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WINTER.

Ripe years and laboring oar, A KINDLY host is Winter hoar,

Toil in the darkening deep;

And o'er my heart and soul there sweep With icy fingers, warm of heari!

The breakers of the sea.
Who numbs us, till at every pore
We tingle with a grateiul smart i

Strength sailing -- autuman time,
And welcome are the winter nights,

Its sigh and silent tear;
With cat beside the hearth close curled ! And in my heart and soul I hear
And all the fireside's dear delights,

The sobbing of the sea.
Oblivious of the outer world,

Old age and winter time, Where snow upon the meadow lics,

The fight and sorrow cease;

And in the heart and soul is peaceAnd leasiess branches shiver bare,

“There shall be no more sea. And stars oft blink their aching eyes, That look so long through frozen air!

Sunday Magazine, STAINLEY WEST.

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From The Contemporary Review. his fellow-men. This embodiment of a
LAVOISIER.

clear, cold, passionless intelligence was "Il été assez heureux ou assez sage, dead to every æsthetic sense, and had no pour que l'on ne sache presqu'autre chose element of anything that was enthusiastic de lui, et qu'il n'y ait dans son histoire or chivalrous in its composition. To Cavd'autres incidens que des decouvertes." endish science was, in truth, measureThese words were spoken by Cuvier, the ment. “ His theory of the universe," says perpetual secretary of the French Acad. Wilson, “ to have been that it emy, on the occasion of his éloge on Cav- consisted solely of a multitude of objects endish, the discoverer of the compound which could be weighed, numbered, and nature of water, who, in his old age had measured; and the vocation to which he been elected a member of the Institute. considered himself called was to weigh, At first sight they may seem a mere para. number, and measure as many of these phrase of a saying which has become objects as his allotted three score years almost trite, but to those who heard them and ten would permit. He weighed the for the first time they had a significance earth; he analyzed the air; he discovered which must have been realized with some the compound nature of water; he noted thing like a pang. For at such a time, with numerical precision the obscure acnot one of Cuvier's hearers could have tions of the ancient element, fire." But been unmindful of 1794, or have been all this work was done primarily for him. unmoved by the recollection of a tragedy self, and to satisfy the questionings of his in which the most illustrious of Caven- own intelligence. To give the results of dish's contemporaries, a man whose life it to the world was hardly a part of his bad been dedicated to the cause of hu- plan, for he cared nothing for the world, manity, and whose services to science and was absolutely indifferent to the inbave reflected an imperishable lustre upon terests or judgment of his fellows. And France, was sacrificed to the blind fury of yet Cavendish was revered, even if he was bis countrymen. Indeed, to the lively not loved, during his long and uneventful and sympathetic intelligence of such an life, and at his death was laid to rest with auditory, quickened as it must have been every mark of honor and respect in the by the singular charm of the speaker's splendid tomb which his ancestress, Elizstyle, his profound sensibility, and rhetor- abeth Hardwicke, had built for herself and ical skill, the strong dramatic element in her descendants. the situation could hardly have remained On the other hand, Lavoisier was a man doperceived. Lavoisier and Cavendish in whom the elements were kindly mixed. were, in a sepse, national types; they were, No one could more truly say of himself, too, when at the summit of their intellec- “ Homo sum: humani nihil a me alienum tual power, the acknowledged representa- puto.". He was ardent, enthusiastic, fond tives of two opposing schools of thought of the society of his fellows, a man of Both were aristocrats, and both, from generous impulses, of Catholic tastes, and being poor, became very rich ; Cavendish, of lofty aims. As a philosopher his influindeed, was, as M. Biot has said, “le ence throughout Europe was supreme, plus riche de tous les savans et probable- and the manner in which his renown was ment aussi le plus savant de tous les won was of a kind to strike the national riches." But here the resemblance ends; imagination and to minister to the national in character, temperament, and genius, in pride. At the zenith of his fame he was everything that constitutes individuality, as much a dictator in the world of science the men were as wide asunder as the as Napoleon became in the world of polipoles. Cavendish has been described by tics. But in the very plenitude of this his biographer Wilson as the most pas- power he was struck at by Fouquier-Tinsively selfish of mortals — a sort of scien-ville, and he who had labored unceasingly tific anchorite, who maintained during the for the glory and well-being of his country four score years of his existence a rigid, was declared guilty of complicity in a undeviating indifference to the affairs of conspiracy "against the French people

was

of a

tending to favor by all possible means the work, and especialiy in the circumstances success of the enemies of France.” La- which led to his untimely death, on which voisier's crime was that he had been a we would-gladly have more information. fermier-général. He was accused, in the Amongst the crop of literature which the words of the indictment, “of adding to centenary of the Revolution has brought tobacco, water and other ingredients detri. forth in France, the historian of science mental to the health of the citizens.” It has welcomed, therefore, with special in

a feeble enough weapon to throw terest, the admirable monograph on Lavoieven at a fermier-général, but it was sier which we owe to the patient industry thrown with terrible effect. Even to be and patriotic zeal of Professor Grimaux.* suspected of tampering with the tobacco It must have struck many people, as M.

citizen" sufficed for the Tribunal Grimaux tells us it has struck him, that, before which he was brought, although it in spite of the glory which surrounds the taxed the ingenuity of Lieodon to show name of Lavoisier, it is remarkable that low this alleged sophistication brought the life of the creator of modern chemistry the accused within the same section of has still to be written. Beyond the short the penal code that swept the Dantonists biographical notices by Lalande, Fourto the scaffold. Coffinhal, the vice-pres. croy, and Cuvier, which deal mainly with ident of the Tribunal, pronounced the Lavoisier as a man of science, we know judgment: "The Republic has no need practically nothing of the story of a life of men of science,” and within twenty-four which was wholly devoted to the public hours the tumbril was on its way to the good. Even the world of science knows Place de la Révolution, and, as the procès. scarcely anything of his private life, of his verbal sets forth,“sur un échaffaud dressé virtues, of his intelligent philanthropy, and sur la dite place, le dit Lavoisier, en notre of the services which he rendered to his présence, subi la peine de mort.” Well country as an Academician, an economist, might Lagrange say to Delambre: “It re. an agriculturist, and a financier. Luckily quired but a moment to strike off this for his biographer, Lavoisier was a man head and probably a hundred years will of perfect method, and he preserved all not suffice to reproduce such another."* his manuscripts without exception. After

The main events in the scientific career his death these papers were religiously of the great French chemist are tolerably guarded by Madame Lavoisier, from well known, and his position in the history whom they passed to Madame Léon de of the development of chemistry is now Chazelles, her grand-niece. This, together fully assured. The story of his scientific with other material preserved at the Chalife bas recently been told by M. Berthelot teau de la Canière, where also are kept with all the charm and tact which char. Lavoisier's books and instruments, has acterize the éloges which it is the duty of served M. Grimaux as the basis of his the secretaries of the Academy from time book. In addition, he has searched to time to prepare. Although English through the public archives, with the men of science may think that M. Berthe result that we have now presented to us, lot occasionally fails to mete out the strict for the first time, the details of Lavoisier's justice to their countrymen that historical political life and the true story of his trial accuracy demands, there caonot be a and condemnation. doubt, in spite of all legitimate deductions, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born in that Lavoisier remains the dominant figure Paris on August 26, 1743. His father, in the chemical world of the last century. Jean-Antoine, was advocate ; his There is much, however, in his life and mother, née Punctis, died when he was

an

five years old, and he and a young sister, • The Republic, a few months afterwards, found also who only lived a few years, were taken that it had no need of Coffinhal; he fell with Robespierre, and was guillotined on the 18th Thermidor of the year II. Fouquier-Tinville and some half-dozen • LAVOISIER, 1943-1794. D'après sa correspondance, others who had been concerned in the trial of Lavoisier ses manuscrits, ses papiers de famille, et d'autres docu. were also brought to the scaffold at about the same ments inédits. Par Edouard Grimaux. Paris: Felix

time

Alcan.

1888.

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charge of by the grandmother and her suffered frequent internal changes, but in daughter, Mlle. Constance Punctis. The the middle of the eighteenth century it family was rich, and was able to send the was subject to the constitution of 1699, as young Antoine to the Collège Mazarin, modified in 1716. It was composed of where he seems to have acquired that members of very different orders, enjoying passion for natural science which was the very unequal rights. There were twelve motive power of his life. He studied honorary members, chosen from among mathematics with the Abbé La Caille, the great nobles, and from whom were well known for his measurement of an selected the president and vice-presidents, arc of the meridian at the Cape of Good eighteen pensionaries, twelve associates, Hope, and for his determination of the and twelve adjoints distributed among the length of a seconds pendulum; be learnt geometers, astronomers, mechanicians, botany from Bernard de Jussieu, and geol- chemists, and botanists; in addition there ogy and mineralogy from Guettard. But were a number of free associates, superan. it was principally by Rouelle's teaching nuated associates, and pensionaries. The that the particular direction of Lavoisier's honorary members and the pensionaries scientific activity was shaped. Guillaume had alone a deliberative voice in the elecFrançois Rouelle is mainly remembered tions, and in the business of the Academy. by chemists to-day as having just missed The two associates in the class in which the discovery of the law of combination there was a vacancy were, however, called by definite proportions. By his contem- upon, in company with three pensionaries, poraries he was considered to have said to draw up the list of candidates. The more "good things” than any man of bis adjoints had practically no privileges betime. In spite of his oddities he exer- yond that of sitting next to an associate cised an extraordinary influence as a when there was room ; at other times they teacher; bis lecture-room at the Jardin sat upon the benches placed behind the du Roi was crowded by auditors from all armchairs of the associates. parts of Europe, and among his pupils The 18th of May, 1768, when the young were Macquer, Bucquet, D'Arcet, and Lavoisier gained his seat upon the back Lavoisier, the men who were destined to benches, was a red-letter day in the history make the end of the eighteenth century of the house of Punctis. It was no less one of the most stirring epochs in the important in the history of the Academy, history of chemistry.

for the young adjoint was destined to be Lavoisier was originally intended for its champion and do battle for its existence the profession of the law, and actually be during the dark and terrible time of the came a licentiate in 1764, but at the insti- Revolution. Lavoisier's extraordinary gation of Guettard, whom he accompanied power of work, his intellectual keenness, in bis journeys through France, and to and range of knowledge, were quickly recwhom he was of assistance in the prepa- ognized, and in spite of his youth he was ration of his great mineralogical atlas, he charged with the preparation of numerous abandoned that career and gave himself reports. This part of an Academician's up to science. In 1765 he sent his first duty was as difficult and irksome as it was paper to the Academy - a modest enough delicate. During the twenty-five years of communication on gypsum, but note his connection with the Academy he con. worthy as giving for the first time the tributed upwards of two hundred reports true explanation of the setting of plaster on such disconnected matters as the theory of Paris, and of the reason that overburnt of colors, the areometer of Cartier, modes gypsum will not rehydrate.

of determining longitudes, armchairs for In the following year he was awarded a invalids, prison reform, water supply, the medal by the Academy for an essay on cold of the winter in 1776, the pretensions the lighting of large towns, and in the of Mesmer, the aerostatic inventions of same year he was placed upon the list of Montgolfier, the imposture of the divining. candidates for election into that august rod, etc., etc. body. The Académie des Sciences has Almost immediately after Lavoisier had

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