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deep shoulder-to-shoulder line. Further | formed from the non-commissioned officers advantages of the extended column are of the battalion completed by a few of the that it increases the difficulty of estimat- best first-class shots. Each company also ing distance and aiming in comparison to formed a Zug from men who had not been the line and that hits in this formation through, and who were with the exception would be largely from unaimed fire. The of a few first and second class shots, the extended column, however, forms a large worst of the third-class shots. The ranges quadrangle, and thence offers a more fa- fired at were seven hundred, six hundred, vorable target than the extended line to five hundred and fifty, and five hundred artillery." Experiments prove that, prac- metres. More distant ranges had been tically as well as theoretically, the ex- selected, but on account of depressions of tended column suffers less than any other the ground, cultivation, etc., were found formation. These experiments may have impracticable. From lack of time, the some value, as under certain conditions Züge, with the exception of that of the -i.e., a small engagement confined to non-commissioned officers, fired two at a infantry-supports and reserves might time, one half of each Zug firing at the advantageously use such a formation. "extended column," while the other half The pretext that leading, issue of com- tackled the company line. Each man mands, and discipline would be rendered fired twenty-four rounds in all, six at each more difficult is not substantiated. We distance. In perusing the results, it must are sadly put to it to find forms for the be remembered that as hits on the comfuture tactics, chief of which is the ad- pany line would penetrate both front and vance under fire without demoralizing rear rank men, they (the hits) must be losses. The troops to which the author doubled, and that, as the company fired belonged had, in a fight before Paris, he double Züge, their results were divided tells us, to attack a village. The attack by 2 for per-centage. To arrive at a was made in three successive lines in truer average, each man shot two ranges extended order. Not a man remained at the column, two at the line. Slow, inbehind, and the losses were "absurdly dividual fire was used. The light was small." The only loss worth mentioning good, weather warm, a light wind up the was caused by a shell bursting in a com- range. The intervals between the suc pany after it had reached the village. "If you can convince the soldier," the writer argues, "that he runs the least risk of being hit when in extended order, he will go boldly forward, just as boldly as if he was rubbing forearm to forearm. Finally, if it is possible to drive on a firing-line in extended order, why is it, then, necessary to march the supports and reserves following this extended line in close-order formations? The contrary is the case.' With a view of putting these ideas into practice, a series of experiments were lately carried out of which the writer gives particulars. Targets were placed representing a company column in extended order and also a company in line. To economize targets, only a third of the breadth was taken in each case. A Zug of forty rifles was
cessive rows of targets in the extended column were only fifty metres each. That they were not one hundred appears to have been owing to the slight extent of ground available. The non-commissioned officers, it was found, shot very little better than the third-class shots in one case worse than the third and fourth Züge"which shows," says the author, "how true it is that there is but a slight difference between good and bad shots at long ranges." The number of direct hits on the line targets more than double those on the column. The conclusion arrived at was, we are told, that "should ground and circumstances allow, in a small and purely infantry fight, the extended column forma. tion would be advantageous for all sup ports and reserves."
THE CASTE QUESTION IN INDIA. The Jain community, including some of the richest native bankers and merchants of Calcutta, are greatly excited over a question of loss of caste by one of their number who recently visited England. On his return to Calcutta he attended the Jain temple, where he was hooted and an attempt was made to prevent his entry. He applied to the magistrate to
bind several persons over to keep the peace. The magistrate refused, saying that the com plainant should not go to the temple if the people objected to his presence. Thereupon the applicant appealed to the High Court, which declined to interfere with the magis trate's discretion. Some defamation cases arising from the same matter are now pend ing.
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LIKE butterflies that fret
Entangled in a net
Have you been to the river, I wonder?.
And water weeds rock with the tide.
Then at the last thro' some chance rift escape, Did you see the big daisies bobbing?
Of half their radiance shorn,
Bright mockeries of their former hues and shape;
So in the poet's mind
The rich ideas confined
Struggle to break in music from his tongue;
Were the speedwells like bits of sky? Did you hear the sad grasses sobbing Whenever the wind went by?
Dear sunbeam, I'll be so lonely
A faint gold splash on the grey.
The thought once uttered from the thought | Wait a minute, sunbeam, you rover,
And let me bid you good-night.
THIS was a singer, a poet bold,
He laughed at our mirth and he wept at our madness;
He knew all the joy of the world, all the strife, He knew, and he knew not, the meaning of
W. H. POLLOCK.
From The Church Quarterly Review.
the chapel where his remains at length found a rest * :
Ce héros malheureux sans armes et sans défense,
Voyant qu'il faut périr, et périr sans ven-
Voulut mourir du moins comme il avait vécu,
DURING the early stages of the Reformation in France the French Protestants had no fixed body of doctrine, no name, no ecclesiastical organization. Their scattered congregations were without union or cohesion. In the world of thought Calvin's logical genius gave them The public life of Coligny conveniently a community of religious ideas, a name, falls into three periods: (1) his youth and a constitution. Twenty-five years (1517-1542), coinciding with the rise of after the publication of the "Institution French Protestantism under Francis I., Chrétienne (1535) Coligny organized by whose policy the new movement was them as a political power and disciplined alternately encouraged, ignored, and perthem as a military force. In the active secuted; (2) his military career against life of French Protestantism he was from the foreign enemies of France (1542-1559), 1560 to 1572 the soul of the Reformed coinciding with the expansion of Calvinmovement. He lived in an atmosphere ism and the "Age of the Martyrs " under of passion and prejudice. Yet, though Henry II.; (3) his career as the political scarcely a lovable man, he passed through and military leader of the Huguenots life not only respected but trusted both by (1559-1572), coinciding with the period of friends and foes. St.-Simon, Bossuet, armed resistance, the first three religious Voltaire, unite in praise of his character. wars, and the massacre of St. BartholoSt.-Simon † says that Henry IV. was mew. To the history of the Protestant Reformation in France and in Europe generally the Vicomte de Meaux has devoted his considerable literary talents. He writes avowedly from the Roman Catholic standpoint. But his tone is uniformly moderate, and his criticisms are at once acute and impartial. No coreligionist of Coligný could desire more generous treatment for the career of his hero than it receives from the Vicomte de Meaux.
the pupil of the wisest and most honest man of his age, Gaspard de Coligny, the greatest captain of his generation, superior to all his contemporaries in turning defeat to his own advantage and in reviving the spirit of his followers after the heaviest reverses; the man who was best able to hold his party together and to secure it against every element of division; the most disinterested and prudent of chiefs, the beloved and respected leader of the party of which he was ever the soul and the strength; the one man who knew how to command the aid of foreigners and the esteem of opponents, the man who was most highly
valued and admired for his virtues. Happy prince to have been trained under the most prudent of captains, the wisest and worthiest
man of his time.
Bossuet says that "every attempt to decry the admiral only made his memory more illustrious." Voltaire § celebrates bis death in lines which are inscribed in
• 1. Les Luttes Religieuses en France au Seisième
Siècle. Par le Vicomte de Meaux. Paris, 1879.
2. La Réforme et la Politique Française en Europe jusqu'à la Paix de Westphalie. Par le même. Paris, 1889.
3. L'Amiral de Coligny et les Guerres de Religion
au Seizième Siècle. Par C. Buet. Paris, 1884. ↑ Parallèle des trois premiers Rois Bourbons. Abrégé d'Histoire de France, liv. xvii.
The family of Coligny derives its name from the ancient town of Coligny, which stands on a slope of a well-wooded hill at the foot of the Jura Mountains, on the boundary of Bresse and Franche-Comté. Its members were originally subjects of the dukes of Savoy and not of the kings of France. It was not till 1437, that WilCatharine Lourdin de Saligny, widow of liam II., Seigneur de Coligny, married and sole heiress of Jeanne Braque, Dame Jean II. Lourdin de Saligny, and daughter de Châtillon-sur-Loing. Their eldest son, Jean III., Seigneur de Coligny, Andelot, and Châtillon, was the first of the family who fixed his residence in France. He fought for Louis XI. against Charles the Boid, and left two sons, Jacques II. and
Lenoir, Musée des Monuments Français, tome iv.,
slow of speech, and that his governor, Prunelay, usually had his toothpick in his mouth. Coligny imitated both. "Beware of the constable's paternosters," said the Protestants. "Beware of the admiral's toothpick," retorted the Catholics.
In 1539, Louise de Montmorency became governess to Jeanne d'Albret, the daughter of Marguerite of Angoulême. Her eldest son, Odet de Châtillon, bad already embraced the ecclesiastic profession, and Gaspard had become the head of the family. His mother's position brought him to Paris. There he formed a romantic attachment with François de Guise. The two young men played together in masquerades, wore each other's colors, jousted in tournaments on the same side. "Both of them," says Brantôme, "were young madcaps, excelling all others in their extravagant follies." But he adds that Coligny was the more learned of the two, understanding and speaking Latin well, and always reading when not engaged in affairs.
Gaspard I. Jacques II. was killed by the side of Bayard at the siege of Ravenna in 1512, and Gaspard 1. inherited Châtillon. He married Louise de Montmorency, the sister of the constable. He fought at Fornovo (1495), Agnadello (1509), and Marignan (1515), and was made marshal of France in 1516. He died in 1522 at Dax, on his way to relieve Fontarabia. He was, says Brantôme, a man "du conseil duquel le roi s'est fort servi tant qu'il a vescu, comme il avait raison, car il avait bone teste et bon bras." He left behind him three sons - Odet de Châtillon, Cardinal Archbishop of Toulouse and Bishop of Beauvais; Gaspard 11., born in 1517, Comte de Coligny, known in his youth as Monsieur de Fromente, a castle now in ruins some four leagues from Bourg-enBresse; and François d'Andelot. The three boys were brought up by their mother, Louise de Montmorency.* Louise was twice married. By her first husband, the Comte de Mailly, she had a daughter, Madeleine, afterwards Madame de Roye and mother-in-law of Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Condé. Louise de Montmorency was a firm, proud, austere, morally Courageous woman. She was "the very exquisite and venerable lady in whom all virtues met in emulation of each other," † to whom Marguerite de Valois owed her education. She taught her sons to be gentlemen after her own ideal, true in word and deed, just, but also stern, to de- | François, the second Duc de Guise, was pendents, ready to accept the responsibilities of their position. She died in 1547, refusing the aid of a priest. Her daughter Madeleine was avowedly a Protestant, and the tutor she provided for her son Gaspard was Nicolas Bérault, the friend of Louis de Berquin, the courteous host of Erasmus, the teacher of Dolet.§ It is said that Coligny's tutor was singularly * Eugène Bersier, Etudes sur le Seizième Siècle: Coligny avant les Guerres de Religion, 2me édition. Paris, 1884. 8vo. This work has been translated into English-Coligny: the earlier Life of the Great Huguenot Leader. Translated by A. H. Holmden. London, 1884. 8vo.
† Génin, "Notice sur Marguerite d'Angoulême," Lettres inédites de Marguerite d' Angoulême, tome i. La Vie de Messire de Coligny. Par J. Hotman, Seigneur de Villiers. 1643. 4to.
§ Nicolaus Beroaldus, quo præceptore, annos natus sedecim, rhetorica Lutetiæ didici (Comm. Linguæ Latinæ. Lugduni, 1536-8, tom. 1., col. 1157).
The family of Guise * was now at the height of its power. Claude, the first Duc de Guise, married Antoinette de Bourbon, by whom he had twelve children. The eldest, Marie, married first the Duc de Longueville, and secondly James V. of Scotland. Her daughter Mary became wife of Francis 11., king of France. Claude died in 1550. Of his six sons
the eldest. The rivalry of Coligny, the defender of Metz (1552), the victor of Renty (1554), the captor of Calais (1558) was born in 1519. He was thus two years younger than Coligny. The Guises possessed all the qualities of which popular favorites are made. Rich, gallant, generous, eloquent, affable, they were so dignified in bearing that it was said "les autres princes paraissaient peuple auprès d'eux." "La main Lorraine " passed into a proverb for liberality. A blind beggar at Rome, who received alms from the Cardinal of Lorraine, exclaimed, "You are either Jesus Christ or the Cardinal of Lorraine." All the dazzling qualities of his family met in the great Duc de Guise.
See H. Forneron's Les Ducs de Gulse et leur Epoque. Paris, 1877. 8vo.