liamentary ground, managed in his reply nature, also entered in very divergent so to confound his adversaries that not modes upon their political career, and of only the vote invariably turned to his this diversity of method they both no favor, but that he was able also to menace doubt felt the influence in the years of his opponents with punishment for their their maturity: Agostino Depretis of attempted misdeeds.

Stradella studied at the university, occu. Not so Crispi. When he comes into pied himself with administrative matters, the Chamber at a moment of political and then entered in 1849 the Piedmontese crisis, he does so with a haughty air, ready Parliament. He thus early learnt to conto give any reply, no matter how bold, how form himself to the grave and serene annihilating. At times be is even insolent modes of legislature current in a method. to his critics, if needful he will burl forth ical and steady-going country such as was a remark which it is often impossible for Piedmont. Without ever having been him to maintain later, in cooler blood. He rich, he nevertheless never knew what it is like an artist enamored of color but was to want, neither was he swayed by careless of drawing, and this love of effects romantic attachments and passions, which evinces itself in all his diplomatic actions. have influenced so greatly and fatally bis It is this love of ostentation that makes successor in office. Crispi, a man of des. him so careless of financial considera- ultory studies, entered the Sicilian Parliations; this too that leads him to aspire ment in 1848 in the midst of revolutionary above all to triumphs of foreign policy, so excitement, which he shared to the fullest that his name may shine beyond the con extent. The Bourbons returned to power, fines of his native land. Here, too often, he had to go into exile, and of course he is misled to take appearance for sub found his way to England, that only free stance. As is well known, Prince Bis- haven in those troublous times. Here he marck three several times desired that knew what it was to suffer from hunger, Depretis should come and visit him at and for the next years endured much misFriedrichsruh, but the then Italian premier ery, living a thoroughly Bohemian existalways found excellent reasons for not ence, while utilizing bis talents in unpaid going thither. Crispi, when similarly in partisan journalism, in presiding at patri. vited, as soon as he became prime minis- otic conventicles, in attending revolution. ter, accepted at once. This little feature ary meetings. While Depretis had from characterizes the diverse mental disposi- the outset a clear conception of what was tion of the two men. The foreign policy meant by the principle of authority, that of Depretis was not planned to tickle the it must be above all things of a character national vanity of the Italians, and it to curb, mollify, and moderate, the ideas should always be borne in mind that as a of his successor on the point are the very people, both collectively and individually, opposite from his, namely, that authority the Italians are essentially vain. That of should be evinced in an imperative manCrispi, on the other hand, faos it continu. ner. What both had in common is a great ally, and that too by that most potent lever industry Crispi's industry is almost to Italians, the great records of their clas. phenomenal in a southerner - and a great sical past. The halo of general popularity temperance in the matter of eating and which was universally denied to Depretis drinking. Indeed, Depretis lived like an hovers undoubtedly around the head of anchorite, and though Crispi nowadays Crispi, and though he has, of course, his makes a certain show in his house and as enemies, his admirers outnumber them. obliged by his official character, in himAnd even his critics cannot deny to him self he is the most abstemious of men, and that he has a fearlessness, an energy, a his habits too are of the simplest. These, rapidity of action, which is all the more however, are also Italian idiosyncrasies. grateful and needful in the midst of the Plain living is still in the peninsula the general uninterested lassitude which is the order of the day, though it cannot in that dominant note in the Italian political country be held to be always consonant world. The rapidity, not to say precipi- with high thinking. tancy, with which in him action often What is likely to prove the cause of follows resolve is not to be entirely con- Crispi's ruin and his fall is that of late he demned nor underrated in times in which has grown to be overbearing to a degree every one tries to practise what the satiric that is alienating even his best friends. poet Giusti defines as “l'arte di vivere a This curious man, a mixture of audacity forza di scansi” (the art of living by means and weakness, who has vanquished by of shirking responsibilities).

sheer force of arrogance, and who by arroThe two Italian premiers, so diverse of Igance may overturn himself, who speaks

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confidently of the things which he will do, Crispi it exists as an intense passion, a ten, twenty years hence, as though nothing fixed idea. could remove him from office

Still, at the time of the Conclave which death - this man adores his Italian father- resulted in the election of Leo XIII., laod; but, strange contradiction, he de. Crispi's attitude was marked by a tact and spises the thirty millions of Italians of moderation such as was hardly to have whom that fatherland is composed. When been expected from so pronounced a secany one dares to criticise his actions, be tarian. He informed the Sacred College it in priot or speech, private or public, he that he would take measures that the lib. at once becomes furious with anger. For erty of the Conclave should be respected, the present, he still holds the reins of adding, however, that in case the cardinals government pretty tightly in his hands, should decide to hold the Conclave out of and this because the Italian political par- Rome, he would at once occupy the Vatties are too divided and subdivided among ican. themselves to settle upon a common pol- When Leo XIII. assumed the tiara he icy and a common leader of opposition. found the papacy in a state of decadence. While discontent with his policy is mur. Pio IX., overwhelmed by the revolutionmured more or less loudly throughout the ary wave, had taken up a rôle of isolation, peninsula, Crispi is absolute dictator in which, however dignified, could only end the camera. And yet listen to the judg- in destroying his social and political influ. ment of the deputies upon him. To the ence. Abroad the relations with the powe Liberals, be they of the Right or Left, he ers were either most lax or entirely broken seems an autocrat of the purest metal. off. At home, while still sovereign of Tha Democrats consider him a courtier, Rome, he had forced the hand of the Ital. the Conservatives a demagogue; to the ian government, and driven them into the Freemasons he seems a god ; to the Cath. arms of the extreme Left party, then small olics he is an Antichrist. The extreme in number though audacious, by forbidLeft would have him more French; the ding the clergy and all good Catholics to bistorical Left would have him less Aus- take any direct part in politics. And after trian. He is praised, blamed, flattered by the loss of the temporal power in 1870, all sections. Each and all of these adver: when in no position to insist upon consaries are animated by the common desire ditions, his pretensions were in no wise of persuading themselves that Francesco abated. Crispi is one of their party and thinks ex- Leo XIII., on the other hand, perfectly actly as they do - an illusion which his realized the necessity of marching with clever and Protean tactics do much to the times. Space does not admit of our keep alive. He has a method of killing tracing here the steps which he took to two birds with one stone which many a restore to the papacy its former prestige statesman might envy; and could he but and political ascendancy. Briefly, he has control his temper rather more, he per. made his influence felt in all Christian chance might have risen to a really high countries. place in diplomatic records.

In thus seeking to extend his sphere of The enemy whom Crispi has combated influence, Leo XIII.'s main aim was to most virulently and most persistently is work directly and indirectly toward the the Vatican. Crispi's advent to power restoration of the territorial rights of the certainly inaugurated a new phase of the Holy See. His idea was to raise the pa. Roman' question. It is his policy that pacy to such a position that the incompathas given that virulent character to the ibility between the extent of its influence conflict between the Vatican and the and the abnormal and precarious nature Quirinal which it did not previously pos- of its temporal position should strike all

With regard to Catholicism and the foreign eyes. But that was not enough. papacy, his sentiments are strongly anti- Italian opinion had also to be worked clerical. He is a violent sectarian. He upon ; a reaction must be brought about hates, not only the Vatican and the Church, in the feelings of the country. This was but everything which represents religious the second part of the task to which Leo sentiment. His organ, the Riforma, XIII. devoted himself. has always written with great animosity Now Crispi came into power to find this. against religious ideas in every form. The double programme in full swing. The whole thing is in his eyes one immense pontiff had effected the understanding farce, to which an end must be put. With with Germany which put an end to the many Italian radicals anti-clericalism has Kulturkampf, and had issued the famous served as a lever and a handle, but in I address of the 26th of May, 1887, in which,



any one."

after enumerating the concessions ob- have been foreseen. The educated, rich, tained from Germany, and boasting of the and governing classes did not sigo it; inre-establishment of religious peace in that deed, in most cases, it is doubtful whether country, he went on to offer the olive they were asked to do so. The signatures branch to Italy, adding: “One issue to- of persons who really understood what ward peace is to be sought for in a state they were petitioning for may be counted of affairs when the sovereign pontiff shall on one's fingers. In upper Italy, princinot be dependent on any power, and shall pally in Lombardy, a certain number were enjoy liberty really worthy of the name, collected; few in the centre, very few in such as is his due. This situation, so far the Neapolitan provinces, and hardly any from being hurtful to the interests of in Sicily. The bulk were of priests, men Italy, would be of powerful assistance of the lower middle class, and peasants, toward its safety and prosperity.” signatures which, even had they been five

After this address, conciliation became times as many, were of no weight politthe theme of the day, and for some little ically. time it was really believed it would be The government, on their part, used brought about, though only the small sec- every means to damage the petition, and tion of extreme Italian Catholics truly even punished the few employés wbo supposed that it could be brought about signed it, showing thus an unworthy parby means of the restoration of the tem- row-mindedness. The more dignified poral power. They thought the pope policy of laissez faire would only have would yield, and the Quirinal would yield, exposed yet more plainly the weakness of each in a measure. To force the govern- the party in favor of the temporal power, ment to declare itself, a Radical deputy which, by the way, was prudently not menof Milan brought forward the question in tioned in the petition. Parliament. Crispi avoided a debate, Crispi's first move took the form of a saying: “We do not need to make concil- law, which, under the pretext of reorganiation, since the State is not at war with izing the administrative elections, was

really directed against the influence of the However, in the following year, 1888, in clericals in municipal bodies, and aimed which Leo XIII. celebrated his jubilee, it at introducing sectarian and other ele. was Crispi himself who commenced hos ments more in accordance with his policy. tilities by inauguratiog his Kulturkampf. This preliminary skirmish was followed The Riforma, his official organ, redoubled by the new penal code lately approved, the violence of its attacks, denouncing the which certainly contains some striking Vatican as a hotbed of conspiracy against provisions, practically excluding a priest Italy. The incentive for this offensive from the benefits of the common law and warfare was this. A short time previously the rights of citizenship. That the coun: the clerical party bad made an attempt to try did not judge these measures too bring about a partial re-establishment of severe may be gathered from the ease the temporal power by means of a petition with which the bill was passed. Indeed addressed to the Legislature, to be signed Italy has no more formidable, implacable by the entire population.

enemy than that which lives in her gates In itself the idea of this appeal from all and which under the cloak of Christianity Italy was legal in its form, but let us in- commits offences against morality and vestigate the actual conditions. Catholics patriotism which shows that the Gospel are not allowed to take part in political has not indeed truly inspired its actions. elections. There is the veto, “neither And it is this firm attitude on the part of elected nor electors.” Very well. How, Crispi against that subtle enemy Vatican. then, did the clerical party propose to rec- ism which causes him to hold his place, oncile the contradiction that these Italians as much as the lack of a worthy successor, who are forbidden to vote or to be elected for all patriotic and right-thinking Italians should apply to members, chosen without recognize that they cannot present too firm their vote or against their vote, and ask a front against this, their cruellest archthem to interest themselves for the pope ? enemy. Were they to say: "We, the Catholics, Therefore when Crispi is weighed in don't want you as our deputies; we don't the balance and judged, it is admitted that, recognize you; we were against your elec- such as he is, with his faults and his tion; but at the same time we appeal to merits, he is a capable man and a sincere you in favor of the pope who condemos patriot. Certainly there is 10-day but one you?” Clearly the two programmes did minister in Italy, and that is Francesco not fit, and the result of the petition might | Crispi; his colleagues are simply secre

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taries. A veritable dictatorship is his Cairoli. After the French occupation of government, which he has modelled upon Tunis the fault-finding with Cairoli's policy that of Prince Bismarck, who is his idol. became more loud and universal; as a Like his prototype, when his government minister he grew unpopular. He there. is defeated, the ministry resign, a shuffle fore saw it was time to resign, and did of the cards takes place, and a new Cab so rather than make explanations which inet is formed with Crispi at its head. would have further embittered the feeling

between the two countries; but he is re

ported to have remarked to the French BENEDETTO CAIROLI.

ambassador, the day before he left office, A SINCERE patriot also, and a man hon that he was the last Italian minister who orable, if it is possible, to a fault, was could be friendly to France - a prophecy Benedetto Cairoli, who died at the close that so far has proved most true. of 1889, mourned by the whole land. As Cairoli belonged to the party which, bad a French writer well remarked : “ He was it been theirs to choose, would have estabthe most beautiful personification of the lished Italy on a republican basis. With Italian revolutionary legend." It is true their leader Mazzini, however, they wisely that some said his heart was better than held that “no one has the right to substihis head, that he was not always sagacious tute bis own will or that of his section to and acute — più onesto che abile (more the national will," and the national will honest than clever) was his own descrip. was that Victor Emmanuel should hold tion of himself - but when the heart is the reins a wise decision, for Italy was right, it is not so easy for the head to go neither then, nor is yet, ripe for the selffar astray. It was after the crisis of 1878 government and self-control that a true that he was called to hold ministerial republic requires. Cairoli above all things office, almost simultaneously with King longed for the eventual acquisition of the Humbert's accession to the throne. In Trentino and Trieste. It was on this achis family patriotism was traditional. His count that he and his friends accorded mother was a grand figure, lion-hearted, little importance to the colonial question. loving Italy as her master passion, willing Nay, they even combated ambitious colo. to give her sons, her all, for the sacred nial aspirations. That was the reason too cause; a very Cornelia, a woman to whom why they dreamed of a friendly undermay be applied the words of the old He- standing with France and Russia, that brew writer : “ The mother was marvellous these nations inight help them to oppose above all and worthy of honorable mem- an eventual war against Austria and Gerory." His brothers had successively died many. A pronounced Republican until in their country's cause. There only re- 1860, Cairoli was faithful to death to King mained at that time Benedetto, who had Huibert, whose life he saved when the already proved his valor on the battle-field. assassin Passanante sprang at the monHis was an open, frank disposition, he arch with his dagger. . Cairoli leant forbelieved in all and in everything - no ward and received the blow in his own astute statesman, but a man whose private breast. Fortunately it did not prove and public life was able to bear the mi. mortal. As a Lombard he naturally deputest scrutiny: Called to be minister of tested the Austrians under whose oppres. foreign affairs in a difficult period of na- sive rule he had been born and reared, and tional history, during the clash of conflict. it was equally natural that the thought of ing interests that followed the treaty of a French " revenge” and the conquest of San Stefano, it was bis ardent desire that the Trentino and Trieste should seem to Italy should issue forth from the Berlin his eyes twin aspirations. Undoubtedly Congress with “clean hands.” The nat- the character of his policy made it bristle ural consequence of this desire was neces- with perils. England, who could not willsarily that Italy, acquiring nothing for ingly see an Italo-Russian accord, was herself, had to stand by tamely and see hostile to it; the same was the case with England take to herself' Cyprus; Austria, Bismarck, who looked with evil eye on Bosnia and Herzegovina ; France, Tunis. an Italo-French understanding. In conTime will decide whether these “clean sequence Cairoli had to fall, and this not

were not worth more than the withstanding that he represented the most “ dirty hands ” of Abyssinian soil. It is intimate national aspirations. His certain that the glorious records of Rome thoughts and hopes have remained the and Carthage, ever evoked in Italy, thanks legacy of the extreme Left parliamentary to that classical basis of education of which party, a party of whom we shall have to we spoke above, led to the ultimate fall of speak shortly.


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PASQUALE STANISLAO MANCINI. impassioned strains and long-drawn sighs PASQUALE STANISLAO MANCINI, who - city of workers and toilers for the peralso has recently joined the great majority, fecting of instruments with which to make on succeeding Cairoli as prime minister perfect music! That one word told of the absolutely changed the whole direction soul these men had put into their art and nature of Italian politics. For the yea, of the love they bore it. It was as if better? That the future can alone decide. every string strung in the city of music Thoughtful men are inclined to negative vibrated with the sound of that one word the question.

_"Cremona.” As every one knows, in order to give certain guarantees to England Italy was

I was born at Cremona (said the violin). drawn into the doubtfully fortunate busi- I would you could have seen our workness of Massaua, where Russia was at the shop. For centuries it had been the time preparing to place her foot. Mancini birthplace of the world-famed, world-adalso brought about the famous visit of mired violins. I, myself, am but a latter. King Humbert to Vienna, which signalized day descendant of the old race, possessing the first step towards the Triple Alliance none of the qualities of my ancestors save

the alliance that guarantees peace, it is the accumulated knowledge that each true true, but an armed peace, a terrible peace, artist brings to the perfecting of his craft. a costly peace, and one which strains to Knowledge is the world's great inherithe uttermost the Italian resources. It

tance – a patrimony that each son of the

earth was in consequence of Mancini's policy, may enjoy too, that there arose that tension with the

But to return to the house wherein was French republic which has been so det- our workshop. It was tall, many-storied, rimental to the commercial well-being of with high gables and narrow windows that both nations, especially to the poorest

overlooked a courtyard in the centre of pamely, Italy. Mancini was rather a great which stood a fountain, or rather a well; jurist than a great statesman, and his name

before the noonday beats and after the will be remembered for some brilliant sun bad gone down, the women used to studies made in juridical science, rather come with their high earthen pitchers and

for the policy which he inaugurated. gossip and sing, a waiting their turn to fill With his name we close the record.of the their pitchers. And the songs they sang leading statesmen of the governing party

floated in to us on the warm, perfumed air, in Italy, and will now pass on to speak of and the violins learned them so that they the minor lights.

knew music even before they were made. I tell you every particle of a violin must feel music within it, if the violin is to make it.

It was such a pretty sight, this courtFrom Murray's Magazine.

yard with its white, uneven fag.stones, MESSER ANTONIO'S REVENGE.

and its pot of oleanders and orange-trees, THE STORY TOLD BY THE CREMONA VIOLIN. side like a serried throng of lusty soldiers

and the great vine crawling up the houseIt had such a curious way of telling its up a mountain-steep. But women story, this old Italian violin. At first, needed to make the picture complete, and when it began to speak, the listeners could there were mostly women there, for beside only hear vague sounds which trembled, those that came to fetch water, there were moaned indistinctly. But ever and again some who lived in the houses that formed there arose a whole wave of harmonies three sides of the square courtyard, which that formed themselves into words which bad but one narrow egress. were comprehended by some, but not by These women were mostly washerall, for the beautifullest and highest things women by profession, and their variegated in the world need translation before they clothes, hung out to dry in the wind, made can be understood by the commonplace. a stir of life in the sleepy courtyard. BeIt is only the nightingales that understand sides these, there was one other woman, what it is that the nightingales sing. the keeper of the fruit-stall, and her fruits But at last all heard one word — Cre- made a fine patch of color in the most

and, as they heard it, they caught shadowy corner. a glimmering of what Cremona must have Here it was that the apprentices, who been in the bygone, long-dead days, even were not always as eager to work as Mes. before this violin had taken form. Cre- ser Antonio, came to quench their thirst mona! city of music — city of love -of with the ripe luscious fruit, so temptingly



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