Such recollections would not diminish | (and doth no ways wish your death), but to Mary's enjoyment in playing the part of a this end that all the plagues and miseries very candid friend in reference to Eliza- which may befall any man, may light upon beth's personal attractions. Probably, such a caitiff as you are, and that you should however, Elizabeth never saw the letter, live to have all your friends forsaké you; and possibly it was never sent. At all events

without your great repentance, which she no notice seems to have been taken of the looketh not for because your life has been so countess's alleged slander of Queen Eliz-fire.

bad, you will be damned perpetually in hell abeth. She was, however, cited before the Council for speaking evil of her hus.

The bearer of the message in recording band and the Scottish queen. She, of it says that “if he had failed in anything course, protested that she was innocent. it was in speaking it more mildly, and not Her denial, if it satisfied anybody, failed in terms of such disdain as he was comto appease her husband. When he was

manded." relieved of his duties as Mary's keeper

We have many letters from this lady's and her custody was committed to other husband, Gilbert Talbot, sending the lathands, which welcome change took place est London news to his father at Sheffield. during the controversies which arose over One morning Gilbert was walking, about the scandal about Mary and the earl, so eight o'clock, in the Tilt Yard at White. that he became free to leave both' the hall when the queen incautiously appeared Scottish queen and his wife, he thanked at one of the wicdows of the palace whilst Elizabeth" for delivering him from two she was still “unreddy and in her nightdevils.

stuffe.” She pretended to be dreadfully Before the countess quarrelled with her shocked, and when she saw him in the illustrious captive she had procured afternoon she gave him a great “phylypp through her a very distinguished match on the forehead, and somewhat unnecessafor her daughter, Elizabeih Cavendish. rily told the lord chamberlain, who was We have seen Lord Shrewsbury trying to standing near, about the misadventure of purchase through the lord treasurer a the morning, and how ashamed she was. young gentleman for this young lady. Another of Gilbert's letters is addressed Negotiations in other quarters had also to the countess, and shows that he thought failed, and in 1574 she was married to the that there was a tender spot in the old young Earl of Lennox, first cousin and lady's heart, and that she could be amused brother-in-law to Mary Queen of Scots. by the prattle of her grandchildren when He was a younger brother of Darnley, her their parents were in favor. second husband. This marriage brought George is very well [writes Gilbert to his down Elizabeth's wrath on the countess's mother-in-law] he drinketh every day to Lady head, and she was put into custody for a Grandmother; rideth to her very often, yet time. Elizabeth had an objection to most within the court; and if he have any spice I marriages, and in this case the husband tell him Lady Grandmother is come and will was rather near the throne. The only see him; which he then will either quickly child of the marriage was the ill-fated hide or quickly, eat; and then asks where Arabella Stuart.

Lady Danmodé is. Mary, the wife of Gilbert Talbot was a The union of his son Gilbert with the daughter who enjoyed much of the count- countess's daughter was probably an un. ess's favor. The younger lady seems to fortunate one for the earl. Gilbert's viohave had a temper equal in strength to lent wife and mother-in-law drew him into her mother's, and no less vigor in express- antagonism with his father, in spite of the ing her feelings. On one occasion she father's evident affection for his son. sent a message to Sir Thomas Stanhope, The earl epigrammatically expresses bis a neighbor with whom she was not on opinion of his wife and her daughter, good terms, which was thus delivered by "deither barrel better herring,” but he the messenger :

adds that he would not have his son hate

his wife though he himself detests her My lady hath commanded me to say thus mother. Within seven or eight years much to you, that though you be more after the earl and his son Gilbert had wretched, vile, and miserable than any crea. married the mother and daughter we find ture living, and for your wickedness become more ugly in shape than the vilest toad in the Gilbert writing to his mother-in-law to world, and one to whom none of any reputa- complain of his father's uphandsome con. tion would vouchsafe to send any message, duct in giving him the tester and curtains yet she hath thought good to send so much to of the old green and red bed, and those of you, that she be contented you should live the bed that Gilbert and his wife usually


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lay in, and two very old counterpanes, in- I interview with the earl and countess, and stead of the bed of cloth of gold and tawny gave them the benefit of a royal exhortavelvet that the countess had promised. It tion with such success that husband and is evident that the countess took care to wife “in good sort departed together very keep alive any little soreness of this kind. comfortably." Her frequent visits to Chatsworth to su- The reconciliation unhappily did not perintend the building operations annoyed last long. The countess is found soon the earl, who was probably not pre-emi-after complaining that the earl hardly ever Dently patient even when he had no goutcomes to see her, and in

ite of his prom to irritate him. He said that be had often ises to the queen, has withdrawn his cursed the buildings at Chatsworth for provisions and does not even let her have robbing him of her compaoy, but as he enough fire. The queen and Council, also said that, when they were together, however, do not seem to have been inshe scolded like the lowest of her sex, it clined to take any active steps to coerce is difficult to see that he lost much. The the old man, but the queen sought to quarrel, though rendered more bitter by bring him to a more Christian frame of bad temper on all sides, sprang in part mind, writing a letter to “ her very good from the root of all evil. Husband and old man ” in which she tried to persuade wife both wanted the enjoyment of the him to permit his wife sometimes to have income of the Cavendish property. Two access to him. He also had some good of the countess's sons, William and advice to the same effect in a letter from Charles Cavendish, sided with her - in the Bishop of Lichfield. The earl was deed, they were interested parties, for the lord lieutenant of Staffordshire, and just earl had made conveyances in their favor before the bishop wrote there had been a of part of the property in question. The meeting of justices at which the bishop disputes reached their height after 1582, was present. After the ordinary business when, on the death of the earl's eldest was finished the magistrates went into son, Gilbert Talbot became heir apparent committee for the purpose of discussing to the earldom. They continued to edify the relations between ihe lord lieutenant the public year after year. The queen, and his wife. The bishop informs the the lord treasurer, the lord chancellor, the earl of the fact, and then proceeds with lord chief justice, the master of the rolls, his own exhortation. He anticipates the the Earl of Leicester and others tried in earl's natural reply. turn to settle the matter by authority or mediation. At one time Lady Shrews.

Some will say in your Lordship's behalf bury, wbo since her last marriage had and therefore like enough to shorten your life

that the Countess is a sharp and bitter shrew, finished Chatsworth, and was now in pos. if she should keep you company. Indeed, session of Hardwick, and had made large my Lord, I have heard some say so; but if investments in land, plaintively assures shrewdness and sharpness may be a just cause the Council that her highest hope is to of separation of man and wife, I think few find some friend for meat and drink and men in England would keep their wives long, so to end her life. At another time, on for it is a common jest, yet true in some sense, the earl's going to Chatsworth, his step- that there is but one shrew in all the world son William Cavendish refused him ad- and every man hath her, and so every man mission, with pistol in hand and halberd might be rid of his wife that would be rid of

a shrew. under his girdle.

The queen and Council sought to end A few weeks after the earl received the the matter by adjudging £500 a year to bishop's letter he was no more. He had the earl out of the Chatsworth property suffered very much from gout in his last and the rest to the countess. Thereupon years; his letters are full of the subject. she seems to have been anxious to return He found a sympathizer in Lord Burghand live with him, but to this he had a ley, a fellow-sufferer, and he sent the lord decided objection. He said that for many treasurer remedies for trial. He had years she had large sums from him which sought distraction from his troubles in she had spent in buying lands for her superintending the preparation of a large younger sons, and now she wished to be and stately monument to his own memory, maintained by him whilst her children had which was erected before his death where the property. This was too much to con. it now stands in the Shrewsbury Chapel cede to a wife who, he alleged, not only in the parish church at Sheffield. He had mocked and mowed at him, but called him a long Latin epitaph written for him by knave, fool, and beast to his face. At last Foxe the martyrologist, and engraved on the queen tried the effect of a personal | the monument. The epitaph was not allowed to contain any mention of his offend. bears her initials E. S. conspicuously iog countess, and the space where the worked into a stone parapet round the date of his death was to be placed was roof. She found time also to indulge necessarily left blank during his life. The another old habit, that of quarrelling with old man is said to have foretold that his her family. She was soon at war with successors would not take the trouble to her son-in-law, Earl Gilbert over money supply the deficiency, and the blank did matters, and became estranged from his remain unfilled for two centuries after his wife. She appealed to the lord treasurer death. This took place in November, on the subject of the insufficient share of 1590, the old countess then became dow- the spoils of her fourth husband which ager, and saw her daughter Mary reign his son was willing to let her have. at Sheffield Castle as Earl Gilbert's con- Though the sum she was willing to take sort.

was small in comparison of her rights, she While the old earl lay dying, his suc- wrote, yet the new earl raised objections cessor, Gilbert, was at Rufford. One of and took advantage of her yielding dispoGilbert's little daughters was in London, sition. She had an old quarrel with her and we have in a letter written to him, two son Henry, who had not sided with her days after his father had died and before against her husband, and now her youngthe news reached London, an interesting est son, Sir Charles, fell under her glimpse of a little scene at court and a displeasure. Even her amiable grandview of Queen Elizabeth in a more pleas- daughter, Arabella Stuart, could not reing light than usual. One of her gentle- tain her favor. men ushers, who was a tenant of the The old countess, who was about sevShrewsbury family, wrote to the new enty when her last husband died, survived earl :

him sixteen or seventeen years. Very If I should write how much her Majesty late in life she began building the mansion this day did make of the little lady your at Oldcotes, where the fatal stoppage of daughter with often kissing, which her Maj- the bricklayers by frost is said to have esty seldom useth with any, and then amend- occurred. She had made some preparaing her dressing with pins and still carrying tions for the future. Like her last husher with her Majesty in her own barge and so band, she bad a monument for her tomb homeward from the running, ye would scarce erected in her life. It stands in All Saints believe me. Her Majesty said, as true it is, Church, Derby, and bears an inscription she is very like my lady her grandmother; she behaved herself with such modesty as I pray of the pecuniary benefits she received

recording all her marriages, but no details God she may possess at twenty years old.

from her husbands. She also executed a The scene described in this letter took will and recognized the importance of the place at some festivities held on Novem- step by invoking the assistance of eighber 19th, St. Elizabeth's day, in honor of teen witnesses. In this will the testatrix, the queen. St. Elizabeth owed her can

apparently without a suspicion that her onization to a miracle which happened on example could fail to be edifying, exhorts the occasion of “a comely young man too her children to unity. She made bequests gaily babited” paying her a visit. She in favor of her son William and also her undertook to pray for him, and though he son Henry and her granddaughter Araretired some distance from her, the fervor bella, who were then enjoying her favor. of her devotion was too much for him, and he called out that she was destroying

And whereas (she continued] there hath him. Her maidens ran to him and found been unkindness offered me by my son-in-law, that he was on fire. Elizabeth, therefore, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and my daughter his ceased to pray, and the young man be wife, and likewise by my son Charles Caven

dish by their means, I do omit all wrongs and came a Franciscan. A sarcastic commen. injuries which they have done against me, tator on the legend remarks that Queen and do pray God to bless them. Elizabeth resembled the saint only in name and fondness for practising on the With her prayers she expected them to weakness of comely young men.

be contented. She left them nothing else The countess dowager spent most of by her will. A few years after she made a her fourth and final widowhood at Hard. codicil striking out all the bequests to her wick, the home of her childhood, and son Henry and Arabella Stuart, and found occupation in building a new man- shortly before her death she made another sion there. · Unlike the other great man- codicil, showing that she had considerably sions which she built, it stands to this day. relented towards her son Charles, for she It was probably finished about 1597, and left a large legacy to his sons, and that

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ruary, 1608.


her alleged forgiveness of her daughter

From Nature. Mary was no mere pretence, for she gave THE ORIGIN OF THE GREAT LAKES OF

NORTH AMERICA, her a “pearl bed and all that belongs to it in that chamber except the hang- At one time glaciers - perhaps in the ings."

co-operative society of an ice-sheet — were Whilst the old lady was on her death. gravely suspected of having excavated bed, her children and step-children were even the great lakes of North America. plotting and counter-plotting, as their let. | This, however, is hardly probable. The ters show, and arranging to seize her a priori difficulties in the hypothesis are effects as soon as the breath should be great. Apart from objections which have out of her body. The end came in Feb- often been pointed out, the work done

The will was soon opened, would be on so gigantic a scale that la and five days after her death we find a longer period must be assigned to the disappointed friend, Sir J. Bentley, com. glacial occupation of the region than plaining that he had got nothing out of seems probable from other considerations. her “except a dirty journey to London to Further, the direct evidence which will witness her last will."

presently be noticed seems conclusive The funeral sermon was preached by against the hypothesis; but it may be Dr. Matthew, Archbishop of York, a pre- affirmed with better reason that ice has inlate of such genial manners that his con- directly aided in the process, though to temporaries found it difficult to prefix what extent we can, as yet, hardly venture “ doctor bishop” or other title to to say. bis name, and often spoke of him simply During the last few years numerous as Toby Matthew. The cheerful prelate observations have been made, both in gave an instance of his way of looking at Canada and in the United States, upon the the brighter side of things by choosing for configuration of the lake beds, and the ele. bis text Proverbs xxxi. verse 25 to the vation of their ancient margins. To some end of the chapter. The sermon has not of these Dr. Wright refers in his volume come down to us, and we can only con- on "The Ice Age in North America,” jecture how he established the resem: and Professor J. W. Spencer (who has blance of the countess to the model been engaged on this subject for several housewife.

years) brings them into a focus in a paper The countess's eldest son, Henry Cav. recently published in the Quarterly Jourendish, died without issue. Her second oal of the Geological Society of London.* soo, William, became Earl of Devonshire

At first sight the great lakes, from Supeand was the ancestor of the dukes of that rior to Ontario, are suggestive of glacial

Her third son, Sir Charles Caven- excavation. They seem to occupy true dish, was father of Charles I.'s general, rock basins. Superior discharges into the Marquis, afterwards the Duke, of New- Huron over the ledges — once

a “porcastle. A granddaughter of the latter tage - of Sault Ste. Marie. Huron as it married in succession General Monk, af. were, leaks into Erie, the fall between the terwards Duke of Albemarle, and the two sheets of water being only nine feet. Duke of Montagu. From the countess's Erie flows towards Ontario over the rocky eldest daughter the dukes of Kingston rapids and the final precipice of Niagara ; were descended, and her youngest daugh- and the St. Lawrence, after leaving Onter Mary and Earl Gilbert had a child tario, gives frequent evidence of a rocky who married the Earl of Arundel, grand- bed, the level of which is considerably son of the Duke of Norfolk beheaded by above that of the bottom of the lake, for Elizabeth, and one of their descendants the depth of this near its eastern end is bad the dukedom of Norfolk restored to more than seven hundred feet. But more him. If the worldly minded old countess careful investigation of the lakes has could have foreseen such an array of shown that in these apparently perfect dukes and duchesses among,her desceod. basins (as is sometimes discovered in ants, she would have congratulated herself household affairs) hidden cracks exist, on the lessons which her example had which, under different physical conditions, laught her children. Unfortunately they would have let the water run out. This learned more than a passion for advance: indeed is not the whole story; another ment in the world from her, and some of agency must be presently mentioned; but the most frightful records of fraternal hate that these apparent basins once had out. which disfigure English domestic history lets, by which they would have been can be found in the annals of her house. hold.

• Vol. xlvi., p. 523 (read April 16, 1890).


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drained, at any rate partially, seems be- depth has not been ascertained, but it has yond question.

been pierced in several places to depths The following is a brief statement of of from one hundred to two hundred feet the results of sounding in the water and below the level of the lake, and in one case boring on the land. The surface of Lake the drift was found to extend five hundred Superior is six hundred and thirty feet feet below the surface of the ground, and above sea-level, the deepest part of its three hundred and fifty below that of Lake bed three hundred and seventy-five feet Huron. below that datum plane. The fall from Next as to the drainage this lake, the shore line is generally rather rapid ; a Submerged channels resembling river val. large part of the basin is more than three leys have been traced along its bed. One hundred feet deep, and a considerable is a prolongation, in a north-easterly direcarea is below six hundred feet. The origi- tion, of that which has just been mentioned. nal outlet, according to Dr. Wright, was Another runs to join it from the southon the southern side; and by this, in pre- that is, in the opposite direction from glacial times, the drainage was discharged that of the present flow of the water; and a towards the Mississippi. But, apparently, third is a continuation of the channel which the information in regard to the ancient drained the northern basin of Michigan. valley.system of the Lake Superior area These three ultimately come together, and is less complete than in the case of the the united valley rounds Cabot's Head, other lakes.

and makes for the southern end of GeorThe Huron-Michigan basin at once gian Bay, keeping near its south-western arrests attention by its extraordinary out. side. Here also an ancient outlet has line. Michigan is a gigantic backwater been found. Across the low, flat laod sepwithout inclosing hills at its southern or arating the waters of Georgian Bay from upper end. Huron proper is almost di. Lake Simcoe a buried channel has been vided from Georgian Bay by the Indian struck in borings, at various depths - in Peninsula and a chain of rocky islands, of one case two hundred and eighty feetwhich Manitoulin Island is the chief. All below the surface of the latter. Between this is far more suggestive of submer. this and Lake Ontario, well-borings indigence than of any other mode of forma cate that the drift is very deep, and that tion. Closer study has confirmed first it conceals an ancient channel, which enimpressions. Michigan really consists of tered Lake Ontario some thirty miles west two basins, divided by a plateau sub of Toronto. Lake Erie, which is generally merged at a maximum depth of three hun- less than eighty-four feet deep, also dred and forty-two feet; the northern and exhibits a buried system of ramifying larger basin sinks to a depth of eight hun- valleys, and the line of discharge into dred and sixty-four feet, the southern one Ontario was not over the lip of Niagara only descends to five hundred and seventy- but by a deep valley, now choked with six feet. Hence, if the level of the water drift, which can be traced several miles to were lowered by three hundred and fifty the west of the present course of the St. feet, Michigan would be divided into two Lawrence. In Ontario, also, a channel lakes.

has been found, the greatest depth of Of these, the former must have drained which is ov seven hundred feet below into the north-west end of Lake Huron. the surface of the lake. This ruds near It is true that the deepest soundings at the southern shore, and receives other the present outlet do not exceed two hun- valleys from this direction. dred and fifty-two feet, but near this a The conclusion to which these investi. fjord-like channel has been traced in the gations point is that in pre-glacial times shallower part, trending northward, with a the great lakes did not yet exist, but their depth of six hundred and twelve feet, and site formed part of a system of river val. there are indications of other buried chan- leys, which ultimately coalesced in one nels. Thus there can be little doubt that main channel, now concealed beneath the in pre-glacial times the northern basin of waters of the eastern part of Ontario. Michigan communicated, as the lake still Of these valleys, the one was cut off from does, with that of Lake Huron. But as the united system of the other tributaries to the outlet of the southern basin there at Detroit, and the head waters of these is some dispute. Professor Spencer, how. were parted by the plateau now buried be. ever, states that a buried channel has now neath Lake Michigan. Some, indeed, bave been traced along the valley of the Grand contended that the water of these rivers River, across the peninsula of Michigan passed from the Ontario region towards to Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron. Its exact | the Hudson, but Professor Spencer con

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