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deep shoulder-to-shoulder line. Further formed from the non-commissioned officers advantages of the extended column are of the battalion completed by a few of the that it increases the difficulty of estimat. best first-class shots. Each company also ing distance and aiming in comparison to formed a Zug from men who had not been the line and that hits in this formation through, and who were with the exception would be largely from unaimed fire. The of a few first and second class shots, the extended column, however, forms a large worst of the third-class shots. The ranges quadrangle, and thence offers a more fa fired at were seven hundred, six hundred, vorable target than the extended line to five hundred and fifty, and five hundred artillery.” Experiments prove that, prac. metres. More distant ranges had been tically as well as theoretically, the ex- selected, but on account of depressions of tended column suffers less than any other the ground, cultivation, etc., were found formation. These experiments may have impracticable. From lack of time, the some value, as under certain conditions Züge, with the exception of that of the

- i.e., a small engagement confined to non-commissioned officers, fired two at a infantry — supports and reserves might time, one half of each Zug firing at the advantageously use such a formation. "extended column," while the other half The pretext that leading, issue of com tackled the company line. Each man mands, and discipline would be rendered fired twenty-four rounds in all, six at each more difficult is not substantiated. We distance. In perusing the res it must are sadly put to it to find forms for the be remembered that as hits on the comfuture tactics, chief of which is the ad- pany line would penetrate both front and vance under fire without demoralizing rear rank men, they (the bits) must be losses. The troops to which the author doubled, and that, as the company fired belonged had, in a fight before Paris, be double Züge, their results were divided tells us, to attack a village. The attack by 2: for per-centage. To arrive at a was made in three successive lines in truer average, each man shot two ranges extended order. Not a man remained at the column, two at the line. Slow, inbebind, and the losses were “absurdly dividual fire was used. The light was small.” The only loss worth mentioning good, weather warm, a light wind up the was caused by a shell bursting in a com- range.

The intervals between the sucpany after it had reached the village. “If cessive rows of targets in the extended you can convince the soldier," the writer column were only fifty metres each. That argues, " that he runs the least risk of be- they were not one hundred appears to ing hit when in extended order, he will go have been owing to the slight extent of boldly forward, just as boldly as if he was ground available. The non-commissioned rubbing forearm to forearm. Finally, if it officers, it was found, shot very little better is possible to drive on a firing-line in ex. than the third-class shots - in one case tended order, why is it, then, necessary to worse than the third and fourth Züge march the supports and reserves following which shows," says the author, “how this extended line in close-order forma true it is that there is but a slight differtions? The contrary is the case." With ence between good and bad shots at long a view of putting these ideas into practice, ranges.” The number of direct bits on a series of experiments were lately carried the line targets more than double those on out of which the writer gives particulars. the column. The conclusion arrived at Targets were placed representing a com- was, we are told, that "should ground and pany column in extended order and also a circumstances allow, in a small and purely company in line. To economize targets, infantry fight, the extended column forma. only a third of the breadth was taken in tion would be advantageous for all sup. each case. A Zug of forty rifles was ports and reserves."

THE CASTE QUESTION IN INDIA. The bind several persons over to keep the peace. Jain community, including some of the richest The magistrate refused, saying that the comnative bankers and merchants of Calcutta, are plainant should not go to the temple if the greatly excited over a question of loss of people objected to his presence. Thereupon caste by one of their number who recently the applicant appealed to the High Court, visited England. On his return to Calcutta which declined to interfere with the magishe attended the Jain temple, where he was trate's discretion. Some defamation cases hooted and an attempt was made to prevent arising from the same matter are now pend his entry. He applied to the magistrate to ling.

Fifth serios, Volume LXXIII.

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No. 2436.- March 7, 1891.

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From Beginning, Vol. CLXXXVIII.

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CONTENTS. I. GASPARD DE COLIGNY,

Church Quarterly Review, II. MADELEINE's Story. Part II.,

Blackwood's Magazine, III. ARISTOTLE AS A NATURALIST,

Contemporary Review, IV. THE FATHER OF ALL THE GOATS,

Nineteenth Century, V. A POMPEII IN BOHEMIA,

Cornhill Magazine, VI. AN EVENING WITH SCHLIEMANN,

Blackwood's Magazine, VII. THE DECLINE OF INDIAN TASTE,

Nineteenth Century, VIII. NONCONFORMISTS AND UNIONISM,

Fortnightly Review, IX. MY WITCHES' CALDRON,

Macmillan's Magazine, X. ROYAL SURNAMES,

Speaker, XI. MEISSONIER, ·

Saturday Review,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EiGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGe will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTBLL & Co.

Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGB, 18 cents.

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IDEALS.

Have you been to the river, I wonder?

The river, shining and wide, LIKE butterflies that fret

Where coots dart flashingly under,
Entangled in a net

And water weeds rock with the tide.
Then at the last thro' some chance rift escape, Did you see the big daisies bobbing
Of half their radiance shorn,

Were the speedwells like bits of sky?
With ruffled plumes and torn,

Did

you hear the sad grasses sobbing Bright mockeries of their former hues and

Whenever the wind went by? shape;

Dear sunbeam, I'll be so lonely So in the poet's mind

When you have gone quite away. The rich ideas confined

And even now you are only
Struggle to break in music from his tongue; A faint gold splash on the grey.

He speaks — he speaks - but, ah, Ah! at last the sermon is over;
How changed, how different far

I know the text- “God is Light The thought once uttered from the thought | Wait a minute, sunbeam, you rover, unsung.

And let me bid you good-night.

FRANCES WYNNE. So too the painter sees

Bewildering images,
And brush is seized, and canvas quick un-

furled;
The bright creation glows,

TWO SONGS. But, lol his easel shows

THE sun is gone from the valleys, Mere shadowy glimpses of that vision-world. The air breathes fresh and chill;

On the barn roof yellow with lichen
Know then whate'er we cull

A robin is singing shrill.
From art's fields beautiful,
Whatever fruits philosophies may yield,

Like a tawny leaf is his bosom,
Their prototypes more fair

Like a dead leaf is his wing; Are blossoming elsewhere,

He is glad of the coming winter Sweet songs unsung and visions unrevealed.

As the thrush is glad of the spring. Until the veil is rent,

The sound of a shepherd's piping Our flesh-imprisonment,

Comes down from a distant fold,
And we are borne beyond this dust's control, Like the ripple of running water,
Then shall our orbless eyes

As tuneless, and sweet, and cold.
Behold realities,
And soul commune immediately with soul. The two songs mingle together;
Temple Bar.

L. J. G.

Like and unlike are they,
For one sounds tired and plaintive,

And one rings proud and gay.

They take no thought of their music, MEMBERS OF THE CONGREGATION.

The bird and the shepherd-lad;

But the bird-voice thrills with rapture, O BEAUTIFUL sunbeam, straying

And the human note is sad. In through the wide church door,

GRAHAM R. TOMSON. I wish I was with you, playing

Longman's Magazine.
Down there on the cool stone floor.
For I am so tired of sitting

Upright and stiff and still,
And you, you go dancing, Aitting

HEINRICH HEINE.
Gaily, wherever you will;
And you've nothing to do but glisten, This was a singer, a poet bold,
And no one is ever vexed

Compact of fire and rainbow gold:
Because you forget to listen,

Compact of rainbow gold and of fire, Or can't remember the text.

Of sorrow and sin and of heart's desire

Of good and of evil and things unknown, Dear sunbeam, I'm pondering, pondering, A merciless poet who cut to the bone.

Were they all fast asleep the flowers ? He sounded the depths of our grief and our When

you came on your bright wings wander- gladness,
ing,

He laughed at our mirth and he wept at our To earth in the morning hours.

madness; And where have you since been roaming He knew all the joy of the world, all the strife, The long, long hot day through?

He knew, and he knew not, the meaning of Will you welcome the purple gloaming

life. That means "going home” to you?

W. H. POLLOCK.

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From The Church Quarterly Review. the chapel where his remains at length GASPARD DE COLIGNY..

found a rest DURING the early stages of the Refor. Ce héros malheureux sans armes et sans démation in France the French Protestants

fense, had no fixed body of doctrine, no name, Voyant qu'il faut périr, et périr sans venecclesiastical organization. Their

geance, scattered congregations were without Voulut mourir du moins comme il avait vécu, union or cohesion. In the world of Avec toute sa gloire et toute sa vertu. thought Calvin's logical genius gave them The public life of Coligny conveniently a community of religious ideas, a name, falls into three periods: (1) his youth and a constitution. Twenty-five years |(1517-1542), coinciding with the rise of after the publication of the “ Institution French Protestantism under Francis I., Chrétienne (1535) Coligny organized by whose policy the new movement was them as a political power and disciplined alternately encouraged, ignored, and perthem as a military force. In the active secuted ; (2) bis military career against life of French Protestantism he was from the foreign enemies of France (1542–1559), 1560 10 1572 the soul of the Reformed coinciding with the expansion of Calvinmovement. He lived in an atmosphere ism and the “ Age of the Martyrs ” under of passion and prejudice. Yet, though Henry II.; (3) his career as the political scarcely a lovable man, he passed through and military leader of the Huguenots life not only respected but trusted both by (1559–1572), coinciding with the period of friends and foes. St.-Simon, Bossuet, armed resistance, the first three religious Voltaire, unite in praise of his character. wars, and the massacre of St. BartholoSt.-Simon † says that Henry IV. was

To the history of the Protestant

Reformation in France and in Europe the pupil of the wisest and most honest man of his age, Gaspard de Coligny, the greatest generally the Vicomte de Meaux has de captain of his generation, superior to all his voted his considerable literary talents. contemporaries in turning defeat to his own He writes avowedly from the Roman Cathadvantage and in reviving the spirit of his olic standpoint. But his tone is uniformly followers after the heaviest reverses; the man moderate, and his criticisms are at once who was best able to hold his party together acute and impartial. No coreligionist of and to secure it against every element of divi- Coligny could desire more generous treatsion; the most disinterested and prudent of ment for the career of his hero than it chiefs, the beloved and respected leader of receives from the Vicomte de Meaux. the party of which he was ever the soul and the strength; the one man who knew how to from the ancient town of Coligny, which

The family of Coligny derives its name command the aid of foreigners and the esteem stands on a slope of a well-wooded hill at of opponents, the man who was most highly

the foot valued and admired for his virtues. Happy

the Jura Mountains, on the prince to have been trained under the most boundary of Bresse and Franche-Comté. prudent of captains, the wisest and worthiest Its members were originally subjects of man of his tiine.

the dukes of Savoy and not of the kings

of France. It was not till 1437, that WilBossuet $ says that every attempt to decry the admiral only made his memory Catharine Lourdin de Saligny, widow of

liam II., Seigneur de Coligny, married more illustrious.” Voltaire & celebrates his death in lines which are inscribed in and sole heiress of Jeanne Braque, Dame

Jean 11. Lourdin de Saligny, and daughter

de Châtillon-sur-Loing. Their eldest son, Les Luttes Religieuses en France au Seizième Siècle. Par le Vicomte de Meaux. Paris, 1879.

Jean 111., Seigneur de Coligny, Andelot, 2. La Réforme et la Politique Française en Eu- and Châtillon, was the first of the family rope jusqu'à la Paix de Westphalie. Par le même. who fixed his residence in France. He Paris, 1889.

66

1.

3. L'Amiral de Coligny et les Guerres de Religion sought for Louis XI. against Charles the zu Seizième Siècle. Par C. Buet. Paris, 1884. Boid, and left two sons, Jacques Il. and † Parallèle des trois premiers Rois Bourbons. Abrégé d'Histoire de France, liv. xvii.

* Lenoir, Musée des Monuments Français, tome iv., § Henriade.

p. 20.

66

Gaspard I. Jacques II. was killed by the | slow of speech, and that his governor, side of Bayard at the siege of Ravenna in Prunelay, usually had his toothpick in his 1512, and Gaspard l. inherited Châtillon. mouth. Coligny imitated both. “Beware He married Louise de Montmorency, the of the constable's paternosters," said the sister of the constable. He fought at Protestants. " Beware of the admiral's Fornovo (1495), Agnadello (1509), and toothpick," retorted the Catholics. Marignan (1515), and was made marshal In 1539, Louise de Montmorency beof France in 1516. He died in 1522 at came governess to Jeanne d'Albret, the Dax, on his way to relieve Fontarabia. daughter of Marguerite of Angoulême. He was, says Brantôme, a man “ du con- Her eldest son, Odet de Châtillon, bad seil duquel le roi s'est fort servi tant qu'il already embraced the ecclesiastic profes. a vescu, comme il avait raison, car il avait sion, and Gaspard had become the head bone teste et bon bras.” He left behind of the family. His mother's position him three sons Odet de Châtillon, Car- brought him to Paris. There he formed dinal Archbishop of Toulouse and Bishop a romantic attachment with François de of Beauvais ; Gaspard 11., born in 1517, Guise. The two young men played toComte de Coligny, known in his youth as gether in masquerades, wore each other's Monsieur de Fromente, a castle now in colors, jousted in tournaments on the ruins some four leagues from Bourg-en- same side. Both of them,” says Bran. Bresse; and François d'Andelot. The tôme, "were young madcaps, excelling all three boys were brought up by their others in their extravagant follies.” But mother, Louise de Montmorency.* Louise he adds that Coligny was the more learned was twice married. By hier first husband, of the two, understanding and speaking the Comte de Mailly, she had a daughter, Latin well, and always reading when not Madeleine, afterwards Madame de Roye engaged in affairs. and mother-in-law of Louis de Bourbon, The family of Guise * was now at the Prince de Condé. Louise de Montmo- height of its power. Claude, the first Duc rency was a proud, austere, morally de Guise, married Antoinette de Bourbon, courageous woman.

She was

the very by whom he had iwelve children. The exquisite and venerable lady in whom all eldest, Marie, married first the Duc de virtues met in emulation of each other," + Longueville, and secondly James V. of to whom Marguerite de Valois owed her Scotland. Her daughter Mary became education. She taught her sons to be wife of Francis 11., king of France. gentlemen after her own ideal, true in Claude died in 1550. Of his six sons word and deed, just, but also stern, to de-François, the second Duc de Guise, was pendents, ready to accept the responsibil. the eldest. The rivalry of Coligny, the ities of their position. She died in 1547, defender of Metz (1552), the victor of refusing the aid of a priest. Her daugh- Renty (1554), the captor of Calais (1558) ter Madeleine was avowedly a Protestant, was born in 1519. He was thus two years and the tutor she provided for her son younger than Coligny. The Guises posGaspard was Nicolas Bérault, the friend sessed all the qualities of which popular of Louis de Berquin, the courteous host favorites are made. Rich, gallant, generof Erasmus, the teacher of Dolet. It is ous, eloquent, affable, they were so dignisaid that Coligay's tutor was singularly fied in bearing that it was said " les autres

• Eugène Bersier, Etudes sur le Seizième Siècle: prioces paraissaient peuple auprès d'eux." Coligoy avant les Guerres de Religion, eme édition. i La main Lorraine " passed into a prov. Paris, 1884. 8vo. This work has been translated into erb for liberality. A blind beggar at English — Coligny: the earlier Life of the Great Hu. guenot Leader. Translated by A. H. Holmden. Lon. Rome, who received alms from the Cardi. don, 1884. 8vo.

nal of Lorraine, exclaimed,

in You are + Génin, “ Notice sur Marguerite d'Angoulême," either Jesus Christ or the Cardinal of Lettres inédites de Marguerite d'Angoulême, tome i.

La Vie de Messire de Coligny. Par J. Hotman, Lorraine." All the dazzling qualities of Seigneur de Villiers. 1643. 4to.

his family met in the great Duc de Guise. § Nicolaus Beroaldus, quo præceptore, annos natus sedecim, rhetorica Lutetiæ didici (Comm. Lingua • See H. Forneron's Les Ducs de Gulse et leur Latinæ. Lugduni, 1536-8, tom. 1., col. 1157).

Epoque. Paris, 1877. 8vo.

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