the Huguenots. A medal the king he gained a personal influence, was struck in her honor, with the inscrip- which bore fruit in a complete change of tion, “Pax certa, victoria integra, mors policy. Charles IX. had himself married honesta.” Within a week after Jarnac, the daughter of the tolerant Emperor Coligny was in the field, only to be once Maximilian; he now projected the bemore disastrously defeated at Moncontour. trothal of bis sister Marguerite to Henry of With Condé and Andelot dead, with Navarre, and the marriage of his brother, troops dispirited by two successive de- the Duc d'Anjou, with Queen Elizabeth. feats, himself grievously wounded, pro. He wrote to his ambassador at Constanti. scribed as a traitor, and with a price of nople that he was determined to make war fifty thousand crowns set upon his head, upon Spain, and troops were actually demany men would have abandoned the spatched to the assistance of the Low struggle. His fleet was at hand to con. Countries. All Coligny's dreams seemed vey him to England. But Coligny was to be approaching realization. He made of sterner stuff. He was never ceived permission to equip another expemore formidable than in the moment of dition to America ; he revived his hopes defeat.

of founding a colonial empire, strengthenIn the following spring (1570) be set his ing the French pavy, humiliating Spain. face northwards. From all the mountain Qui empesche la guerre d'Espagne," he districts of the Vivarais, the Cevennes, said to Tavannes, “n'est pas bon Français and the Forez, the Huguenots flocked to et a une croix rouge dans le ventre.” The his standard. A new spirit animated his unhappy, red-haired youth who bears the followers. They sang as they marched sinister title of Charles IX. had thrown through a hostile country and deserted himself with characteristic impetuosity villages :

into the arms of Coligay. His conduct

was innocent of duplicity. He was quite Le prince de Condé

unable to follow the cold blooded, tempo Il a esté tué, Mais monsieur l'Amiral

rizing policy of his motber. But he was Est encore à cheval

not without good qualities. Musical and Avec la Rochefoucauld

artistic in his tastes, more truthful than Pour chasser tous ces papaux, papaux.

apy of his family, he was capable of true

affection. Only his detestable education His name was more powerful than that of had exaggerated all his faults. Distracted the king.

“De l'amiral de France,” says by the intrigues of his family, morbidly Brantôme, “il était plus parlé que du roi jealous of his brother, he was eager to de France.” With bim were Henry of escape his mother's ascendency. Too Navarre, the little Prince of Condé, and weak, irresolute, and capricious to resist Louis of Nassau. At St. Etienne he fell her influence, he passed with sudden al. ill, and for a week the army balted. Cath- ternations from one extreme of feeling to arine sent Biron to negotiate. He would another, just as his excitable temperament only see Coligny. In vain the other chiefs found relief in blowing horns, forging offered themselves, saying that their cause armor, or hunting like a madman. Over did not depend only on the admiral. “ If such a mind Coligny's hold was necessahe were dead," retorted the ambassador, rily precarious.

we would not offer you a cup of water." In August, 1572, the king's resolution Coligny recovered and pressed on. He was shaken by the defeat of the French defeated the royal army at Arnay-le-Duc, troops on their way to William of Orange and reached La Charité, within forty miles and the massacre of the West Indian exof Paris. Catharine at last yielded. On pedition. Catharine, alarmed at the perAugust 8, 1570, a treaty was signed at St. sonal influence of Coligny, redoubled her Germain-en-Laye.' It established liberty efforts to regain her ascendency. Yet the of religion in all cities which the Protes. admiral refused to listen to the warnings tants then held, restored confiscated prop- of his friends. He trusted that his hold erty, released all prisoners, granted civil upon the king was strong enough to reequality, and, as pledges of good faith, sist the machinations of his enemies. He assigned to the custody of the Huguenots still lingered in Paris, although it was the La Rochelle, Cognac, Montauban, and La general impression that some calamity Charité.

awaited the Huguenots. Strangers meetColigny was now the most powerful man ing in the road discussed the admiral's inin France. His position drew upon him/ fatuation. Duplessis-Mornay warned him

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that the coming marriage of Henry of miral. But every Huguenot in France Navarre concealed some treacherous de- must be killed, too, that none may live to sigo.*

That event was celebrated on reproach me. The order was enough. August 18, and from Monday to Friday The gates of the city were closed; the masks, tournaments, and festivities were boats fastened up; the Catholics were held with lavish magnificence. So serene distinguished by white crosses of paper was Coligny's confidence in the success of or other material; in each house in certain his anti-Spanish policy that at the mar- streets a man was ready, with his arms riage ceremony he pointed to the banners beside him and a light, prepared for some of Jarnac and Moncontour floating in unknown enterprise. "The final signal Notre Dame, and promised to replace was to be given by the tolling of the great them with better. Yet in the midst of bells of the Louvre and St. Germain this seeming prosperity Catharine and l'Auxerrois. Just before daybreak came the Guises had plotted the admiral's a summons at the gate of the admiral's death. On Friday, August 22, Coligny hotel from a messenger sent, as he al. was returning from the Louvre to his hotel leged, by the king to speak with Coligny. in the Rue de Bétizy. Suddenly a shot No sooner bad La Bonne opened the gate was fired from an empty corner house than he was stabbed by an officer of the which belonged to Madame de Nemours, royal guard, who entered with his mus. the widow of the murdered Duc de Guise. keteers, killing all they met. Resistance The admiral's left arm was shattered, and was useless. The murderers burst into a finger of his right hand was broken. the room where Coligny was quietly When the house was forced open, the seated. A German named Behm struck blunderbus swas found smoking on the the first blow, and the murder was soon table, but the would-be assassin had es. completed.* In the dim twilight Guise caped. At the news of the attempt upon and his followers sat on horseback in the Coligny's life the Huguenot leaders as courtyard below. The body was thrown sembled in his room. Some were anxious from the window; a lighted torch was to leave Paris at once. Others used brought, and Guise, dismounting, wiped threatening language and loudly demanded the blood from the face and looked on the justice. But the investigation which was features of the dead man. “ It is he!” promised into the attempted assassination, he cried joyfully, and kicked the body the concern and promises of the king, and with his foot, just as Henry III. afterthe confidence of “ Porte-paix ” Teligny, wards spurned his corpse at Blois. From the son-in-law of Coligny, allayed the dawn to night Paris rang with the ham. fears of the Huguenots. Throughout the mering of bells, the cries of men and twenty-third a number of suspicious cir- women, groans, shrieks, and execrations, cumstances increased their misgivings. the reports of arquebuses, the crash of It was rumored that Montmorency and doors broken down with axes or stones, his troops had been hastily summoned to the shouts of the rabble as they sacked Paris. Men on horseback were met bear. and pillaged the houses or dragged the ing pistols and carbines at their saddle. dead bodies through the streets to the bows, in defiance of the prohibition to river. Sunday and Monday, August 24 bear arms. Porters were seen carrying and 25, were clear, bright days, and the weapons into the Louvre. Yet Teligny king, standing at the windows of the remained so confident in the king's good Louvre, said that the sky itself rejoiced at faith that no watch was kept even at the the slaughter of the Huguenots. At noon admiral's hotel, and that just before day. on Monday a hawthorn bush burst into break on the twenty-fourth Coligny was blossom in the churchyard of St. Innocent. almost alone.

The portent, which the author of the In the gardens of the Louvre a plot “ Réveille-Matin " declares to have been had been hatched which not improbably had been long premeditated by Catharine. • This is the account given by the Réveille-Matin

des Français (see Memoires of Gaspard de Coligny, On the evening of the twenty-third the translated and edited by D. D. Scott, Edinburgh, 1844, queen mother revealed her plan to Charles 8vo.), by De Thou, by Courtilz de Sandras (see La Vie ix., and urged him to sanction its execu: Golding's Lyf. Another account says that the admi

de Gaspard de Coligny, Cologne, 1686, 12mo), and in tion in self-defence against the attacks of ral resisted Gravely with his sword and afterwards with the Huguenots. At last Charles yielded his bed-clothes (see Layard, The Massacre of St. Bar

tholomew, illustrated from the State Papers in the to the persistence of those about him. Archives of Venice, London, 1888, 8vo, p. 23). A third “ If you wish it,” he said, " kill the ad- account says that the admiral was compelled to leap

from the window into the courtyard below, where, “his

limbs all broken, he was immediately despatched” • Mémoires de Duplessis-Mornay, i. 38. (Layard, p. 6).

CHAPTER III.

ure.

a trick of a pious friar, was interpreted to

From Blackwood's Magazine. signify the restoration of the lost prosper

MADELEINE'S STORY. ity of France; and the people, streaming back from this miraculous spectacle, re

UNCLE LLEWELLYN. joicing at the sign of God's approval, went to the admiral's lodgings, where they found I CANNOT remember the time when we his dead body, which they trailed through had not heard of Uncle Llewellyn.

65 Llewthe streets to the water's edge. The head. ellyo and I," was how mother's stories less trunk, after being slashed and man- about her childhood always began, and gled with knives and daggers, was hung from that they wandered on with the up by the heels on the gibbet of Mont brother and sister, out from the gloomy faucon.*

indoors life, overshadowed by one awful At the time of his death Coligny was presence through the trim sweet garden only fifty-six years of age. He was not away to the lonesome hills and threading the venerable patriarch it is the fashion to torrents, to the sound of wind and water represent him, but still active and vigor. in freedom and frolic and love. Uncle ous. His life at first sight seems a fail. Llewellyn was mother's twin brother,

He failed to establish religious her childhood's sole companion; and liberty, to found a colonial empire, to every reminiscence of him was precious. humiliate Spain. While he lived his for. Mother had a way in saying his name eign and domestic policy was rejected. even, of making it sound like the stanza But it was on the lines which he marked of a love-song or a cadence of passionate out that Henry of Navarre, Richelieu, and music, for she took each syllable up into Mazarin, raised France to the summit of her beart before she gave it utterance. her greatness. As a soldier he scarcely There was a strain of pathos, too, that ever won a victory; yet the Venetian am- continually invaded the melody, as if she bassador says he was entitled to greater would have said, “ Poor Llewellyn.” But fame than Hannibal, seeing that he made she never did say that; on the contrary, head against vastly superior forces, and there was always something of the hero retained the fidelity of his mercenaries about him, whether in good fortune or evil even when their pay was in arrear and fortune. their booty lost in their successive de- Mother's old home did not lie very far feats.t If the cause of religious liberty away from ours; we were in Shropshire, had triumphed, the monarchy might have and her childhood was passed just over been limited, and national life would not the border in Wales. But there was all have been hemmed in between absolutism the difference between our side of the on the one side and intolerance on the border and hers. “Over the border" was other, till the torrent of revolution broke like a magic sentence that took us at once the barriers. In Coligny's character the into another world. I had a distinct picman of religion did not overpower the ture of the house where mother was born patriot or the statesman. The greatest formed in my mind out of mother's stoblot on his public career is the surrender ries of it. The coloring was dark, and the of Havre to Elizabeth ; Throgmorton surroundings weird and exciting to a despoke the truth when he said that the gree. I have seen the place since; and admiral was “a bad Englishman but a as I look up at the little sketch I made of good Frenchman." Though the soul of it a year ago, I cannot match the two the Reformed movement, his influence images in any outward detail; and yet I was always on the side of peace. He took was right in my impression, for houses are a wide view of the interests both of the not themselves by reason of shape or Calvinists and of France. In him the color, or any outward thing; they receive nation lost the one man who was trusted individual existence from the people who by both sides. He was a Huguenot, but live in them, and there was a presence in not a narrow sectary. And in the next mother's old home which darkened it and twenty-five years France had bitter cause touched the young lives of brother and to regret the loss of his political insight, sister with the excitement of strong conprudence, moderation, and incorruptible trasts. Inside the house there was gloom, integrity.

the surroundings were magically beauti

ful. . For the ultimate fate of Coligny's remains see Whenever mother spoke of her father Lenoir, Musée des Monuments Français, tome iv., p. the expression of her face altered ; curi20 et seqq.

Boschet, La Diplomatie Vénitienne: les Princes ous hard lines formed round the lips, dark d'Europe au Seizième Siècle, p. 536.

fire came into her eyes. Her voice grew

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