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Town." Another Thrakian settlement | foundation of Tiryas, Schliemann urged was Mykenê, the Lion-Gated, where Aga. me to see Dr. James Fergusson, to whom memnon, whom the ancient bard or bards he had dedicated the English edition of compare to a lion, held sway in the heroic his splendid book with the words : “ To age. The national style of building the Historian of Architecture, eminent among the Phrygians is traceable at all alike for his knowledge of the art, and for the three places. A considerable similar. the original genius which he has applied ity, in many cases even an apparent iden- to the solution of some of its most intertity, exists, moreover, between the oldest esting problems.” Now, in a conversation idols found at Troy, Mykenê, and Tiryns. of an hour's duration, Dr. Fergusson So far as can still be made out from the pointed out, with the greatest care and partially injured wall-picture of the man kindness, by means of drawings and other on a búll, which was found at Tiryns, the references fetched from his large library, rider even wears the Phrygian cap which all the details necessary for judging the was characteristic of the swain of fair question. His introductory words were: Helen and his kinsmen, and which may I do not like the Phænikian idea at all." be seen on many later Roman coins refer. In the course of his explanations he said: ring to Troy.

Having been in communication with We evidently have here before us a strucDr. Schliemann on the origin of Tiryns, ture dating back to at least 1,500 years before I found that in this case he would take no Schliemann, a clear and sharp division-line is

Through this great discovery of Dr. heed of the most distinct classic testi.

now discernible in the Peloponnesus, between mony, whilst in the case of Troy he had, at least in earlier years, believed too liter darkness and the Greek epoch since the Doric

a prehistoric epoch hitherto enveloped in ally in poetic descriptions. However, invasion. Mykenê was, no doubt, built later before the appearance of his work, he, in than Tiryns, which, on account of the low answer to iny remarks, wrote from Athens, marshes in its neighborhood, had probably in February, 1885, that he did not deny been found to be somewhat injurious to health. that the oldest settlement of Tiryns be. The agreement of the ground-plan between longs to a Thrakian race," but that he was Tiryns and Troy is of the utmost importance. firmly convinced I would come round, It practically confirms the ancient tradition of after reading his book, to his view as to workmen from Asia Minor. It was a Thra

the raising of the yclopean wall, by Lycian the architectural origin of the palace and cian people, evidently, which built Tiryns, all Kyklopean walls of Greece, as well as

even as Troy was a settlement of Phrygian of Mykenean civilization in general. Thracians.

However, in the very preface to “ Tiryns,” Dr. Adler, the architectural special. As to the downward-tapering embedded ist, traced these ancient creations on the pillars which Dr. Alder, in his preface to soil of Argolis to the national style of the

• Tiryns," seemed to trace to the stiff Phrygians and to the immigration of dis- hieratic art-rules of Egypt, Dr. Fergusson tinguished families of that Thrakian race declared that there was only a single infroin Asia Minor ; thus fully supporting stance of such a style in Egypt, under the classic statements. Dr. Dörpfeld, the Thotmes 11., and that the Peloponnesian trusty fellow-worker of Schliemann, whose structures in question were clearly trace. merits in the domain of archæological able to the ancient manner of building in science are paramount, wrote:

wood which had prevailed anong the

Thrakians in well-forested Asia Minor. Either Phænician builders raised the castle At the same time, he approved of Dr. walls in north Africa as well as in the Argive Adler's opinion as to Phrygia and Lykia plain ; or we see here an architectural arrangement which, invented in the oldest time by having been the aboriginal home of the some nation, had gradually become typical, architectural style in Argolis. The vestige and therefore was executed by several races in of the round timber ceiling, as formerly similar manner. Strabo, it is true, states that used in Thrakian Asia Minor, Dr. Ferthe Cyclopes, the builders of Tiryns, had gusson pointed out in the cross-cut of the come from Lycia. The ancients, conse- capital of the Lions Gate at Mykenê. lo quently, knew nothing of Phænicians having the Peloponnesus, he said, this ancient built l'iryns.

mode of building in wood was gradually Still, until further proof, Dr. Dörpfeld changed into stone architecture. I omit thought he should give preference to the entering into further interesting details. former of the two possibilities mentioned. I will only add that Dr. Fergusson much

Having myself laid stress, in German regretted that Schliemann, having made and English articles, on the Thrakian so important a discovery at Tiryns, should

66

VI.

oppose historical testimony which had Dr. Schliemann himself, no doubt, hesibeen confirmed by his excavation. tated for some time. I well remember

In his own previous writings, Dr. Fer- the pleasant evening, when, at table, he gusson had always spoken of a Turano- raised a discussion on this subject. A Pelasgian substratum in Greece. I was, learned Englishman, who honored Ger. therefore, additionally interested when man science, myself, and my wife, were hearing from him that he now was con- his guests. Now, much as I personally vinced of the Teutonic kinship of the should have wished to have frequent acThrakians in Greece and elsewhere. cess, for the sake of study, to the Trojan When I mentioned that the immigration treasures which then were temporarily of the Germanic Asa race into Scandi- established in the South Kensington Munavia had evidently come from Thrakian seum, I yet had always strongly believed quarters near the Black Sea, he exclaimed: that Germany would be the proper guarYes; Woden's expedition to the North !” dian of that prehistoric hoard of art. This Before we met, Dr. Fergusson had read a I at once declared in a few words. number of articles I had written on that “ You say that ? ” Schliemann asked in subject. The main contents of the con- a tone of eagerness;

" I should have imversation above referred to I at once sent agined that you who had to leave Germany to Dr. Schliemann. I also gave at the on account of your principles, and to go time a report of it in the press, which I into exile, would not give this advice. communicated to him as well as to Dr. That idea had always been present to my Fergusson, so that no doubt could pos- mind and made me doubtful." sibly arise as to the correct rendering of "How?” I answered ; " what difference the words of the English or Scottish can expatriation make in my views on architect.

such a subject? Is it possible that you, my dear friend, should ever have been

able so to misunderstand me? Germany WHEN Dr. Schliemann gave his price is the great workshop of learning. Her less Trojan art treasures to Germany, a scholars are, as a rule, not blessed with great deal of disappointment was, I am wealth. Travelling to, and staying in, so afraid, felt in London. In his autobiog- expensive a town as London for the pur. raphy in that splendid work, “ Ilios,” he pose of studying these Trojan treasures had said :

on the spot, is not easy for them. That I avail myself of this opportunity to assure is one reason for presenting the results of the reader that, as I love and worship science your researches to Germany. Then, the for its own sake, I shall never make a traffic Trojans as I have often explained of it. My large collections of Trojan antiqui- were of Geto-Thrakian descent, closely ties have a value which cannot be calculated, akin to the Germans. In a German mubut they shall never be sold. If I do not pre seum, therefore, the remnants of Trojan sent them'in my lifetime, they shall at all art have their fittest place. That is the events pass, in virtue of my last will, to the second reason. Thirdly, why should you, museum of the nation I love and esteem most.

a German, not first remember our Father. Now, that was, in some degree, a Del- land ?phic utterance. In this country many ex. Schliemann looked up with some sur. pected that he would make his gift to prise, but evidently pleased. I was glad England. However, on the title-page of to learn from him later on, that he had bis first book, and again on that of his dedicated his collections “ To the German “Mycenae ” (1878), he had proudly de- People.” These were his own public scribed himself as a “ citizen of the United words. By letter from Paris he requested States.” In his political views, seldom me to treat the matter as a confidential as he touched upon these things, he held one, until the sanction by the German principles in harmony with that descrip- emperor had been given. From Athens tion. Yet, Germany, after all, was the be afterwards wrote, on February 17th, land of his birth ; and what more natural | 1881:than that he should first think of his Fa. therland ? On the other hand, might not

I am extremely pleased to see that my labors Greece have put in a claim by saying that with so high an appreciation on your part.

and my donation to the German people meet the Trojan booty did, by right, belong to But truly, I feel quite under a difficulty by the the descendants of those who overcame

many proofs of your friendship with which Ilion?

you overwhelm me. Nothing would fill my To whom, then, was the precious apple wife and me with greater joy than to have you to fall?

and your clear wife here with us at Athens for

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some time. We have always rooms for you and from Egypt, in which the great name ready, and everything would be done by us to of Virchow also occurs, the pen refuses 10 make the stay to you pleasant. My donation describe the feeling of sadness arising of the Trojan collection to the German people from the unexpected loss of Schliemann. has been made known on the 7th of this

Honors have been showered upon bim month, by the publication of the letters of the

at home and abroad. He was made an German Emperor and of Prince Bismarck to me in the official Berlin Gazette, and it ap- honorary D.C.L.Oxon., and honorary felpears to have been received by the public with low of Queen's College, Oxford ; a F.S.A.: great joy. I have read with the greatest inter- an honorary member and gold medallisi est your essay on Germanic Mythology. I am of the Royal Institute of British Archilooking forward eagerly to your treatise on tects. But why enumerate titles in pres“The Teutonic Kinship of the Trojans.” ence of achievements of world-wide fame? You have, no doubt, seen that, in “Ilios," I Berlin conferred the freedom of the city continually point to the analogues of the Tro- upon him, an honor granted but to a jan things, which were found in Hungary; and ited by a Thrakian people in a far-off pre- and then arise as it appears, therefore, that Hungary was inhab- very few, such as Field-Marshal Moltke.

Whatever differences of opinion may now historic epoch.

to some details of

learned interpretation, his is a name that This extension of the Thrakian race will live forever, as long as men still ininto what is now Hungary I had repeat- terest themselves in the history of their edly dwelt upon in various writings con- race and in the imperishable poetry cerning the discoveries at Troy. In founded thereon. mentioning a proposed translation of his “Ilios,” by Dr. Joseph Hampel, the director of the museum at Buda-Pest, Dr. Schliemann, in a letter of December 16,

From The English Illustrated Magazine. 1880, also wrote to me of “the pumberless

THE EDUCATION OF GENIUS. analogues of my Trojan finds, which ap

BY JAMES SULLY. pear to prove beyond doubt that Hungary was once inhabited by a Thrakian people BIOGRAPHERS of great men bave been of close kinship with the Trojans of the accustomed to dwell on the early surroundBurnt City.”

ings of their heroes, with a view to disIt was at Schliemann's urgent request cover what special forces acted most that, in 1884, I contributed a short essay powerfully on their unfolding genius. to his “ Troja” on “ The Germanic Kin. Such an inquiry is of peculiar interest, for ship of Trojans and Thrakians.” Very we all like to watch a colossal mind in frequently this subject, together with other process of making, and to know what perTeutonic race-questions which were new to sons in its human entourage have left their him when we first met, was brought up in impress on it and helped to give it its conversation. Considering all this, I trust final shape. The subject has, too, its sciI shall be forgiven by Englishmen, though entific significance; for if we can find out they also can claim Thrakian affinity, for how much or how little the well-recognized saying that I was right glad when the apparatus of education has commonly results of the wonderful researches of a effected in the case of the preternaturally German on the hill of Hissarlik came into gifted boy or girl we may be able to gain the possession of the people which is clearer ideas respecting both the nature of nearest blood-relationship with the of genius and the scope of education. doughty champions of unhappy Troy. In following out this line of inquiry it

Often did he, in later years, during his may be well to limit ourselves to men and presence in London, renew in the warmest women of letters. With the making of manner the invitation to us to come to his these the recognized systems of instruchome at Athens, the well-known splendid tion appear to be specially concerned, seeIlion House, “ Iliou Melathron,” so called ing that scholarship or book-lore forms so from the smoke-blackened cross-beam or important an ingredient in the peoman's rafter of ancient Greek dwellings, which craft, even in its lighter branches. In the afterwards meant a roof or a house gener- case of the musician or the painter, on the ally. But the journey was on our part other hand, there is no such obvious relanever undertaken. I'bad to be content tion between professional competence and with the imprisoned Gods of Greece in the the common learning of the schools; and British Museum. As I am looking over the same holds good in the case of the the mass of correspondence before me man of active enterprise, as the politician from Athens, from Paris, from Germany, and the soldier.

In tracing the action on the gifted child | a gifted daughter. The two best known of his human instructors our eye is ar- instances of this meet us in the biograrested at the outset by the parent. How phies of Madame de Staël and Miss Mar. much, one naturally asks, has the mother, tineau, each of whom had a strong-minded the father, or other natural guardian of the but unsympathetic mother. Altogether future hero contributed to the develop the outcome of our inquiry into the intelment of his extraordinary powers? It lectual obligation of great men to their must be confessed that the sources of our mothers is disappointing. Nor, in the knowledge are here very scanty. We majority of cases, is the mother proved to bave to depend almost exclusively on the have set a deep educational mark on that great man's late recollection of his parents. side of the great man's nature which we And it is evident that with respect to the might have expected even an unintelinfluence of the mother more particularly, lectual mother to influence, viz., the feelwhich is greatest in the first years, even ings and character. the most tenacious memory is likely to If now we turn to the part taken by the keep but a faulty record. Let us, however, father in furthering the development of turn to such facts as we can gather. genius we appear to reach more satisfac

That a great man's mother has in many tory results. In the majority of cases the cases had something to do with directing father of the gifted child seems to have and forming his intelligence and character been stronger both in intellect and in is known to all readers. The name of character than the mother, and in not a Goethe will at once occur to the student few instances he has taken an active part of literature. Biographers are agreed that in superintending if not actually assisting this favorite of the gods was indulged at in his studies. the outset with the very perfection of a Here, again, the case of Goethe occurs poet's mother. Her bright companion to one. His father was not only a culship and her cultivated taste for fiction tivated man who set much store by learnmust have had a powerful effect in directing, but, like some others of his time, had ing the first movements of the boy's imago a decided relish for amateur pedagogy, a ination. Scott received a somewhat sim- fact plainly attested by his success in ilar benefit from a mother whose richly keeping his wife to a diligent practice of stored and active memory familiarized the writing, piano-playing, and singing for frail child with the picturesque traditions some years after their marriage. Of the of his country. Lamartine, Kotzebue, and careful way in which he arranged and others, dwell lovingly on the first years carried out by the help of special masters spent at the feet of a revered mother. the early instruction of his talented boy Others who are known to have had a every reader of the poet's autobiography mother of more than ordinary intelligence is well aware. In other cases the gifted and refinement are Bacon, Schiller, Heine, child was made the subject of an educa. De Quincey, Macaulay, Lytton, Grote, and tional experiment by his sire. How J. S. Victor Hugo.

Mill's father set to work in a manner all At the same time, while no doubt moth- his own to educate the precocious student ers of gifted children have frequently ex- is known to everybody as also what the erted a powerful influence on their feel. pupil himself, as well as others, thought ings and character but few have done of the whole result of the experiment. A much to mould their intellects. How very different kind of plan was pursued by often does one meet in biographical works the father of another juvenile philosopher. with the observation that the mother of Schopenhauer's father followed the very the hero was in no way remarkable. In reverse method of that pursued by the deed it would seem, according to the care- sire of Richard Feverel in Mr. George ful researches of Mr. Francis Galton, that Meredith's instructive story. He took we are apt to over-estimate the influence his son about to see the world before be of the mother on the man of genius. It attacked books, an innovation in the must be remembered, too, that a woman method of instruction for which the pupil may be clever and yet through peculiar was afterwards grateful. case of more ities of temperament or taste disqualified orthodox paternal tuition is to be met from exerting a beneficial influence on the with in Mill's patron, Jeremy Bentham, growth of a great intellect. This state of who learnt Latin grammar and the Greek things seems to be illustrated in the case alphabet sitting on his father's knee. of Sheridan and Schopenhauer. Still more Coleridge and Thirlwall each received his frequently has this incompatibility shown earliest instruction from a well-educated itself between an intellectual mother and father, a clergyman. The two German

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poets, Wieland and Lessing, had a similar It will thus be seen that the father advantage. Both Herder and Jean Paul figures honorably among the educators of Richter were taught the rudiments of the great. It must not be supposed howlearning by fathers who were schoolmas- ever that in all or even the majority of the ters. In some cases of paternal tuition cases quoted, the pedagogic function enthe father was himself a man of some dis- tailed any very onerous duties in the way tinction. This applies, for example, to of systematic teaching. In the case of Niebubr the historian, to Tasso, and to most of the gifted women just referred to, the second Pitt.

it is expressly told us that the child's Perhaps, however, the most interesting assiduity in learning was the outcome of cases of paternal education are to be her own eager thirst for information, and found in the biography of eminent women. that the paternal or other male tutorship Quite a number of these have received | was limited to a very gentle guidance of the chief part of their instruction from self-prompted effort. We must remember their father. Among English writers the further that while a respectable number of name of Mrs. Barbauld furnishes an excel. fathers of distinguished men and women lent example. A very precocious child have thus taken a lively interest in their she was early taken in hand by her father, intellectual development, others have a dissenting clergyman and a tutor at an failed altogether to appreciate and further academy, and rapidly acquired with his their children's aspirations. A well-known · help not only modern languages but Latin instance is Shelley's father, of whom it and Greek. Miss Edgeworth was educated has been said " that he was everything a from a very early age by her father, an poet's father ought not to have been.” intellectual man, who, later on, after her We may now pass to the professional return from a fashionable boarding-school, representative of the business of teaching, supervised and co-operated in her early viz., the schoolmaster. A large proportion literary efforts. Miss Austen was edu- of distinguished men of letters have come cated at home under the superintendence more or less under his control, aod it beof her father, a clergyman who kept pupils. comes an interesting question how much he Mrs. Browning also acquired her learning has contributed by his well-koown system at home and under the watchful care of to their efficiency and success. Happily her father, who happily combined with the the facts are much more accessible here. leisure of a country gentleman a lively The school-experience falls late enough in interest in his delicate and gifted child's the lifetime to be distinctly recalled by intellectual aspirations, and, like Mr. Edge- the subject of it in after years; and in the worth, encouraged and advised as to the accounts of themselves given us by dis. publication of the first girlish productions. tinguished men we meet with quite a The father of the Brontë girls not only wealth of school reminiscence. conducted their early instruction but di- cases too we are able to test the fidelity rected their whole bringing up, and he of the great man's memory by the testiappears to have had deeply rooted ped-mony of others. agogic opinions of his own. Mrs. Gaskell, There is no doubt that a number of the biographer of Charlotte, was herself eminent men have distinguished them. educated by her father, a gentleman of selves wben at school by their capacity much more culture and insight into his for learning, and their general intelligence. child's nature than that singular parent, As might be expected, this pre-eminence the Rev. Patrick Brontë.

shows itself most markedly among those Among French female writers the influ- who afterwards won a reputation in the ence of the father on education is less graver occupations of scholarship, science, marked. Madame de Staël's father, the etc. Among eminent scholars the name of eminent financial minister, is known to Erasmus affords one of the most brilliant have exerted a happy influence over his examples of boyish erudition, easily acchild, and to have tempered by his warm quired. The youthful prodigy Thirlwall tenderness the rigor of the mother's dis- must have excited the awe of his school. cipline. Madame de Sévigné, early left fellows by the ponderous epistles he used an orphan, was carefully guided in her to indite to them in Latin and French. A studies by her uncle, with whom she lived, number of scientific men were decided and who may be said to have stood in loco school successes. Galileo, Kepler, Cuvier, parentis. On the other hand we have in and others were distinguished for their stances of the failure of paternal peda- eagerness, and their rapidity in learning. gogics, as in the biography of Madame Among philosophers, Hobbes and Kant Roland.

may be instanced as good learners. It is

In many

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