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Welcome, O New Year I - still our sad

souls' fretting: Lift up our hearts, and gird us for the fight; Scatter the mists of faithless fear's beget

ting; God sent the darkness - God will send the

light. Spectator.

R. K. H.

A PROTEST AND A CONFESSION.

BY A MASHER.

THE waves that now, with sullen roar,
Break upon this lonely shore,

Fill my heart with sadness,

Thinking of the gladness That seems gone forevermore ; Thinking of the laughter gay Of the children, blithe as May,

Whose rosy feet were glancing,

O'er the wet sands dancing,
To meet the gentle riplet's play.
Sad and silent are the sands;
Where the merry groups joined hands.

Nought is heard, except the moaning

As of fettered spirits groaning,
Bound by Winter's icy bands.
Yet though, beneath this sky of lead,
Joy seems crushed and well-nigh dead,

And the spirit weary,

Desolate and dreary, Feels as if all hope were fled; Over this tempestuous main Summer suns will shine again,

Children's happy voices singing,

O’er the laughing ocean ringing, Bring peace to weary heart and brain. Academy.

ALFRED W. BENNETT.

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TO 1890.
DEATH and disease, Old Year, thou camest

bearing:
Sorrow and want attend upon thee yet:
Into the gathering shadows disappearing,

Vanish! without one tribute of regret.

But promptly to the great occasion rise;
Rich trunks as worn by those around Queen

Bess,
And wondrous satin hose I would devise.

Fair spread to heaven the tree of our con

tentment: Lovely its blossoms thou hast stripped it

bare! Shall we fawn on thee, stilling just resent

ment, Tyrant! who stabbed our peace with sharp

est care?

But circumstances alter cases. Yes!

I am not built that way, but otherwise, And hence I am, to my extreme distress, Ashamed to dress.

St. James's Gazette.

Spring smiled to meet thee — but thy cold

glance killed her; Summer stood shiv'ring, wet with many a But is it there the Heaven you sing? tear :

Shall God make whole the rents of life? Autumn laughed out — with joy her presence And shall our ears no longer ring filled her:

With the old clang of toil and strife? Winter, she knew, would lay thee on thy bier.

Shall things be fair, but never fleet?

Shall laughter be the voice of mirth? Hopes turned to ashes - these shall be thy Shall Nature's face be soft, and sweet token:

With tender memories of earth? Let their ghosts haunt thee on thy dying bed!

Or, while our friends and lovers weep Hearts thou found'st happy lightly thou hast That we have passed Death's iron gate, broken;

Shall we be lost in endless sleep, Shall we lament, Old Year, that thou art Nor dream of those who mourn our fate? dead ?

W. H. POLLOCK.

From The Fortnightly Review. nian bogs constitute the unpromising ma-
FINLAND.

terials out of which they have had to NOTHING strikes one more forcibly in fashion and shape the prosperous country reading the lives of some of the world's to which they have given infinitely more greatest artists than the difficulty they than its name. experienced in obtaining suitable materi- Finland is one of the most singular als in which to embody their immortal countries in Europe, a place scarcely yet creations. What strenuous and painful quite ready for human habitation. It was efforts Benvenuto Cellini, for instance, covered once — geologists say eighty thouwas forced to make to induce even his sand years ago by an immense ice-cap most generous patrons to dole him out a which scattered drift and boulders and little gold and silver to coin in the mint glaciated stones throughout the length of his genius! Plated bronze, magnilo and breadth of the land, and these souquently termed "silver," was the most venirs of that dreary epoch are still painprecious metal they cared to part with fully visible on the hills, in the woods, and for the purpose ; and even the historic on the well-tilled fields of stunted corn. block of marble over which Bandinelli After the glacial period the land again broke his heart, and which Cellini's hands subsided, its lower levels remaining a would have fashioned into such a Neptune considerable time under water, from which as the world has never yet beheld, was it is now emerging at the rate, in some denied bim, and given to a mere architect. places, of over a yard a century. Hence

Nature, in her dealings with heroic it is that the numberless stacks and skerpeoples, seems as close-fisted as royal ries and islets that bestrew the gulfs and patrons were wont to be towards their channels, hundreds of which are some. favorite artists; and the noblest deeds in times clustered together over an area of the world's history were performed upon five or six miles, are gradually diminishing barren hills, by the banks of tiny rivulets, in number. Finland is still, therefore, in and on Liliputian plaios that would process of formation -a province of the scarcely be missed out of the vast estate lately Unshapen Land; its hills are freof a modern American coro-grower or quently mere granite rocks, its valleys Russian poble. It is thus that the mala- lonely lakes, its rivers sluggish sheets of rial swamps, dreary wastes, and snow. water with a scarcely perceptible motion ; clad mountains of ancient Media were its lakes flow gently, communicating with metamorphosed, by the energetic tribe each other, and might be aptly called that once dwelt there and produced Zara. rivers. Even the simple elements there thustra, into a country of ideal order, the have a tendency to commingle and comsource of the brightest and purest reli- bine in chaotic confusion; and as the gious light that ever burned in pagan water is continually yielding up its land, antiquity; it is thus that in more modern so the land is, to a very great extent, satutimes the Dutch have worked out their rated with water. A tenth part of all political and religious ideals under most Finland is completely under water; and adverse conditions, stamping the indellible about a quarter of the land is composed mark of order upon a heap of mud of morasses and bogs. spatched from the ocean's embrace; it is Yet, for all this, the country has a thus tbat the English have engraved many charm and beauty peculiarly its own, not a thrilling page of the world's history and to be matched in Europe, not to be painted their own upon a haze-enveloped island of in language. The majestic waterfall of

The Finds of Suomi * have been Imatra, the picturesque banks of the river in this respect to the full as unfortunate Vuoksen, the great Lake Saima with its as more celebrated peoples; and dreary, thousands of nestling green islets, once endless tundras, lonely lakes, rocky seen are never to be forgotten; for they islands, immense pine forests, and Serbo- range themselves under no categories of

• The Finnish name of the country usually called sights and sounds of common experience. Finland

A Finnish landscape is stamped with its

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own peculiar cachet, as different from all! But one misses something in Finnish that we are accustomed to as a rustic scene scenery it would be difficult to define on the planet Mars. You move closely what – the absence of which intensifies forwards in a Finnish forest, wrapped in a the feeling of utter loneliness that comes profound silence unbroken by aught save over the solitary traveller there. It somethe sighing of the wind in the topmost times seems to be that harmonious confu. branches of the pines or firs, when you sion of vague sounds which captivates the suddenly catch a glimpse of a lake, set like seoses, changes all mental faculties for a huge sapphire in the dark green of the the moment into a sole organ of receptivdense foliage; it looks like an orifice that ity, and makes you part and parcel of inleads straight down to hell ; its waters have articulate nature. A Finnish forest seems never been caressed by the wanton breeze, devoid of these magic sounds, its silence its mirror-like surface has never been ruf- is sadness, its solemnity overpowering. fed but by the rare gambols of the playful This solitude is the result not merely of perch or the rapid movements of the soli. impressions of the present, but also of the tary plungeon swimming about in search lack of memories of the past. There is of his prey. The murmur of running absolutely nothing in Finland to remind water next strikes your ear, and wending you of the bistory of humanity ; no anyour way to the spot whence it proceeds, cient monuments or hallowed ruins, no which you fancy close by, you see but the footsteps of an extinct race or faint traces soft soil carpeted with moss and purple of a forgotten civilization. An autumnal heather. All at once, between the trunks night spent in a Finnish forest, the Arctic of the pines, at a stone's-throw from where winds attuning the trees to dismal moan. you are walking, you descry the birches ing, would endow a person of ordinary that line the opposite bank. You are on imaginative powers with a sixth sense, the edge of a slope, and far down below and enable him to feel the presence of you the seething water is darting little those evil spirits whom the Finns were arrows of dazzling light through the dense once wont to fear and worship. The spell foliage above. You descend the incline would be strengthened rather than broken holding on with one hand to the trunks by the half-human cote of a solitary bird, and with the other to the branches of the once perhaps a lovesick maiden meta.mortrees, and, standing at last on the brink of phosed by a maleficent old sorceress, Nor the torrent, you perceive high above your does the forest need the aid of the eerie head a thin strip of ethereal blue, and on northern twilight, or of the ghostly mists both sides an impenetrable wall of foliage that clog the evening air, to let loose interlaced with trunks of trees. Pushing strange, shadowy shapes — on for a considerable distance farther be. tween the serried rows of trees, you at That shift and vanish, change and interchange length reach the fringe of the forest, on

Like spectres. leaving which the scene is metamorphosed Nature in Finland would seem to have as by the touch of a magic wand, and been much more chary of the useful than a most varied and wonderful landscape the beautiful, and the material resources opens out before you — numberless lakes of the country are to a far greater extent studded with tufted islets, promontories, than elsewhere the work of the hands of rapids, green fields, and crested hills. At

man. Abundance of fish in the rivers, a single glance your eye takes in immense gulfs, and lakes, and of pastures in many masses of light and shade; the sombre of the islands, plenty of game in several hue of the firs in the marshy valley, the districts of the interior, extensive forests dark green of the pine forest, and, high of stately pines and graceful larches, quanabove all, encircling the base of the hill tities of iron ore deposited at the bottom as with a leafy crown, the tender foliage of lakes, a soil that with the utmost care of the birches.*

of the husbandman will at the best of

times but barely repay the money and . Cf. Runeberg in an interesting paper published in the Helsingfors Morgonblad, 1832.

labor expended in tilling it, and a treach

*

men

erous climate that very often destroys in curiosity that animates me when I view a nigbt the produce of a year *. these the remains of a plesiosaurus or a meare the scanty materials out of which the gatherium. I have a feeling that the viFions have built up one of the most thriv. cissitudes of his ancient race, though they ing countries in the world.

do not touch his consciousness, must in The Finn is as interesting a specimen some mysterious way help to modify his of humanity as his country is of inanimate character and psychological condition. nature. He belongs to a race which was something of the same feeling is awak. active and civilized before the Greek or ened within me wben I meet a Finn; it is the Indian, the Jew or the Persian was difficult to shake off the notion that his heard of; a race, one of the branches of character and habits of thought are in which worked in metals, built Babylon, some undefinable manner affected by the practised the arts of magic there, and sad fate of his people. His dreary, natuenacted laws in favor of women's rights ral surroundings have likewise left their loog before the first Semitic king took mark upon him; and this twofold influhis seat on the throne of that historic ence seems distinctly visible in his pencity.t

sive features, knitted brows, inflexible I confess I never see an individual of facial muscles, his introspective gaze, tacithe Basque people who are supposed to turnity, and lack of common curiosity. be the sole rempant of a Neolithic race of | The Fions, after having cleared forests, without feeling the same reverent worked mines, created religions, and com

posed epic poems in Asia, wandered into • Two nights' premature frost are enough to destroy Russia, and settled in the country watered the crops completely and bring about a famine.

+ This comparison will seem paradoxical only to by the Volga, whence in time they were those who have never made a special study of the sub-driven to the desolate fastnesses of the ject. lo reality it is the commonly accepted theory of north, where frost gods and the spirits of authoritative philologists, founded on a careful study of the Accadian, of the Cuneiform Inscriptions, and strange diseases wandered about and had Finnish languages and civilizations. Thus the gram- power over men. matical structure of the two languages is identical and

Constant communion with nature tends the lexicographical points of resemblance are also numerous and striking. The names of the ancient tribes to make men democratic, and no people in Akkadi (literally mountaineers) and Sumeri (dwellers the old world or the new not excepting on the river banks) at once remind one of the Finnish the sturdy Norwegians are more frankly tribal games, Akkarak and Suomi (which have the same meanings). The old Accadian word urud (cop- democratic than the Finns. The consti. per) is radically identical with the Finnish rauta (iron). tution of their country, which they, unfor. Accad. ma (country) is the Finnish maa (country); Accad. sa (a field) is the same as Finn. sia (a space); tunately, did not frame, and which they Accad. til (to complete, fill) is identical with the Mag- are powerless to alter, recognizes a class yar tele (full); Accad. uzu (flesh) has the same origin of nobles, the great majority of whom are and the same meaning as the Magyar word hus; Accad. untitled; but the proudest nobleman of nab (light) is at bottom the same word as Magyar nap (day); Accad. mar (a road) Magyar mor (a them all is as democratic as the shoe. road); Accad. âr la nose) = Magyar orr (a nose), etc., maker of Helsingfors or the fisherman of

Among all the languages of the Touranian family Aland. Nor is this the result of agitation the Finnish and Magyar, or Hungarian, are the two that exhibit the most striking resemblance to ancient or “educational suggestion," or of other

If we take the personal pronouns, v.g., we artificial measures; it is the outcome of find that the first person singular in Accad. is mu, in

the history and character of the people. Finnish ma ; the second person in Accad. sa; the third person in Accad. na, ni, in Finn. ne ; the Even their literature, which is very far first person plural Accad. me, Finn. me, etc., etc. The from barren, knows none of those great religious system of the Accadians seems, so far as it is known to us, in all essential points identical with that master-minds whom one might call the of the pagan Finns; the same charms, spells, and in- tyrants of a period of poetry, philosophy, captations practised under exactly the same circuin- or art, and whose dazzling genius eclipses stances, the same worship of spirits, and the same

And the demonological naturalism. From the fragments of im- that of less distinguished men. perfectly understood laws that have come down to us moral and mental gifts that would have from pre-Semitic Babylon, it seems clear that the been needed to equip such heroes seem to ancient Accadians, like the pagan Finns, accorded the have been fairly distributed among the mother a more important role in the domestic rites than

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Accadian.

2U,

in Finn.

crowd.

the father.

One of the most instructive sights of is no less characteristic of the nation than the country is an ordinary Finnish farm in of the individual. Moreover, it has been the interior, say in Satakunta or Savolaks, strengthened by bitter experience of the or in Ostrobothnia, on the verge of the results of launching out into the ocean of dreary country of the Lapps, which is in politics – sanguinary wars, famide and truth

pestilence, which have often reduced the A soundless waste, a trackless vacancy.

population of Finland to a couple of hun.

dred thousand souls. This experience It is generally a spacious, oblong building, lies at the root of the desire which they one story high, resting on a foundation have always manifested to keep aloof of unhewn stones, frequently on a rock of from wars, rebellions, and political in. solid granite. Round about are grouped trigues which were the main elements of the outhouses, which are of the essence of the history of northern countries in the all Finnish farms; the cowhouse, the Middle Ages. forge, the stable, the pigsty, the granary, Christianity was grafted upon Finnish the little house for artificially drying the paganism by English bishops from Swecorn, and the bathhouse (for the Finn's den; “civilization” was forced upon the notions of cleanliness are extremely ad- people by Swedish Karls, and for several vanced, and in summer even the poorest centuries afterwards Sweden and Russia peasant takes a “Turkish "bath about six made Finland the battle.ground on which times a week, in winter once or twice). they fought out the momentous question The cornfields, which are not divided by which of them should have the privilege fence, ditch, or hedgerow from the wide of misruling a people who only asked to plain of rolling fern that stretches away to be let alone. Finland remained for many ihe forest, are studded over with stones centuries politically united to Sweden, unand boulders that look, at a distance, like til, in 1729, Russia annexed the province petrified sheep and oxen. The house is of Wyborg, transferred the landowners divided into three or four rooms always there into tenants, and parcelled out the kept scrupulously clean, from the rafters land among a few Russian nobles, who of which the winter's provision of bread worked uncommonly hard to deserve that is hung up to dry. This bread consists of peculiar species of renown which Proround, fat cakes more easily broken with fessor Teufelsdröckh so lavishly decreed an axe than with human teeth, with a hole to Zaehdarm. in the centre of each through which a Sweden could no more reconcile herself thong or cord on which they hang is to the loss of a Finnish province than passed. These cakes are generally made France can brook the loss of Alsace and of barley four, but they sometimes con- Lorraine. Hostilities therefore broke out tain an admixture of Iceland moss or the again and again, and the final war of repowdered bark of the pine. Among the venge was still undecided in 1808, when Other staple articles of consumption are the Russian emperor Alexander I. issued dried salt fish, herrings, and cheese. a proclamation to the Finns calling upon Whenever meat is to be found on a Fin. them to recognize the protectorate of nish farm, it generally assumes the form Russia and to send a deputation of the of mutton which has been parboiled, four orders of the population * to St. Pesalted, and smoked, and which, if appear tersburg to discuss the lines on which the ances are grossly deceptive, may prove a country should be governed in future. toothsome viand. No house is without a

The conviction that Sweden's part in few books and newspapers, among which European politics was played out disposed you can always find a Bible, or at least a the Finns to close with this offer, while New Testament and a bymn-book. But their misgivings that Russia might afterbesides these farmhouses, which are ten-wards avail herself of the precedent to anted by middle-class farmers, the travel. abolish the Diet or transfer the sittings to ler occasionally comes across a solitary St. Petersburg, caused them to hesitate to wooden cabin standing in the dreary plain fulfil the conditions. It was only when scores of miles away from the next house, the commander-in-chief of the Russian like a frail boat on a storm-tossed ocean. army had given them repeated and official For the Finn has no aversion to soli.

assurances that their fears were tude ; he likes to be alone with nature and founded, that the deputation repaired to his conscience. Like Thoreau he feels the Russian capital. The emperor acted that, our planet being still in the Milky upon the advice they offered and convened Way, it would be folly to complain of lone. liness. And this love of peace and quiet * Nobility, clergy, burghers, and peasants.

un.

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