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calendar. The new captains and the old The administration of justice retains meet in the Palazzo Communale and pro- some very characteristic features of mediceed in state accompanied by a guard of æval Italian life. It was believed through. honor to the church. Here mass is cele. out a large portion of northern and central brated, the existing captains sitting upon Italy that impartiality could only be their thrones in the chancel, the selected secured by the appointment of a foreigner candidates immediately below them in the to the highest judicial office. In San aisle. Then in the great hall an egregius Marino the chief judicial adviser of the ludi literaris, or the State schoolmaster, State, the commissario della legge, is still or one of his best pupils, makes a Latin a foreigner, and so also are the six or eight oration dwelling upon the greatness of the handsomely dressed policemen. The peoffice and the responsibilities which it nal code fills a large portion of the statute entails. This concluded, the new consuls book and is well worth perusal, though it take the oath and receive from their pre has been radically modified in accordance decessors the staodard, keys, and seals of with the humanistic principles or prejuthe republic.
dices of modern times. Capital punishDuring the time of office the executive ment has been abolished. There is no and judicial functions are very onerous, Judenhetze. Of old the San Marino noble and it was foreseen that the men most who hoped to rise to political eminence on capable of governing would be the most the ducats of a Jewish heiress, lost posdisposed to avoid the burden. But polit. sibly his heart but certainly his head, and ical abstention is in San Marino, as in that of his wife to boot. He would to-day well-ordered republics of old, a crime. A but lose consideration. That, however, in refusal to be elected is by statute followed San Marino counts for much, perhaps for by deprivation of citizenship, eternal in. more. famy and a heavy fine. Against this there Two of the three castles which crown is no appeal, and a penalty is even in the peaks of Mount Titanus are unoccuAicted on any who should plead in the pied, but the Capitol serves as the State recusant's behalf. At the close of office Prison. On the occasion of a recent visit the captains as all other officials undergo it was unusually full. Not only had a the scrutiny to which Aristotle attributes poveretto been confined for several months so much importance. Two names for this for being too ready with his knife, but a purpose are drawn by a boy from the roll party of four, including a woman, were of all the Council, and the two persons thus lodged in gaol on a charge of murder, the drawn publicly nominate two others to only such incident for seven years. They serve as syndics. These are compelled were found in a tavern with the body of to deliver judgment within a very short the murdered man, and none would give period, so that the captains' anxiety as to evidence against the other. Little symthe result of the scrutiny is not of long pathy was expressed for the victim, one of duration. The only other executive offi- the least reputable members of the comcer whom it is necessary to mention is the munity, and indeed knife.play seemed to general. To him is entrusted the security be regarded, as in certain other quarters, of the republic, the command of the troops, as a gentlemanly vice, and to minister to and the appointment of their officers. the creature comforts of the offenders The standing army consists of a select while in gaol was clearly not abhorrent to guard of honor for state occasions, but popular opinion. The commoner offences the liability to service appears to be uni- are characteristic of a hot-blooded people versal, though the statutes provide that as all Romagnols are, and of a well-tothe general may call out one member from do population as all Romagnols are not. each small family and two from the Offences against women are tolerably larger, exemption being given to doctors, frequent, robbery very rare, because the scholars, and officials. The office of gen. people are prosperous. Drunkenness is eral has no regular duration, and owing to common, especially on market days, for its more permanent character it appears wine is cheap and farmers rich. to have acquired a political importance course, said the writer's guide, “they that was not contemplated in the statutes, drink, for wine costs little." It is in all so that it may almost be described as a probability the poverty and over-taxation permanent secretaryship of state. It is, of south European nations that keep them however, temporarily delegated, if the sober rather than their nature or religion. general be elected captain, in order that A French traveller of the last century nothe highest officer of the republic may not ticed that the Catalonians who worked and also wield its military power.
made money always drank, the Spaniards
were idle, poor, and sober. Drunkenness, most perfect picture of State Socialism; he added, was the outward and visible the butchers and bakers have well-nigh sign of industry.
the place of governmental functionaries, Citizenship of the republic is most jeal- and the schoolmaster is appointed year by ously guarded and with reason. Who year. The State doctor inspects the would not wish to become a native of a chemists' shops and is bound on curiously territory singularly healthy, and enjoy an satisfactory evidence of illness to visit almost complete immunity from rates and the sick. Goats are prohibited from taxes ? A few market du there may be, working their sweet but wayward will, inand the landed proprietors are required to deed, as in many Apennine communes, send their quota of stone to repair the they are forbidden entrance to the State. roads, but of taxes there are none. For. Such is the character of the miniature merly a salt monopoly, that well-fought republic which Machiavelli might well bone of contention on the neighboring have classed with Sparta, Rome, and Adriatic shores, appears to have been a Venice among the most durable of States, principal source of revenue. The ex- and which all but satisfies the criteria of penses of government are now mainly the Aristotelian aristocracy, a government supported by a sum paid by the Italian founded not on birth, nor wealth, nor government in compensation for the pro- numbers, but on merit. Survival though hibition of tobacco-growing by State au. it be, it is not without its lessons for the thority. Such a revenue is due rather to statecraft of the future. It is the final a happy accident than to economic skill; term in the development of local governbut it is fair to bear in mind that even be- ment. There may yet be those who hesi. fore this arrangement State burdens were tate to believe that all history consists in extremely slight. Official salaries are progress, who still furtively cherish the small and much work is practically un. doctrine of recurring cycles, who believe paid ; where the honos is, there falls the with Machiavelli that in politics as in reonus. To serve the republic is a sufficient ligion it is needful from time to time to guerdon.
revert to simpler and purer forms. To In such a State can there be any polit. such the older masterpieces may still ical discontent? Are there those who serve as models and not as curiosities. think that a co-optative council is an When all the larger political carnivora anachronism and that the form of the re- shall meet and rend each other in the public is an oligarchy? The writer, being great national bear-garden, when central one disposed to cling to a bright past administration shall have become yet more rather than to leap into the dark future impossible, then there will be space and was startled to see the writing on the air for local government and worthy fuocwall, Viva il suffragio universale! He tions for local aristocracy. There may has since been assured on the highest even now be citizens of large States taxed possible authority that this was the handi- beyond endurance for fancies not their work of some eccentric individual, or of own, who cry with the Samminarese noble some scatter-brained youth craving for when robbed of his household goods by novelty, and that such ridiculous manifes. the representative of centralization and tations are by the sane inajority of the consolidation, Magnus est Sanctus Macitizens noticed only with a pityiny smile. rinus. Ridiculous indeed would be the applica
EDWARD ARMSTRONG. tion of the nostrums of modern Democracy to this ancient State. It would be to mistake the whole basis of old Italian citizenship. At San Marino, as at Florence,
From Temple Bar. citizenship consists not in the right to
BESS OF HARDWICK. elect but in the right to be elected, and from this no class is excluded. It is true THE Tudor Age was a marrying age. that vacancies in the Council occur but It is probably almost literally true that rarely, but each family may live in hope. every schoolboy knows how many wives Moreover the State imitates the Venetian Henry VIII. had. His paternal grandmodel în very large numbers of govern- mother, the Lady Margaret, had set an mental officers. These not only give to example of frequent marriage. She had many households a stake in the govern- four husbands, and lost the second before ment, but they provide a gradual training she was sixteen. Nor was the example for the higher posts. The statutes indeed of Henry neglected. His own widow, present, except in respect of land, an al- | Katherine Parr, who had married two widowers before she became Henry's room, and Lady Zouch, instead of keeping wife, married again within a few weeks of Elizabeth in the nursery, employed her to his death, when she was only thirty-four. tend and amuse the invalid. This the Queen Elizabeth, it is true, never mar. artless child did so effectually that he ried, but she indemnified herself by the recovered sufficiently to make her his number of suitors whom she encouraged. wife, though not to enjoy much connubial The courtiers were not behind their royal felicity, for he died in 1533, leaviog his masters and mistresses in marrying and widow not yet twelve years old. Her giving in marriage : Charles Brandon, friends had taken care that he should not Duke of Suffolk, the favorite of Henry be left unprovided for, and the whole of VIII., married four times; Thomas, Duke the Barley estate passed to the young of Norfolk, who died on Tower Hill in widow absolutely. Elizabeth's reign, had buried two wives Elizabeth was therefore no unfitting before he lost his head, at the age of match for her second husband, Sir Wilthirty-six, in the attempt to win as his liam Cavendish, one of King Henry's offitbird, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had had cials, who had taken a leading part in the three husbands before she was twenty- dissolution of the religious houses, and five, after which age her captivity pre obtained for himself an assignment of vented any further matrimonial project priory or abbey lands in at least seven being carried out, though several were counties. Sir William Cavendish, who discussed.
was a Suffolk man and had been married Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury by twice before, yielded to Elizabeth's deher last marriage, followed the custom so sire that he should settle in her county, fashionable in her time. She married and thus came to buy the estate of Chatsearly and she married often. She had a worth, which has since been so well known fortune of her own, and she married four as the seat of their descendants, the dukes wealthy husbands; she acquired the of Devonshire. Sir William and Elizawhole fortune of two of these, and the beth were married in 1547 — for some enjoyment of a large income from each of unrecorded reason, very early in the the others.
morning, “at two o'clock after midnight.” She was proud, surious, selfish, and unfeel. The lady soon set her husband to work ing. She was a builder, a buyer and seller of on a new house at Chatsworth. The manestates, a inoney lender, a farmer, and a mer- sion cost £80,000 of the money of the chant of coals and timber. She lived to day, representing five or six times as a great old age, continually flattered but sel- much of ours, and was unfinished when dom deceived, and died immensely rich, but Sir William died, after ten years' married without a friend.
life with Elizabeth. Although she had some importance in the The lady was thus left a widow for the political history of her time, she is best second time, with three sons and three remembered as the builder of three great daughters, a very large income, and the houses, Chatsworth, Hardwick and Old. congenial task of finishing Chatsworth. cotes, of which one,“ Hardwick Hall, with The duties and pleasures of widowhood, more glass than wall,” stands as she left however, failed to satisfy her active mind. it. Tradition says that it had been fore- Another widower, Sir William St. Loo, told that she would not die so long as she captain of the guard to the queen, wooed kept on building, and that at the age of and, being very wealthy, won the widow, eighty-six she died only because a hard but subject to the condition that the frost stopped her bricklayers. She was whole of his large fortune should come to fortunate in surviving previous frosts. her, to the exclusion of his family by an The future countess was the daughter earlier marriage. She seems
to have of John Hardwick, of Hardwick, a Derby-lived happily with Sir W. St. Loo, and, so shire squire, whose fortune ultimately far as we know, she had done so with Sir came to her. In deference to modern William Cavendish. The violent temper, usage she is called “ Bess of Hardwick” which was conspicuous in her later years, in the title to this article, though her con- may not yet have manisested itself. She temporaries did not speak of her so uncer. spent much of her time at Chatsworth, emociously. While still a young child carrying on the building operations, while she came to London on a visit to Lady her husband's duties detained him at Zouch, a relative of her family. Lady court. We have, in consequence, a series Zouch had another visitor in the house, of letters in most affectionate terms from Robert Barley, a Derbyshire landowner; Sir William St. Loo to his wife," whom I he was out of health and confined to his tender more," says the enamored knight,
" than I do William Seyntlo." The cap-chiefest for her. Without her, death is tain of the guard, though an affectionate more pleasant than life, if he thought he husband, was apparently not a scholar of should be long from her. Her tenderness the first order. “ All thy friends here towards him was manifested by more than saluteth thee,” he writes to his wife, - an terms of endearment; she sends him venassurance apostolical in sentiment but ison and puddings, a dozen of which he hardly orthodox in grammar. And he gave to Lady Cobham, and others to the ends his letter with the decidedly pleonas: lord steward and Earl of Leicester, keeptic subscription: Thy right worshipful ing some for his own use. On another, good master and most honest husband, occasion he bas to thank her for a baken Master Sir William Seyntlo, Esquire.” capon which she has sent him," and chiefIn other letters he calls his wife his est of all," he politely adds, "for remem
own sweet Besse," and his “honest bering me.” He assisted the countess in sweet Chatsworth," and tells her that his her matrimonial schemes for the benefit heart aches until they meet, and so on. of her children. We find him writing to Her next husband was destined to address Lord Burghley, the great lord treasurer, to her expressions of equal tenderness; on the subject in 1572. Lord Shrewsbury but Sir William St. Loo, felix opportuni- writes to say that he has just heard of tate mortis, differed from his successor in Lord Wharton's death, and that the Earl not living to find her out.
of Sussex has the wardship of his son. Lady St. Loo, left a widow for the third His house and lands are near Lord time, continued for a while the education Shrewsbury's, and Lady Shrewsbury has of her children, and the works at Chats. a daughter of young Wharton's years worth, until the next successful suitor whom Lord Shrewsbury wants to prefer appeared. He came in the person of an in marriage. If Lord Sussex will part influential neighbor, George, Earl of with the young gentleman, Lord ShrewsShrewsbury, who was almost, if not quite, bury will give as much as another for the the wealthiest nobleman in England, and marriage. “Pray be a means,” says he who usually lived at Sheffield, eighteen to Burghley," between us to obtain this miles from Chatsworth. Even Lady St. request which my wife and I earnestly Loo, with a taste for wealthy husbands, desire.” Nothing came of the negotiation, intensified as it must have become by in- nor of several others which followed it. dulgence, could not have felt disparaged Indeed, there are few noblemen's sons in marrying the earl, who had lands and in England," wrote Lord Shrewsbury, houses in Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, some years after, “that she hath not Derbyshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, prayed me to deal for at one time or anHerefordshire, Oxfordshire, Cheshire, other." Wiltshire, Leicestershire, and Gloucester- Shortly after the marriage of the Earl shire, as well as in London and its neigh- and Countess of Shrewsbury, Queen borhood. He could offer other attractions, Elizabeth committed to the earl's custody for he had sons and daughters unmarried, Mary, the unfortunate Scottish queen, and the widow had daughters and sons of who had thrown herself on the protection a marriageable age according to the ideas of her English cousin. This charge the of the day. Lady St. Loo consented to earl had to sustain for nearly sixteen years, give her hand and heart to the earl in and it was a very heavy one. Mary's consideration of his settling a large joint- household was at first a large one; she ure on her, and marrying his second son, had to be closely guarded, and forty sol. Gilbert Talbot, to her daughter Mary diers, at least, were kept at Sheffield CasCavendish, and his daughter Grace to her tle for the purpose; armed men watched son Henry Cavendish. These prelimi- her day and night, "both under her winnary alliances were duly effected in 1568, dows, over her chamber, and on every one of the brides, Mary, being then not side her; so that, unless she could trans. quite twelve years old. The parents were form herself into a flea or a mouse, it was inarried soon after.
impossible that she could escape.' The The earl and countess spent most of the task of the sentinels was dreary enough ; early part of their wedded life at Sheffield one of them cheered himself in the night. Castle, and for some years things went on watches by the composition of a poem smoothly enough. The earl's letters to entitled " The Reward of Wickedness." his wife, when he was at court and she Shrewsbury writes to Lord Burghley in was in the country, abound in expressions 1571, saying that he does not allow the of affection. She is his jewel and dear queen to go outside the castle, and only ineart; of all earthly joys he thanks God suffers her to walk on the leads or in bis
large dining-room or the courtyard, when I in the Hatfield collection. In this she be or his countess accompanies her. details, in language too plain to be tranYear after year the earl had to stop at scribed, a series of incredible charges Sheffield, almost a prisoner in his own against Elizabeth of misconduct in her castle, for, though his health was bad and relations with her suitors and admirers, he suffered from gout, or "the enemy,” as and a number of instances of her vanity, he called it, he was sure of a reprimand if frivolity, and other failings, which it is he suggested a journey even to Buxton in much easier to believe. Mary said that search of relief for his complaint. The she had learned all this from the Count. Buxton waters were already in such high ess of Shrewsbury, and of course that she repute that sufferers would drink eight did not believe a word of it herself, knowpints a day. An addition to the unpleas- ing too well the disposition of the count. antness of the earl's duty was derived ess, and her feeling towards Elizabeth. from the remembrance that Mary was heir She went on to relate, with evident enjoy. to the throne, and that Elizabeth was ment, how the countess had said that the childless, so that by her death his prisoner queen's passion for admiration was such might any day become his sovereign. He that it would be worth Mary's while to seems to have served Elizabeth with un. bring forward her son James (aged eighswerving fidelity. It was, however, not teen at the probable date of the letter) as her babit to spoil a good servant by ex- an admirer of the queen (then aged about travagant rewards or gratitude. She was fifty-one). When Mary had said that the continually suspecting. Shrewsbury and queen would think that she was making telling him so; she forbade his own chil- fun of her the countess had denied it, and dren to visit him; she grumbled because said that her Majesty was as vain of her bis son Gilbert's wife, the cuuntess's beauty as if she was a goddess from daughter Mary, gave birth to a child at heaven. The countess had said, so Mary Sheffield Castle, and so strict were her went on to allege, that the queen took injunctions against the admission of stran- such pleasure in utterly extravagant flatgers, that the earl christened the child teries that those around her pretended to himself to avoid the necessity of sending be unable to look her in the face because for a clergyman. When quarrels arose it shone like the sun. When the countbetween the earl and his tenants, the ess and her daughter Elizabeth were last queen sided with the latter; when the in the royal presence they dared not meet earl desired access to her presence, she one another's eye for fear of breaking into refused it; when he addressed piteous laughter at the stories they were palming appeals to her or the Council, he could off on the queen. At Sheffield Castle the not get written replies, but only messages countess used to mimic Elizabeth, and by word of mouth to his agents, which laugh at her so unreservedly before Mary could be explained away if it became nec- and her attendants, so says the letter, that essary to do so.
she had to keep the latter out of the countWhen he first undertook the charge of ess's presence. the Scottish queen, Elizabeth allowed him Perhaps as Mary's malicious pen sped an appual sum, though it was inadequate, over the paper she was remembering an and he had to defray part of the expense often-recorded interview which had taken of Mary's custody and maintenance out of place at Hampton Court years before, his own pocket; but after a time his thrifty when Mary was still a free queen, and sovereign diminished this too scanty allow- could send ainbassadors to Elizabeth as
He was driven to hint that he would an equal, and was smiling at the thought be compelled to sell his plate, and he of the English queen's attempt to extract actually did at one time reduce his prison. from Sir James Melvil an admission that er's dinners till they consisted of “ few she was lovelier than his Scottish misdishes and bad meat in them,” as she pit-tress. Elizabeth only got from the polite eously laments. A last straw was added but patriotic Scot the diplomatic answer to his load when, the relations between that she was the fairest lady in England, him and his countess having become un and Mary was the fairest lady in Scotfriendly, she accused him of making love land. 10 his uofortunate captive, for whom he " But,” persisted Elizabeth “which is seems to have felt nothing but dislike. the taller ?" Mary was naturally furious, and it was “My mistress,” said Sir James. probably voder the influence of her ex- “ Then she must be too tall,” said Elizacitement that she wrote the scandalous beth, " for I am neither too high nor too updated letter to the queen that is found | low.”