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formation of all the luminous bodies in has staked almost everything upon the the heavens? It is only fair to say that coincidence of the chief line in the nebulæ recent revelations of the almost incredible with that of the magnesium spectrum. Quinber of meteors and meteor swarms This too confident assumption has been which exist in space are sufficient to startle insisted upon by him with increasing even the most stolid imagination. Pro- urgency, until Dr. Huggins, who has, fessor H. A. Newton and others have cal- perhaps, the best title among English culated that, making all proper corrections, spectroscopists to speak for the gaseous the number of meteorites which might be character of the nebulæ, bas felt tbat a visible over the whole earth would be a re-examination of the line in question by little greater than ten thousand times as some other observer than himself would many as would be seen at one place. be desirable.* The result of this re-exFrom this we gather that not less than amination, as conducted with the splendid twenty millions of luminous meteors fall resources of the Lick observatory, has upon our planet daily, each of which on a now been made known. dark, clear night would present us with The coming unification of our knowlthe well-known phenomenon of a shooting edge of the vast and varied phenomena of star. If the number of invisible meteorites the heavenly bodies will not, it may safely were added, it would be increased at least be said, be achieved by the meteoritic twentyfold ; this would give us four hun. theory. In addition to the adverse evidred millions of meteorites falling on the dence with respect to the magnesium line earth's surface daily in her path through in the nebulæ, there is reason to doubt space. [Taking their velocity as equal to the assumption that the Orion nebula is at that of comets, Professor Newton calcu- a low temperature, the fineness of the lates, in round numbers, that the meteor. lines of hydrogen pointing, in fact, to a ites are distributed each two hundred and high temperature and a condition of great fifty miles away from its neighbors. In tenuity of the hydrogen from which the meteor swarms the distance may be con- light was emitted. Judging from the aid siderably less.] So much for the path of which photography is now giving to the the earth. Mr. Lockyer adds: "If, then, study of the nebulæ, and the interesting these observations may be accepted as forms and structures which are seen in good for any part of space, we may, and the photographs of the Orion nebula taken indeed must, expect celestial phenomena by Mr. Common and Mr. Roberts, some which can be traced to meteorites in all of which remind the observer vividly of parts of space.”
the branching structures in the solar It is not improbable that Mr. Lockyer's corona, we are on the eve of some safer indefatigable work among the meteorites inductions in this direction of inquiry than will leave some substantial and valuable any that have yet been made. results behind; and in any case, his col. lection of data, whatever the interpretation the heavenly bodies, and the extreme delicacy of eye
. The labor involved in spectroscopic work upon which may for the moment be put upon and hand required, may be inferred from Dr. Hug, them, are a great gain to the science of the gins's achievements in photographing the spectrum of chemistry of at least some of the heavenly Vega, The image of the star had to be kept by con
tinual minute adjustment exac:ly projected upon the bodies. But unfortunately for the larger siit of the spectroscope one three hundred and sixtieth and all-embracing meteorític theory, Nr. of an inch in widịh, during nearly an hour, in order to Lockyer, throughout the whole course of give it time to imprint the character of its analyzed
light upon a gelatine plate raised to the highest pitch his enormous number of ingenious experi- of sensitiveness. (Phil.Trans., vol. clxxi. p. 669.) ments with meteorites in the laboratory,
THE RESIDENCE OF THE JEWISH RABBI. - Jewish population reside and work; there also On the vexed question of the place of resi. are the majority of their educational institudence of the chief rabbi, a matter which has tions, as well as the Jewish board of guardibeen keenly discussed by the Jewish commu. The proposal for a Jewish Toynbee nity in London for months past, a definite Hall for East London has also been warmly arrangement has at last, we learn, been con- taken up, and offers fair prospects of success. cluded. The exact terms of the agreement As the East End must thus become the cenare not yet known, but as Lord Rothschild, tral point of religious, philanthropic, and who has all along favored residence in the educational activity among the Jews, it seems East End, has expressed satisfaction with it, the natural place of residence for the chief it may be safely inferred that this is the dis- rabbi. trict decided upon. There the mass of the
Fifth Series, Volume LXXIII.
No. 2431. – January 31, 1891.
From Beginning, Vol. OLXXXVIII.
English Illustrated Magazine,
Macmillan's Magazine, VIII. FROST AND FOG, .
287 304 309 314
LIGHT: AN EPICEDE,
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LIGHT: AN EPICEDE.
if aught beyond sweet sleep lie hid.
den, TO PHILIP BOURKE MARSTON.
And sleep be sealed not sast on dead men's
sight LOVE will not weep because the seal is broken Forever, thine hath grace for ours forbidden, That sealed upon a life beloved and brief
And sees us compassed round with change Darkness, and let but song break through for and night: token
Yet light like thine is ours, if love be light. How deep, too far for even thy song's re
ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. lief,
Fortnightly Review. Slept in thy soul the secret springs of grief.
Thy song may soothe full many a soul here
after, As tears, if tears will come, dissolve de
O HAPPY YEAR! spair;
The following graceful sonnet, by Mr. John Arthur As here but late, with smile more bright than Blaikie, is from “ Love's Victory" (Percival & Co.):Jaughter,
Pass not, o happy year, ah 1 linger yet! Thy sweet strange yearning eyes would
For still the winter ways with baliny airs seem to bear Witness that joy might cleave the clouds of
Are sweet, and in the sun thy forehead No touch of time, nor are thine eyelids wet:
Thou shalt not die; upon thee there is set Two days agone, and love was one with pity
Deep-'during immotality that dares When love gave thought wings toward the
The envious future and the veil down-tears glimmering goal
Where new with old, and old with new are Where, as a shrine lit in some darkling city,
met, Shone soft the shrouded image of thy soul: Ah, linger yet, most happy, happy year! And now thou art healed of life; thou art With flower-fed eyes, with wine upon thy healed and whole.
The new spring playing at thy rosy feet Yea, two days since, all we that loved thee Ah mel upon thy bosom faint with fear pitied:
I fall, I whirl in deadly cold eclipse, And now with wondering love, with shame And 'tis thy corpse thus fondly I entreat.
of face, We think how foolish now, how far unfitted, Should be from us, toward thee who hast
run thy race, Pity - toward thee, who hast won the pain. The sun shone warm; the morning breeze less place;
Came laughing through the spreading trees
There fell a sudden joyous gleam
There waited one whose eyes shone bright Dear hours that sorrow sees and sees not And vengeful in the angry light. shine,
Last came the moonlight cold and pale, Bows tearless down before a flameless And, circled with a cloudy veil, shrine;
Showed through the trellis of the wood
A white face floating down the flood. A flameless altar here of life and sorrow
W. H. POLLOCK. Quenched and consumed together. These
were one, One thing for thee, as night was one with
morrow And utter darkness with the sovereign sun:
JOY COMETH IN THE MORNING. And now thou seest life, sorrow, and dark- I HAD a sorrow, and I wept salt tears ness done.
One winter night, and heavy beat the rain ;
At dawn came frost, and on my window pane And yet love yearns again to win thee hither; Each drop like fairy lacework now appears.
Blind love, and loveless, and unworthy thee; Here where I watch the hours of darkness So shall iny grief perchance become a pleasure, wither,
Yes, tears maybe are jewels hearts would keep, Here where mine eyes were glad and sad to For in another life we'll wake from sleep,
And light shall sparkle from our new-tound Thine that could see not mine, though
treasure. turned on me.
BEATRIX L. TOLLEMACHE.
From The Contemporary Review. perfection of form of which he had the ALEXANDER VINET.
instinct and the perception rather than the ALEXANDER VINET is the leading fig- mastery; and almost all his books have ure of French Protestantism in the nine. been brought out since his death, from his teenth century. Others may have had a
own notes or those of his pupils. Yet, more potent or more dazzling eloquence, notwithstanding all these unfavorable a purer style, a more precise or ample conditions, and the long neglect he had erudition; but nowhere among French-suffered in France as a semi-alien, or, speaking Protestant authors do we find worse than that, a sort of provincial or one who can be ranked as his equal in suburban author a neglect from which force, and wealth, and originality of even the admiration of judges like Chathought. Not one among them has ex
teaubriand, Ste. Beuve, or Michelet had erted such an influence over his contem. not been able to rescue him - he has at poraries; not one among them has so last obtained his place among the great perfectly represented the Protestant spirit French writers by his own sole merit. in its best estate. The most convincing The most notable men of the younger lestimony to the value of his work is the generation MM. Brunetière, Faguet, slow but steady progress of his fame. Desjardins, Chantavoine — speak of him While many a literary reputation flashes as a master, and a master who teaches out on a sudden, blazes for an instant, and how to live as well as how to think. The then is gone like a meteor, that of Vinet, exclusively Swiss or Protestant reputation confined at first within the narrow limits he once enjoyed has grown into a reputaof French Switzerland and Protestant tion as wide as France. And it will not France, has gradually overlapped these stop there ; for the value of Vipet's works bounds, till he has found his place, both depends on no accident of form or charm as a critic and a moralist, among the of style; it rests rather on their profundity authors who are most read, most quoted, of thought and truth of feeling, and espe. and, I may add, most plagiarized. While cially on the intimate union between the other authors have owed their success to work and the man, between the teaching the advantages of their position, to the and the life. poisy applause of the press or the salon,
Miss Lane's book will certainly do much to the place they occupied in the Parisian to popularize Vinet in England. The world, that sole dispenser and guardian of "Studies of Pascal," and the History of
“ “ earthly fame, Vinet passed his life away
French Literature in the Eighteenth Cenfrom France, and found scope for his en- tury," had already been translated into ergies in the most modest arena teach. English ; but to appreciate Vinet you must ing first in the Gymnase and then in the know his life, you must be made acUniversity of Båle, and afterwards at the quainted with his character, the character Academy of Lausanne. He did nothing of one of the noblest souls that ever lived; to create a sensation, or to advertise him and Miss Lane is an excellent guide. She self; he published little — having, indeed, has read everything that Vinet has writ. do time to give to his work that finish and ten, and everything that has been written
about him. She has thoroughly under* "'The Life and Writings of Alexander Vinet,” by stood him, and, what is better, she has Laura M. Lane, with introduction by the Ven. Arch- thoroughly loved him, which indeed is
Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1890. the best way of understanding. For her "Etude sur Alexandre Vinet, critique litéraire," par Louis Molines. Paris: Fischbacher. 1890. “Alex
own guidance she has had Rambert's andre Vinet, Histoire de sa vie et de ses Ouvrages,” biography, an admirable book; and she
Lausanne: G. Bridel. has not concealed her obligations to it. "Esprit d'Alexandre Vinet: Pensées et Réflexions extraites de tous ses ouvrages et de quelques mss. In many places her work could only be a inédits," par J. F. Astié. Lausanne : G. Bridel. translation or condensation of Rambert, E. de Pressensé, “ A. Vinet d'après sa correspondance adapted for the English reader. But, not inédite avec H. Lutteroth,” Revue Chrétienne, 1890. to speak of the tact and dexterity with 0. Gréard, " Edmond Schérer." 1890
which this work of adaptation has been
par C. Rambert,
carried out, the book is, after all, no mere write reviews for periodicals such as Le compilation. It not only contains a large Semeur and the Revue Suisse. It is from oumber of extracts from the correspond- these lectures and articles that his best ence and writings of Vinet, but it gives a knowo works have been compiled - the far larger place than Rambert does to the lectures “ Blaise Pascal,"' on the analysis of his works, and indicates far “French Moralists,” on the “Poets of the more clearly the gradual changes of his Time of Louis XIV.," on the “ Literature thought, and the hiatuses and imperfec- of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centutions of that rich nature. Thus, her book ries,” and on the “Great Protestant may be read with pleasure and profit even Preachers.” It was in the course of his after Rambert; and this is no slight praise work as a teacher that he compiled his to give.
admirable collection of choice excerpts, While Miss Lane was thus offering to
“ La Chrestomathie," of which a twelfth the British public a faithful and sympa- complete edition was brought out by M. thetic account of the life of Vinet, M. Rambert between 1876 and 1883. The Louis Molines was taking “Vinet as a collection is divided into three parts, inCritic” for the subject of a thesis for the tended for childhood, youth, and man. doctorat-ès-lettres, brilliantly argued be. hood, and is furnished with two introducfore the University of Montpellier. This tions, which serve to show what Vinet fact has its importance. It shows how might have done if he had given himself high an estimate the leaders of univer- entirely to literature. It also contains a sity education must have of Vinet's posi- paper on French literature, in which he tion as a critic, that they should count him crowds into the space of eighty pages a worthy to be subjected to five hundred complete, precise, and brilliant sketch of pages of serious analysis. It means that the literary history of France, and a letter he has taken his place among the classics on the history of language generally, and of criticism, and that his place is suffi- of the French language in particular, ciently his own to have to be delimited which shows how deep and penetrating and defined.
had been his study of language and of Looking at the multiform career of style. His literary sensibility was Vinet as a writer, a teacher, a pastor, and tremely fine, and at an early stage of his a politician, at the very various assem. career it was evidently a question with blage of his works, and the different sorts him whether he should not dedicate his of influence he exercised, one almost hes- life to literature. “ I cannot express," he itates to say what he was most, and which wrote in 1818, “the exquisite joy I feel in of these characters it is that gives the being permitted to give myself, without fundamental unity to his life and thought. restraint, to the study of literature. That such a unity is not wan og is proved How magnificent is this study, which emby the wonderful harmony of idea and braces all that is best and bighest, and opinion which one perceives at once in all which is associated by a magic bond with he wrote and all he did. But which is the all the faculties of man." Even on bis leading character? Is he first of all the deathbed, he had the “Girondins of literary man or the philosopher, the theo- Lamartine read to him. Recognizing, as logian, the religious reformer, or the eccle. he did, that “la gloire de l'esprit et du siastical innovator ?
bien dire est un des plus terribles de Literary he was to the backbone. To mons," he nevertheless regarded the love the study and teaching of literature he of style as one form of the love of truth. devoted the greater part of his labors as “To put the truth badly,” he said, “is to professor and as author. For twenty years do her an injustice; it is refusing her that he was professor of French language and which belongs to her.” “The lover of literature at Bâle; for two years (1844- truth must be the lover of the beautiful." 1846) he occupied the chair of French lit- Yet, large as was the share of literature crature in the Academy of Lausanne ; and in the life of Vinet, it was not the object during his whole life he never ceased to 'of his life. His love for literature was