in Mr. Ionides's house was lovely, and I failed to conquer. In 1814 and 1815 they should have enjoyed the few days we had once more sat down before it, and, after a to wait for the steamer immensely, if I protracted siege, carried it. All this is had not been on the same island with forgotten, or only faintly recalled. The Kelly; as it was I never really felt secure occupation by the Duke of Marlborough until I was safely on the steamer, and had still faithfully remembered.

You are several miles of water between me and my shown the remoants of the fortified lines, second husband. Mr. Ionides paid my the English at Apach, the French at passage to Constantinople, and gave me a Künsberg; you are pointed out the room little ready money in case of need, bidding in which Marlborough and his generals me lay my case before the American col. feasted on the day after their arrival, to ony at Constantinople immediately on my feast no more thereafter, while at Mens. arrival. This I did not fail to do, and my berg; and you can pick up little bits of countrymen and countrywomen were very information about more or less noteworthy kind, especially the good ladies of the incidents, in which the local people still mission home at Scutari ; a subscription take an interest. was set on foot for me, and meanwhile I Mensberg will repay the pains of a was comfortably lodged, so that I spent trip to its Hungry Hill on other grounds. quite a happy month in Constantinople; That expedition takes you through one of and once or twice I wandered down to the the most charming and characteristic bits quay and saw my former miserable abode, of pretty Moselle scenery, pretty everychatted once more with old Smiles, and where, and curiously marked with somefed the dogs.

thing like the same character throughout, Finally I and my children found our from its source high up in the Vosges selves on board the Moss S.S. Macedo. Mountains, a little above Bussang, down nia, in charge of a family of American to its confluence with the Rhine. Follow tourists, who were on their return journey it under the shadow of the Ballon de Serto the States. Now I am once more in the vance, come upon it at Remiremont or old home at Michigan a poorer, though I Epinal, at Toul, below Nancy, beneath hope a wiser woman; and the adventures the picturesque spot of Custines, where of Mrs. Kelly, or Mrs. Kallicrates, as i Mary, Queen of Scots, was brought up suppose I ought to call myself, are at an under the guardianship of the Guises, or end.

farther down, below Trier, there is some J. THEODORE Bent. common feature everywhere ; everywhere

the picture seems touched with the same beautifying brush. The valley is no-. where grand, but what with its soft, rounded hills, the fresh verdure of its

banks, its laughing vineyards and deep CHATEAU MALBROUK.

green meadows, copses, and bits of forest SOMETHING less than midway between rich with varied foliage, and picturesque the two old cathedral cities of Metz and cottages or churches scattered between, Trier, in a side dale of the Moselle, no- for additional beauty and variety, it is where prettier than just at this point, con. fascinatingly attractive, and one can quite spicuously upon the summit of a rather understand how it inspired Ausonius to bare hill stands the picturesque, balf- write in musical strains what is acknowlruined castle of Mensberg, which, in the edged to be his best poem on the mouth of the local population, still goes by " Magnus parens frugumque virumque the time-honored name of Château Mal- Mosella." Sierck is situated on one of the brouk. Unnoticed by Murray,” unno- most pleasing points of this admired river. ticed by our English history books, that the stream, peculiarly serpentine throughold castle may well claim some passing in out its course, describes here one of its terest from English folk, for with its crum- characteristic bends, forming a wide cresbling walls is connected a disappointing cent, on the outer arc of which, leaning but not uninteresting episode in the history against the sides of the surrounding hills, of our foreign wars. For nearly two cen- the picturesque buildings of this little turies the castle has retained the name by town, neat, clean, tidy, and, to all appear. which it was christened in 1705, when ance, prospering, though strikingly peace. Marlborough spent twelve days of trying ful, show off to advantage. apxiety within its gates. Twice since then Culmina villarum pendentibus edita ripis has Mars again visited the scene. In 1792, Et virides baccho colles, et amoena fuenta the allied armies besieged the castle, but Subterlabentis tacito rumore Mosellae.

From The National Review,



So Ausonius describes this Moselle scen- | the company, with whom the knight was ery. A little above is the old castle, un- carousing, by his unexpected appearance, mistakably of Roman origin, in which and unmercifully carried off his victim Gérard of Metz, the first Duke of Lor- through the opening wall. Where the wall raine, was murdered ages ago, and whose opened at Satan's command, tradition will walls he is supposed still to haunt at have it that never has human hand been midnight, calling for vengeance upon his able to fix mortar or cement. Superstimurderers. Its long-continued occupa. tious people also say that Arnold still tion as a religious seminary has proved visits his old haunts every now and then, unavailing to lay the unquiet ghost. The and can be plainly heard moaning and building is now used as a hospital. High whining in stormy nights. This continued above the townlet, on the brow of the hill

, uncanniness is a little surprising, considlies the pretty village of Rüstroff. All ering that under one of its subsequent these are historically interesting sites. masters the castle became rather a holy For here, in this peaceful valley, bordered place. The first historical record extant on one side by the rocks of Montenach, referring to it is of the year 1093. At that and on the other by the Stromberg, the time the castle belonged to the Knights of French, having no business to be there, Sierck. One of these, Jacob or James, was pitched a camp against Germany and her in 1439 consecrated Archbishop of Trier British allies, which Vauban fortified, and within those very walls. In his testament which, after that, became a fixed military he relates that the ceremony took place point. Pronouncedly French is Sierck at in the chapel situated in the the present day, French in speech and Tower.” That is probably what the MarFrench in sentiment. There is a delight. quis de Villars, in his account of a visit ful walk leading from it to Mensberg, paid in 1820, calls the “ Lanterne.” If so, which, according to the road selected, lies the chapel may still be seen. There was four or five miles distant. For the first another chapel, described as fort élégante, mile you follow the course of the Moselle on the ground floor ; but that has been along the green Côte de Kirsch, on which pulled down by an irreverent recent prothe cherries, to which it probably owes its prietor, who required the room for a prodame, are indeed plentiful, pursuing your saic hangar or shed. The male line of the way through the village of Kirsch and Siercks died out in due course, and then striking off afterwards to the right, near the Counts of Sayn and the Counts of a picturesque quarry of what looks like Sultz succeeded by marriage. At the time porphyry, but is really bright red grau- when the castle harbored our illustrious wacke. And then you dive into the side countryman, the proprietor was in all valley which leads straight up to the castle. probability M. de Bettainville, though it Here all is fresh and green, leafy and may also have been M. de Mazirot. smiling, till, beyond Mandern, the stone. In 1807 the last noble owner found covered cone of the Mensberg hill rises himself under the necessity of selling his up steeply before you.

baronial estate. He disposed of it to his The castle itself is picturesque and tenant of the time, M. Breidt. At the manifestly of considerable antiquity. For present moment the castle is in the hands. several centuries it belonged to the likewise of a peasant proprietor, a German Knights of Sierck. It is said to have from Prussian Rhineland, who, I rather been built by the Templars, and if legend suspect, on account of his nationality, does speaks true, the devil, who clearly signal- not get on over well with his neighbors at ized his presence, figuratively speaking, Sierck. Immediately around Mensberg while Marlborough was there, had a hand the country is German. The French in it from the very beginning. Knight speaking people of Sierck, however, do Arnold, whom the Templars sent with not seem to eye him with favor. They sufficient means to superintend the build- asked me rather invidious questions about ing, spent the money on his own pleasures. him which could scarcely be kindly meant. Then, as a matter of course, be invoked in any case, he wants to sell ; and when the aid of the devil, who appeared, we I was there, though I could not under. read, in the shape of un petit homme noir, stand much of his broad Rhenish " platt," and proved quite willing to afford the de- yet he conveyed to me clearly enough his sired help for the usual consideration. impression that “people in England had Sixty years of life and health and a gold very much money," and that one of the piece always in his pocket was what Ar. persons so encumbered might do worse gold bargained for. He got it, but at the than buy his castle, interesting and picend of the sixty years Šatan astonished | turesque and pleasantly situated as it is.

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He also said something about its yielding | largest, and the most prominent feature in a good return, but he did not enter into the whole structure, is round, and is called particulars, and he would not name a the Lanterne. The square enclosed withprice.

in the walls, a large space measuring M. Abel will have it that the name about one hundred and fifty by one hun. Meosberg is a corruption from “Monds- dred and eighty feet, is still entire. And berg," and that this bare-topped hill was indeed, though exposure and neglect have in pagan times a place consecrated to the evidently done their work, it will take a worship of the moon. There is Montenach long time before those huge walls of near, and Mandern or Mondern, moreover eleven feet thickness, and built of good Mondorf, all with “ Mond” or “ Mont" in hard stone, finally crumble to pieces. On them, to support this theory in his opin. the top, all is in ruins; and, for the matter ion. And then there is the Stromberg, of that, the whole courtyard, picturesquely with its Druidical remains and traditions, dilapidated, seems in keeping with the which show it to have been a poted place walls. And all this is so charmingly for the worship, though not of the moon, archaic, that you might fancy yourself of its near relative in mythology, the more right in the Middle Ages. On your left, powerful sun.

as you enter, stands a mill of the most Of this sun-worship, one curious rite primitive pattern, rather like what we has been handed down to our century, see depicted in illustrated Bibles, one big Whether the practice is actually continued stone working on another, and turned by at the present day I know not, but until a horse-gear of truly patriarchal type. recently, at any rate, every midsummer Ramshackle sheds knocked up everynight saw the historic cérémonie de la where, mediæval implemeots all but falling roue enflammée duly observed on its sum- to pieces, harness botched together of mit. On St. John's eve, the organizers of odds and ends, bits of architecture over the ceremony made the round of the vil- which Mr. G. T. Clark would grow elolages and farms in the neighborhood, col- quent, in juxtaposition with agricultural lecting the usual tribute of straw, which gear which Arthur Young would have dewas kept in readiness everywhere against scribed as antiquated even in his time; their visit. Out of this straw they manu. there is none of that modern spick-andfactured a colossal sheaf, which was fixed spaddess which speaks of prosperity and upon a big pole as upon a pivot, so that it high farming, but which is so tiresomely might be turned round and round. After prosaic. Of course I must clamber about the sounding of the Angelus, some hun- amid this débris, in approved archæologdreds of men marched up to the top of the ical fashion. The dwelling-house, adjoinmountain in solemn procession, carrying ing the picturesque, crenulated Lantero lighted torches. No women were allowed Tower, is about the only part of the fabric to take part. When it was quite dark, which is in good repair. Nothing could the sheaf was set on fire and turned rap- hurt these rock-like walls and the solid idly round, so as to present the appearance timbers, which seem seasoned as if to of a huge fiery wheel - the accepted and last to eternity. Over the entrance, plain well-understood symbol of the sun. Sim- and conspicuous, is the coat of arms of ilar customs, not unlike the old Celtic the ancient family of the Siercks, in a beltan or belstien, survive likewise in field that should be or, a bend, gules, with Alsace and the Black Forest.

three escallops, argent. That coat of arms The Stromberg is also geologically in. was well known in the times of chivalry, teresting. It shows very plainly three for it is said in praise of the Knights of different rocky strata, as different in color Sierck that they were "toujours à la tête as they are in geological character, and de la chevalerie Lorraine.'

Above are hence contributing to the variety of the four well-preserved stone supports of a scenery.

balcony which is gone. Inside is the Château Malbrouk, occupying the high- room in which Marlborough féasted with est apex of the Mensberg Hill, where it bis staff on the 5th of June, 1705, the day commands a fine and extensive view al- after his arrival. Inside that is a large most all round, lies “four-square," with a chamber, in which the proprietor will tower at each corner. Three of these show you such archæological finds as he towers, named severally, the Marquis de has gathered on his property. There are Villars tells us, Keretour, Kaltfeldertour, plenty of real old arrow-heads, dating from and Kesstour, are square, with the outer a time centuries before Marlborough. He corner projecting sharply in an acute tried to press some of these upon me, angle. The fourth, being the tallest and He could well spare them, he said.



men found them almost daily in his fields. place. If that is correct, since 'Retel was Then he had a piece of an old war-trum. altogether within the French lines, it pet, and other bronze and iron ware. One shows what a firm belief the local people of the towers is now appropriated to the had in Marlborough's invincibility. But use of a granary, the wooden steps are I am inclined to believe that the sauve. broken, but otherwise the timbers are in garde was granted to Marienfloss, because splendid condition. Once you get upon M. Sauer distinctly mentioned that it had the broad walls, you have plenty of terra been given to a Carthusian monastery; firma under you. But to climb up over and Marienfloss, having been originally the loose rubbish is a work of not a little Franciscan, was Carthusian after 1414. danger, especially since all the ladders The promised inscription turned out a seem rickety. Of course I must ascend disappointment. It consisted simply of the Lantern Tower. The man had ex. the motto “ Deo Servire,” carved in the cited my curiosity by telling me of a mys- stone in old English characters, with a terious inscription. What it was exactly sculptured hand pointing to it. You be could not say, but he remembered could still see traces of the altar. Here, something like an I, and a C, and an M, it is assumed, the archbishop received the which might have stood for John rite of consecration. Churchill (Duke of) Marlborough.". It Marlborough's visit was, as Bishop might also be something more interesting Hare, who accompanied the forces in his still, for every priest who comes to see the capacity of chaplain-general, calls it in his castle — and there are plenty, he told me unpublished correspondence, a thoroughly - is aoxious to examine, and, if possible, “bad business." The duke was then in decipher it. So, whatever it was, there the zenith of his fame. He had won Blen. must be something worth the climb. heim. In the autumn of 1704 he conceived With the help of a very long ladder, minus what Alison rightly terms the “ bold and about half its proper allowance of rungs decisive" plan of pushing the war into (sometimes two or three missing at a time), what was to all intents and purposes the and generally evidently not firm of build, I enemy's country. The hostile armies had managed with some peril to life and limb to fought on Dutch and German soil ; be climb up through a window. Half-a-dozen would move the seat of war into France, times did I want to desist from the venture, advancing along the Moselle and the Saar, not caring to trust myself further to the attack the enemy where he was weakest, sbakg. ladder. But mine host encouraged and his frontier was meagrely provided me to persevere. From the top there was with fortresses, and so compel the French a charming view. Hills and valleys all to spare the territory of our allies. It round, I could see far away into the Pala- was, in principle, Count Moltke's plan of tipate, and towards the Vosges; and there, one hundred and sixty-five years after; right opposite, lay Mandern, where the only Marlborough would have carried out village swineherd was tooting on his old-his idea with ninety thousand troops. In fashioned born, to summon his bristly 1704 he had wished to take Saarlouis. charge for their trot out among the But the delay - "peedless as he calls it “mast.” The pig is a grand institution - in the siege of Landau, by the fault of in Lorraine, and held honor accord our allies, rendered that impossible. He ingly. There is no dish in a Lorrain's arranged, however, with Prince Eugene, estimation which will compare with cochon that early in 1705 the allies should take de lait. Again, from the tower I could the field, when all that he planned to do very well trace the line of march of the would have been perfectly feasible. Untwo armies in 1705. There was Sierck, fortunately, our allies, as usual, left us from which the French retreated, and disappointingly in the lurch. MarlborPerle, from wbich Marlborough advanced. ough was on the spot in proper time, with There, close by, was Merschweiler, in his forty-two thousand men, all English which Lord Churchill had his headquar- or in English pay. But the bishops-electers. And there, on the other side, was tors of Trier and Mainz and the electors

el, to which Villars retreated. Retel palatine were to provide three thousand was a Benedictine abbey. And M. Sauer, borses for his artillery, and Prince Louis the late (French) archivist of Metz, told of Baden was to bring up forty thousand me that in the possession of his friend, M. or fifty thousand men of the imperial Dufresne, lately dead, he had seen as an army; aod both these parties failed in object of interest carefully preserved a their engagements. The Prince of Baden, saude-garde, or letter of protection, given who was afterwards in consequence nick. by Marlborough to the monks of that named by the army “le prince des Louis,"

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had had his sensitive toes trodden upon | and kind of disposition; so he had the by Marlborough at Blenheim, and was, bridge lowered and gave “ Claire" food moreover, put out at seeing Prince Eugene and comfortable quarters, warning her, placed over him; and so his Serenity however — she is described as a goodmade his excuses and delayed his march, looking young woman that she must and at length, just at the time when he quit the fortress next morning. Next was most wanted in the field, leisurely morning, accordingly, the soldiers took went to take the waters of Schlangenbad. her out and put her on her way to Dieden

Villars had, as Bishop Hare puts it, hofen. But scarcely had they left her, evidently “no stomach” for fighting Marl- when, to their astonishment, she turned borough'; he retreated before him with slick round and pursued the road to Luxready alacrity. But while Prince Louis emburg. A few days after the English was keeping the duke in suspense, another appeared before Mensberg, and French army pushed its way into the moned the garrison to surrender. The poorly garrisoned Netherlands, besieged latter begged a short respite for considthe Dutch fortresses, and things grew so eration, and then reluctantly opened the serious that "

express upon express ar gates. The duke, we are told, had laid rived in the British camp imploriog Marl- down a strict rule for the campaign, directborough to come post-haste to their res- ing that every enemy taken with weapons cue, which eventually he did.

in his hands should be shot. Under that In the face of an overwhelming mass of rule the garrison were doomed, and every. evidence, French and English, to the con- thing was promptly got ready for execu. trary, it is a little amusing to find Villars tion. At the very last moment up gallops bragging that he had “repelled” the En- a young officer, Marlborough's nephew, glish general. In a Frenchman, indeed, with a letter of pardon for the sergeant. that little bit of buncombe is excusable ; It was “ Sister Claire.” “You have spared that is the way in which French history is my life," he called out to the sergeant, “I written. But it is a trifle surprising to find will spare yours; we are quits." English Mr. Murray accepting Villars's This is, of course, a mere legend. What statement, in preference to the consensus may possibly have given rise to it is that, of other historians, and proclaiming in his as we read in Hare's letters, at Perle, the guide-book that here, even at Sierck, duke's French valet, venturing too far out" Marshal Villars arrested the progress of side the English lines, got taken by his Marlborough.” Marshal Villars did noth- own countrymen, and in his fright, like a ing of the kind; he retreated most accom- fool, intending to ensure his safety, gave modatingly, It was the faithless Prince himself out for a deserter. As the duke's Louis who arrested the duke's progress. private servant he would have been set

The local people tell a curious story of free; as a professing deserter, he was the way in which Mensberg was captured watched with suspicion as a supposed spy by the English. Villars, finding himself and bettered his case in no wise. compelled to retire, left the old castle From Marlborough's despatches and garrisoned by twelve hommes d'élite, fur- other contemporary sources, including nished by the governor of Sierck, and Bishop Hare's manuscript letters from the forty villageois bien armés. Of course camp, we learn pretty well what really the little garrison had to be on the qui took place. In 1702 the French had, by a vive, so the drawbridge was kept pulled quite unjustified coup de main, seized Lor. up and the gates were carefully locked. raine. Under the treaty of Ryswick they One dark night the old sergeant com- were entitled to march their troops through manding the watch was surprised to hear Lorraine. They marched them into outside a woman's cries, uttered in plain. Nancy, and there brusquely announced tive tones. Sure enough, there was a their intention : "J'y suis, j'y reste !' woman standing at the gate, a nun. When We have a letter from Duke Leopold and questioned, she said that she was “ Sæur his minister, Sauter, reporting this occurClaire," from a convent at Trier, which rence to his envoy at Vienna, Count Han the mécréants d'Anglais had seized, turn et Martigny. And poor Leopold, it is said, ing the poor inmates out of the city as though feeling keenly the indignity of his bouches inutiles; she was making her way position, was above all things anxious, in to her relatives at Diedenhofen, but had the interest of his people, to spare them been overtaken by the night; would they, the horrors of a war and to stop the allies, "' for Christ's sake,” be merciful and take his friends, from exercising their right -her in. The sergeant was a pious man, and invading the territory to drive the

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