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the violin and 'cello a little, but his work | or twelve o'clock at night, and bid us finish has chiefly been that of a choirmaster. our practice there." The singing of glees by small parties of a As a result of this training the sons of dozen or so be well remembers. Those Mr. Fawcett senior are now all players. were days when a halo of celebrity hung John plays the alto trombone, Joseph the round singers and players. There were tenor trombone, Samuel the bass tromso few of them that they were the envy bone, Tom the pianoforte and organ, and and wonder of their neighbors. There Handel, the youngest son, the double was no tonic sol-fa then to make music bass. This, however, is but the begineasy for everybody. To attain the power ning of the tribe, for the three elder sons of singing at sight or of playing an.instru- and their married sister, Mrs. Midgley, ment demanded perseverance and self-have grown-up children who are also denial. People had to puzzle things out players. Thus John has two sons in the for themselves. Printed music was very profession: Harry, a violinist, and Menexpensive. Oratorios cost in guineas delssohn, a clarinetist; while of his what they now cost in shillings. The con- younger sons Handel, aged fourteen, sequence was that nearly all the music of promises well on the trombone, Willie, these weavers was copied out by their own aged twelve, plays the pianoforte, and hands. Old Mr. Fawcett has sat up copy. Tom, aged ten, plays the flute. Joseph ing music till two or three o'clock in the has a son Charlie, a violinist. Samuel has morning. But when the music was copied three sons: Charlesworth, a clarinetist, and the performance came off, how the Verdi, a violinist, and Weber, an oboeist. peighbors delighted! The “Messiah," or Fawcett Midgley, the sister's son, is a some other oratorio, would be performed bassoon player. All these lads had sumwith a band consisting of two violins, a flute, mer engagements last season at such and a 'cello, yet the people of the village places as Llandudno, Douglas, Saltburn, thought the effect perfect, and the perform and Blackpool, where orchestras are eners showed no little pride in their work. gaged. So much for the players fairly

For years Mr. Fawcett senior, with his started in life; there are a number of three sons John, Joseph, and Samuel, younger Fawcetts “coming on.” Stepworked at their looms in their own house. ping into Joseph Fawcett's kitchen I find This was the universal custom twenty-five a boy of nine who is studying the clarinet, or thirty years ago; every house in and “ Joseph Haydo” aged three, who is Eccleshill contained its loom, and the handling marbles on the floor, will no passer-by could hear the 'rattle of the doubt become a player in due time. shuttle. Steam-power has since crept in, The Fawcetts are proud of their village. congregated the weavers in factories, and it has only seven thousand inhabitants, but destroyed some of the quaintness and it sends out more professional players to domesticity of their labor. The pecul- concerts in the north of England than iarity of the Fawcett household was that Leeds, Bradford, or Huddersfield. My without neglecting their work, or weaving friend, Mr. N. Kilburn, Mus.B., of Bishop less deftly than their neighbors, they did Auckland, who first directed my attention a great deal at music. For years the lads, to the Fawcetts, writes: "I have known under the guidance of their father, prac- them for years. They are true and genutised singing or playing after each of the line homespun Yorkshire men. three meals of the day. Even while weavoratorio concerts at Sunderland they have ing they would sometimes stand their played to the number of nine or ten at music on a shelf and cast glances at it a time. It was during a perforinance of from moment to moment, whistling or The Rose of Sharon last winter, as I singing the notes so as to get familiar looked across the orchestra, that the idea with them. The father was a good teach- popped into my mind that this was almost

He not only had enthusiasm, and a unique clan, and I resolved to call attenmade his boys love their instruments, but tion to them. They are not only numerous, he knew how to guide and control the but most efficient players." This group waywardness and fitfulness which from of Eccleshill musicians travel far and wide time to time possess all young people. to take part in concerts. They play regu“He made us work,” said one of the sons larly in Leeds, Bradford, Hul!, York,

“ No shirking of difficulties was Scarborough, Sunderland, and Bishop allowed. He was strict.” Anyhow, the Auckland and elsewhere. Joseph once sons needed but little pressure in their went to Ireland with Meyer Lutz, and had musical studies. "Our inother," says one some curious experiences at Cork during of them, “tired of the noise, has turned the Fenian troubles. John as a youth enus out sometimes into the road at eleven listed, and served twelve months in the

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band of the 68th Regiment, after which ex- and allegiance of all classes in his native perience his father bought him out. Then place. The time of the Fawcetts is thus he went into the Yeomaory Cavalry band. chiefly taken up by music; but John and

It was in brass bands that as lads the Joseph spend their spare hours in workFawcetts began to play, and from this ing at a little coal-selling business, which they worked their way to the higher mu. keeps them employed at times when music sical level of the orchestra. For three is dull. Instrumentalists have a more ceryears Joseph conducted the celebrated tain income than solo singers, because Black Dyke band, and at the present time they are not afraid of their voices wearing he is training a brass band at Eccleshill. out; and only by an accident - such as. He has often acted as judge in the compe. the loss of a finger, or serious illness titions between these bands which are so can their public work be suspended. common in Yorkshire.

I have sketched these honest, intel. The remarkable thing is that this tribe ligent, and artistic Yorkshiremen just as of players are all self-taught. "Our mu- they are, because I think they teach a sic," says Joseph, “ hasn't cost us a lesson of industry which thousands of penny.” Their father was the first teacher; working men may learn. They teach, too, then the sons have themselves taught the possibility of pursuing at the same their children. “ The violinists have had time art and manual labor. We want a quarter or two's lessons," says Joseph, more of our operatives to lead this double “just to get them into right habits. But life, working hard at the bench, the ma. if we don't play an instrument we know chine, or with the spade or plough, and enough about it to set our children right, recreating themselves when work is over or tell when they are playing wrong" by music, which is the prince of diverWhat sums of money we spend on music sions. Why should they not do so ? The lessons, and yet here is a group of players Welsh colliers and quarrymen form some who have taught themselves and done of the finest choirs in the world. Come without! The teacher can only guide the with me to the rehearsal of a French Or. pupil. The real effort is the pupil's own, phéoniste Society in Paris, and notice the and in an art like music quickness of porters, policemen, and mechanics dropapprehension and an observant eye court ping in in their uniforms or their blue for much. But of course for ordinary blouses, and singing away with great people lessons are essential, and even for heartiness when the hours of work are the gifted they save time and prevent the done. When they have sung a chorus formation of bad habits which have after they will sometimes pick up a set of brass wards to be cured.

instruments, transform themselves in a If the West Riding is noted for its in moment into a brass band, and start a strumentalists, it is noted still more for its quickstep or an overture. Our English singers. The love of choral music there choirs, except those in Yorkshire and is not an affectation, but a strong reality. Wales, contain but few ouvriers. The The full and deep-toned Yorkshire voices men are clerks or school teachers, the are famed everywhere; and one reason ladies are scarcely any of them wago-earn. why the Yorkshire folk are such good ers. Why should it be so? If we shorten singers is that they are always singing. the hours of work, there will be more time At the fireside, in the mill, in school, in for recreation, and occupations must be church, in social gathering, their voices found for leisure hours which refresh blend and commingle in strains now gen- and renew the faculties. Otherwise the tle, now tumultuous. John and Joseph strength of our workers will be dissipated Fawcett are both old glee singers, and upon occupations which exhaust aud Joseph is at present choirmaster of the weary, which leave body, brain, and soul Congregational Church at Eccleshill, poorer than they found them. It will be where he has a choir of fifty-four voices. a good thing in these coming days for the He has held this post for twenty years, body politic if in hundreds of villages of and much enjoys the work. The church our land the spirit of the Eccleshill Faw. has an organist as well as a choirmaster, cetts stirs and grows. Others may not and is about to spend about £800 on an have time or skill enough to work their organ, although it only seats from eight way to the position of professional players. hundred to nine hundred. Joseph is also This is the privilege of the few. But the conductor of the Eccleshill Choral Union many can learn enough of singing and

- formed among the middle-class folk of playing to give pleasure to themselves and the district, and meeting by turn at the friends in an endless round of social and houses of the members. His sterling public gatherings, musicianship thus commands the respect

J. SPENCER CURWEN.

Fifth Series, Volume LXXIII.

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No. 2435.– February 28, 1891.

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From Beginning Vol. CLXXXVIII.

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515 533

537

By

CONTENTS. I. AMERICAN FICTION,

Edinburgh Review, II. THE SHROUDED WATCHER,

Blackwood's Magazine,
III. RANDOM ROAMING. By the Rev. Dr. Jes-

Blackwood's Magazine,
sopp,
IV. LIFE AND LABORS OF SCHLIEMANN.
Karl Blind, .

National Review,
V. THE EDUCATION OF Genius. By James
Sully, ·

English Illustrated Magazine,
VI. VOLTAIRE AND HIS FIRST EXILE,

Temple Bar, VII. MAXIMS FOR NOVEL-WRITERS,

Murray's Magazine,
VIII. FROZEN TO DEATH,

St. James's Gazette,
IX. MODERN FIGHTING AND FIREARMS, Army and Navy Gazette,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. Remittances should

be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

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1.

FOUNDED ON AN OLD IRISH SONG IN THE

FROM THE PORTUGUESE.
PETRIE COLLECTION.

LOVE, like a june rose,
All in the Golden Vale,

Buds, and sweetly blows, I met with Kitty Neale,

But tears its leaves disclose On her poil the milking-pail, a lamb nosing

And among thorns it grows. at her knee. Ohl her eyes were dreams of blue,

Take it to thy breast; With the sunlight dancing through,

Though thorns its stem invest And her saucy lips the hue of the rose on the

Gather them, with the rest! tree. For a year and for a day,

Then, amid pricks and pain, I had sought in every way

Confess that thorns remain That maiden fair as May for my true love to

When Beauty, provên vain, gain;

And Love, come not again.
Every art of tongue and eye

Fond lads with lasses try,
I had used with ceaseless sigh, yet all, all in

NO. III,
vain !

FROM THE GERMAN. But that morning, at the trace

Of the trouble in my face, She paused with timid grace and murmured I THOUGHT that the swallow was wooing

already my name, And a blessed, blessed man,

Her mate to the nest; I'd a kiss beneath her can

I thought that the wild bee with kisses already And consent her waist to span, without one

The first rose pressed; word of blame.

And that thou wert clasping me, love, already, And amid the blooming bowers,

Close to thy breast!
I'd have rambled on for hours,

II.
With my blushing flower of flowers, under
Heaven's blue dome;

How bitter and wintery waxed last night But the lamb he took a tilt

The air that was mild! At her pail, till all was spilt,

How nipped with frost were the flowers last And crying. “I'll be kiltī” Kitty darted

night,
home.

That at dawning smiled!
Spectator.
ALFRED PERCEVAL GRAVES.

How the bird lost the tune of the song last

night,

That the Spring beguiled,
And how thou forgottest last night, last night,

Thy poor, poor child ! MADRIGALS, FROM FOREIGN SOURCES. Murray's Magazine. ALICE HORTON.

NO. I.
FROM THE FRENCH OF SULLY PRUD'HOMME.

1.
DEAR, if you kn what tears they shed,

PASSING. Who live apart from home and friend, THROUGH the dark valley thou wilt pass to To pass my house, by pity led,

night; Your steps would tend.

To the drear labyrinth of troubled years, II.

The fruitless sighs, the unavailing tears, And if you knew what jubilees

At last the end grows slowly into sight. Begets, in sad souls, a friend's glance,

Death doth but wait for day's retreating You'd look up where my window is,

light,

For that tranced hour when eve's first As if by chance !

beacon peers,

And vespers gently fall on jaded ears, And if you dreamed how a friend's smile To give thy soul the signal for its flight. And nearness soothe a heart that's sore,

Then, with a brow unclouded as of old, You might be moved to stay awhile

A heart no longer scathed by Sorrow's Before my door.

scars,

Out of life's mists and vapors manifold,
IV.

Into that clime no shadow ever mars
Then if you guessed I loved you, sweet, Thou wilt emerge, and rapt communion hold

And how my love is deep and wide, With the beloved, long-gathered to the Something might tempt your pausing feet

stars. To come inside!

Murray's Magazine. WILLIAM TOYNBEE.

III.

From The Edinburgh Review. which prove prolific parents of popular AMERICAN FICTION.

prejudice. The novelists of the Old and DURING the first sixty years of Amer- the New Worlds have done as much as ican independence, England and America steam and telegraphy to foster kindly drifted far apart. The breach was wid- feelings between kindred peoples. They ened by mutual misconceptions of na. have proved more efficient guardians of tional life, character, and habits. English the peace than a score of presidents or critics assumed offensive airs of patronage premiers. This fact alone justifies a towards the nascent literature of the New study of American fiction. But when, in World. Communication between the two addition to this, it is remembered that countries was difficult. The "traveller's American novels circulate as widely in tales " of English Munchausens were nu- this country as the productions of native merous ; splenetic Liberals, who had ex- authors, no apology is needed for an atpected a Republican Utopia of Liberty, tempt to sketch the growth of fictitious vented their disappointment in vulgar literature in the New World, its present burlesques of the truth; hasty tourists conditions and apparent tendencies. brought back superficial pictures of soci- American fiction is not yet a century ety as the fruit of their holiday scampers old. Its sudden growth in a new, but through the States. On the other side, highly civilized, country, naturally preAmericans did little to remove the false im- sents features different from those which pressions which were created by English mark its gradual rise in an old country. travellers. They painted no pictures of It is often said that American novelists are their own daily life; their injudicious necessarily realistic, analytical, and anaanswers to foreign criticism, or volumes tomical, because they have little historical of gasconade, which made the utterances background, no salient class distinction, of Monsieur Parolles models of modesty, and a civilization which is essentially gave plausibility to the most unfounded utilitarian in its nature. The fact that

eports. Within more recent years lit- American novelists mainly devote themerature, and especially fiction, has, as it selves to the portraiture of every day charwere, introduced the two nations to each acters, or to photographs of contemporary other. It has not always exhibited either life, is true. Their works are deficient in people in the best light, but it has removed creative power, and triviality is their many of those popular misconceptions curse. But the explanation seems to us

inadequate. America has a history of a 1. Old Creole Days. By George W. Cable. 8vo. New York: 1879.

stirring kind, neither too remote for inter2. The Grandissimes. By George W. Cable. 8vo. est, nor too recent for romance. She still New York: 1881. 3. Madame Delphine. By George W. Cable. 8vo. lof society has levelled to uniformity. From

possesses provincialisms which no plane 4 Dr. Sevier. By George W. Cabie. 8vo. Edin- the days of “ Poor Richard” a masterful burgh: 1884.

practicality has reigned supreme in the 5. Bon Aventure. By George W. Cable.

New World. Labor-saving automata have 6. Strange True Stories of Louisiana. By George supplanted the finer things of life; the W. Cable. 8vo. New York: 1839. 7. In the Tennessee Mountains. By Charles Egbert success is measured by money. But, if

prevalent mania is the pursuit of mamion; Craddock pseud. [i.e., Mary N. Murfree). 8vo. ton (Mass.): 1894.

the body has thus outgrown the soul, 8. Where the Battle was Fought. By Charles America only exaggerates the conditions Egbert Craddock. 8vo. Boston (Mass.): 1884.

and the standards of the Old World. 9. The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountain. By Charles Egbert Craddock. 8vo.

London: 1885.

Some other reason must be found for the 10. Down the Ravine. By Charles Egbert Crado want of creative power, depth, passion, Boston (Mass.): 1885.

and richness which characterizes Amer11. In the Clouds. By Charles Egbert Craddock. 800. Boston (Mass.): 1887.

ican fiction. 12. The Story of Keedor Bluffs. By Charles Eg

The explanation partly lies, as we bebert Craddock. 8vo.

13. The Despot of Broomsedge Cove. By Charles lieve, in the mental and physical defiEgbert Craddock. 8vo. London: 1889.

London : 1881.

8vo.

London : 1888.

Bos

dock. 8vo.

ciencies of the American nation. The

London: 1888.

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