siders that they were even then tributary Hence, it follows that the great North to the St. Lawrence.

American lakes are of comparatively mod. But it would not suffice to block these ern date, and are nothing more than a chappels with glacial drift. Parts of Lake great system of river valleys, which have Superior, the southern basin of Michi- been converted into a chain of huge lakes, gao, a little of Huron, and the eastern partly by the blockage of old channels, end of Ontario are beneath the sea. partly by differential movements of the level; the last as much as four hundred earth's crust. If this view be estaband ninety-one feet below it. We must lished, and the evidence in its favor (which assume in addition a considerable down- finds much support from other regions) ward movement of the whole area, other appears very strong, it will help in eluciwise these valleys could never have dating several important questions, bearemotied themselves into the sea. To ing on not only the history of the glacial drain the valley occupied by Ontario would epoch and the exact mode of the accumurequire, at the least, an elevation of more lation of the débris, but also on the cause than seven hundred feet; southern Michi. of the movements of a crust which is gan, of not much less, perhaps of more. asserted by physicists to be rigid. But This hypothesis, however, presents no real into these questions, fascinating as they difficulty, for it can be proved that many are, want of space precludes us from in. regions have been affected by movements, quiring on the present occasion. both upwards and downwards, in glacial

T. G. BONNEY. or post-glacial times. The coast of Nor. way and many parts of northern America have been affected by a great downward movement - amounting not seldom to at least a thousand feet, and sometimes even

From The Spectator. as much as a thousand yards. This, again, after the ice had.melted away and the main physical features of the district were

MR. KINGLAKE's name will, we imay. sculptured, was followed by one in the ine, be more closely associated in English cootrary direction, which may be occasion. literature with his “ Invasion of the Crially measured by some hundreds of feet; mea down to the Death of Lord Raglan as, for example, at the beaches of Novaya than with his volume of travels in the Zembla, the terraces of the Varanger East, simply because the former contains Fjord, and of many another inlet in Nor. so much that men desire to read for other way. Of this movement also there is reasons than the wish to promote their proof on the Fraser and other rivers in own enjoyment; whilst the latter, if it America.

were not read for pleasure, would not be But to convert Lake Ontario into a river read at all. Yet we do not hesitate to say valley it would not be enough to give a that “Eothen” is the richer in genius of general uplift and clear away the dams of the two. It is, we imagine, the best book glacial drift. Differential movements of of travels published in this century, and is the earth's crust are required. That these as full of the spirit of youth and courage have sometimes occurred has been long as it is of graphic vision and of buoyant sipce proved, in the case of Norway. self-satire. Like all Kinglake ever wrote, Now, careful observations, by Professor " Eothen” is self-conscious from begin. Spencer and others, show the reasonable. ning to end. But then it is self-conscious ness of the hypothesis in the district of with a brisk impatience of its own selfthe great lakes. Around their shores are consciousness, and vibrates with throb old terraces, which extend in some cases of exultation as the exciting adventures to a height of seventeen hundred feet through which he passed recur to him. above the present water-level, and are in. And this deprives the book of all that dicative, in Professor Spencer's opinion, sense of over-elaboration which mars of a depression to that amount. A series something of the effect of the history of of careful measurements undertaken on Lord Raglan's command. It is quite true, different terraces and around more than we believe, that “ Eothen” was very care. one American lake prove that these ter. fully polished too. Tradition says that it races do not correspond with the existing was kept nine years in manuscript before contour lines, but have been affected by a lit was given to the world, and that its differential uplift, amounting in one case very successful concealment of art was to as much as four feet per mile.

one of the chief evidences of the art with

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which it was composed. Doubtless it was that, if he was famous for the splendor of his

But still, the élan, the dash, the eloquence, for his unaffected piety, and for overflow of spirits, the "genial sense of his blamieless life, he was celebrated far and youth,” with which the travels abound, wide for a more than common liveliness of

conscience. He had once imagined it to be are most fascinating; and the care taken to revise the story of them only resulted his duty to quit a government, and to burst in the exclusion of everything that had no tude, by reason of a thin shade of difference

through strong ties of friendship and gratiliterary significance, and the compression on the subject of white or brown sugar. It of everything which would bear compres- was believed that if he were to commit even a sion without the loss of vivacity and force. little sin, or to imagine an evil thought, he In “ The Invasion of the Crimea down to would instantly arraign himself before the the Death of Lord Raglan," there is an dread tribunal which awaited him in his own anxious brilliance, a studied and long- bosom; and that, his intellect being subtle drawn incisiveness, which gives the im- and microscopic, and delighting in casuistry pression of powers tasked and strained to

and exaggeration, he would be likely to give

his soul a very harsh trial, and treat himself produce the highest literary effect. In

as a great criminal for faults too minute to be Eothen," Mr. Kinglake knew that if he visible to the naked eyes of laymen. His could but recall the freshness of his own friends lived in dread of his virtues as tending personal impressions, he must succeed. to make him whimsical and unstable, and the In the history, he was quite aware how practical politicians, conceiving that he was much more anxious was his task, - first, not to be depended upon for party purposes, to combine the effect of all he had felt and and that he was bent on none but lofty objects, heard and read in the scenery of his own used to look upon him as dangerous, used imagioation; and, next, to reproduce that to call him behind his back a good man,

In scenery vividly for others; and as he had good man in the worst sense of the term. felt and heard a great deal and read a

1853 it seemed only too probable that he great deal, and as his own likes and dis- picion of the warlike tendency of the govern

might quit office upon an infinitely slight suslikes were sometimes not a little imporment; but what appeared certain was, that if tunate and difficult to gratify without upon the vital question of peace or war, the devices which looked almost artificial, the government should depart by even a hairsresult was necessarily complex, and left breadth from the right path, the chancellor of those who read it with a certain sense of the exchequer would instantly refuse to be a fatigued admiration. For instance, the partaker of their fault. He, and he before attack on Mr. Gladstone, as the chancellor all other man, stood charged to give the alarm of the exchequer who in Lord Aberdeen's of danger; and there seemed to be no particle government drifted into war without warn

of ground for fearing that, like the prime ing the country whither it was going, bril. fulness and alacrity of his conscience, and his

minister, he would drift. The known watchliant in its irony as it is, is unquestionably power of detecting small germs of evil, led too elaborate for full effectiveness. The the world to think it impossible that he could sapping and mining is too ingenious, the be moving for months in a wrong course withirony too emphatic, the scorn too redun- out knowing it. dant. Lord Aberdeen, the prime minis. ter, is let off so easily as he is, evidently That is rather long-drawn and “cold. in order to throw Mr. Gladstone's respon- drawn” (as druggists say of some disasibility for the manner in which the drift- greeable medicines), and the still more ing into war took place, into higher relief. celebrated and much more elaborated disLord Aberdeen wandered on in the dark; section of Louis Napoleon is marked in a Mr. Gladstone, on the contrary, it is im- very much higher degree by the same plied, was shuffling the pleas of conscience defects. The style of “ The Invasion of with which he was beset, so as to render the Crimea,” with all its highly polished the excuse of “invincible ignorance” en- brilliance, is very inferior, in our estimatirely inappropriate:

tion, to the style of “ Eothen” in genius

and fascination. « Eothen” is full of a But there was another member of the Cab young man's eloquence, it is true ; but inet who was supposed to hold war in deep |íhen, it is the eloquence of a young man abhorrence. Mr. Gladstone was chancellor of sharp senses, keen wit, and the most of the exchequer; and since he was by virtue vivid life. There is something artificial of his office the appointed guardian of the public purse, those pure and lofty principles

and over-ripe in even the finest invective which made him cling to peace were reinforced of “ The Invasion of the Crimea." Com. by an official sense of the harm which war in pare, for instance, the tirade, we have just flicts by its costliness. Now it happened quoted against Mr. Gladstone, which

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wholly missed, we think, the peculiar and the wonderful beauty of the Smyrnese dangerous concentration of Mr. Glad women and the splendor of the sculptured stone's mind on his own more distinctly Persephone, with “the massive braid of personal responsibilities, and the eager hair as it catches a touch of light on its combativeness of his character in relation jetty surface, and the broad, calm, angry to those responsibilities, with the admi- brow, the large eyes deeply set and selfrable irony with which Kinglake laughs at relying as the eyes of a conqueror, with himself in " Eothen” on the proposal of all their rich shadows of thought lying his dragoman that he should put to death darkly around them ... the thin, fiery the Nazarene guide who had led him nostril and the bold line of the chin and astray on the east bank of the Jordan. throat disclosing all the fierceness and all "And here it was, if I remember rightly, the pride, passion, and power that can live that Dthemetri submitted to me a plan along with the womanly beauty of the for putting to death the Nazarine whose sweetly turned lips ; or describes his misguidance had been the cause of our feelings as he came once more in view of difficulties. There was something fasci- the Western world on the pass of the dating in this suggestion, for the slaying Lebanon, and reminds himself that he of the guide was of course easy enough, must not linger too long on “that difficult and would look like an act of what politi- pass that leads from Thought to Action,” cians call 'vigor.' If it were only to be- Mr. Kinglake did not write a sentence come known to my friends in England, in “Eothen” that was not instinct with that I had calmly killed a fellow.creature ardent life. for taking me out of my way, I might re- As a matter of fact, however, Kinglake main perfectly quiet and tranquil for the did linger all his life on the difficult pass rest of my days, quite free from the dan. in question. It is true that he came home ger of being considered .slow.' I might and was called to the bar, followed Marever after live on my reputation, like shal St. Arnaud in his Algerian campaign, single-speech Hamilton in the last cen. entered Parliament, took up — rather lantury, or single-sin ' in this, without guidlya few Foreign Office questions, being obliged to take the trouble of doing accompanied the staff in the Crimea, and any more harm in the world,” — and so on. wrote “ The Invasion of the Crimea," a That has much more pulse in it than the book full of rate research, elaborate irony of the history; and indeed, through-invective, elaborate military criticism, and out this inimitable book of travels, the elaborate analysis of character ; but he vividness of the life strikes one from be- never plunged into anything like real acginning to eod, showing itself in the half. tion. His life hardly redeemed the promsatirical enthusiasm, the high courage, the ise of his delightful youthful journey. His laughing energy, the cool presence of mind lost its enthusiasm, its freshness, mind with which every turn in events is though not its culture and its keen irony. met, and which contrasts curiously with If he is remembered, as he will be, for a the somewhat weary, artistic finish of most polished and studied story of a year "The Invasion of the Crimea." There is or two of war, he will never be fully ena swiftness, an aperçu, a touch of the old joyed except in the spirit-stirring advenworld cavalier about “ Eothen,” which we ture, the dubious scorn, the eager wonder, never find again in Mr. Kinglake's writ- and the brilliant pictures of “Ēothen." ings. Whether he takes off the specula. tive disgust with which the Turk regards the Englishman, —"a mysterious, unaccountable, uncomfortable work of God which may have been sent for some good

OLD FRIENDS IN NEW FACES. purpose, to be revealed hereafter; indulges in a rhapsody on the Sphinx Butler, the author of “ Erewhon,” contrib

To the Universal Review, Mr. Samuel gazing on keen-eyed travellers, Herodo. tus yesterday and Warburton to-day; utes some quaint “ Ramblings in Cheapdescribes his sensations when he found side.” From the transmigration of souls himself op a swift dromedary absolutely it is a short step to the transmigration of alone in the desert, and on a very uncertain bodies. Of this phenomenon Mr. Butler and, as it proved, misleading track; or as gives the following instances within his he finds himself, after a fall from the same

own range of observation : dromedary, alone in the darkness without even anything to ride upon; or admiring Going down once towards Italy I saw a

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young man in the train whom I recog- did not miss a dance all the way to Clacnized, only he seemed to have got young. ton, nor all the way back again, and when

All of a sudden I remembered he was not dancing he was firting and cracking King Francis I. of France. I had hith. jokes. I could hardly believe my eyes erto thought the face of this king im- when I reflected that this man had painted possible, but when I saw it in play I the famous “ Last Judgment,” and had understood it. His great contemporary made all these statues. Henry VIII. keeps a restaurant in Oxford Dante is, or was a year or two ago, a Street. Falstaff drove one of the St. waiter at Brissago, on the Lago Maggiore, Gothard diligences for many years, and only he is better-tempered-looking and has only retired when the railway was opened. a more intellectual expression. He gave Titiau once made me a pair of boots at me his ideas upon beauty. “Tutto ch'è Vicenza, and not very good ones. At Mo- vero è bello,” he exclaimed, with all his old dena I had my hair cut by a young man self-confidence. “I am not afraid of whom I perceived was Raffaelle. The Dante. I know people by their friends, model who sat to him for his celebrated and he went about with Virgil.” So I said, Madonnas is first lady in a confectionery with some severity, "No, Dante, il naso establishment at Montreal. She has a della Signora Robinson è vero, ma non è little motherly pimple on the left side of bello,” and he admitted I was right. Bea. her nose that is misleading at first, but on trice's name is Towler ; she is waitress at examination she is easily recognized ; a small inn in German Switzerland. I used probably Raffaelle's model had the pimple to sit at my window and hear people call too, but Raffaelle left it out — as he would.“ Towler, Towler, Towler,” fifty times in a Handel, of course, is Madame Patey. forenoon. She was the exact antithesis of Give Madame Patey Handel's wig and Abra; Abra, if I remember, used to come clothes, and there would be no telling her before they called her name, but no mat. from Handel

. It is not only that the ter how often they called Towler, every features and the shape of the head are the one came before she did. I suppose they same, but there is a certain imperiousness spelt her name Tauld, but to me it sounded of expression and attitude about Handel, Towler; I never, however, met any one which he hardly attempts to conceal in else with this name. She was a sweet, Madame Patey. It is a curious coinci- artless, little hussy, who made me play dence that he should continue to be such the piano to her, and she sa

it was an incomparable renderer of his own mu- lovely. Of course I only played my own sic. Pope Julius II. was the late Mr. compositions; so I believed her, and it Darwin. I met Goethe once coming down all went off very nicely. I thought it Ludgate Hill, and glared at him, but would might save trouble if I'did not tell her not look at him. Mr. Pitt is a clerk in a who she really was, so I said nothing solicitor's office, and neither drinks nor about it. I have never seen Mendelssoba, gambles. Michael Angelo is a commis- but there is a fresco of him on the terrace, siopaire; I saw him on board the Glen or open-air dining-room, of an inn at ChiRosa, which used to run every day from avenna. He is not called Mendelssohn, London to Clacton-on-Sea and back. It but I knew him by his legs. He is in the gave me quite a turn when I saw him costume of a dandy of some five-and forty coming down the stairs from the upper years ago, is smoking a cigar, and appears deck, with his bronzed face, flattened nose, to be making an offer of marriage to his and with the familiar bar upon his fore. cook. Beethoven both my friend Mr. H. head. I never liked Michael Angelo, and Festing Jones and I have had the good never shall, but I am afraid of him, and fortune to meet; he is an engineer now, was near trying to hide when I saw him and does not know one note from anothcoming towards me. He had not got his er; he has quite lost his deafness, is marcommissionaire's uniform on, and I did ried, and is, of course, a little squat man not know he was one till I met him a with the same refractory hair that he month or so later in the Strand. When always had. It was very interesting to we got to Blackwall the music struck up watch him, and Jones remarked that before and people began to dance. I never saw the end of dinner he had become posi. a man dance so much in my life. He tively posthumous.




Fifth Series, Volume LXXII.


No. 2433.– February 14, 1891.

From Beginning, Vol. CLXXXVIII.


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Fortnightly Review, II. MADELEINE'S STORY,


Nineteenth Century,

Quarterly Review,

National Review,


119 127

438 443 446

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