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than 1800, this period might have been represent the taste, and consequently in Dearly doubled. It is hard to explain the part the history, of a period. England reckless wasie of space wbich went on would not be what she is if the eighside by side with a growing tendency to teenth century, or the first twenty years regard the Abbey as the appropriate rest of the nineteenth, were wiped out of ing-place of illustrious Englishmen. In recollection, and to remove the moduone and the same year, for example, the ments of those twenty years is so far to burials in tbe Abbey included Pitt and wipe them out of recollection. Further, Fox, a prebendary, and the infant son of we cannot restore the Abbey to the state the chapter clerk. In the cloisters, which it was in when those monuments were put but for this would have supplied a valu. up. The walls, alike of nave, choir, and able addition to the space in the Abbey transepts; had originally very beautiful itself, things were still worse. In the first arcading, which has been barbarously cut twenty years of the present century, there away to make room for monuments. Rewere a hundred and seven person buried move the monuments, and there will be there, and of these not more than half-a. either a scar or a piece of imitation sculpdozen were so much as connected with ture. Either way, the historical character the capitular body. The result of this of the building is injured. Instead of repindiscriminate burial is, that the cloisters resenting the taste of successive generaare full. The one green space surrouoded tions, it would represent the taste of a by the cloisters, which Mr. Knowles has siogle generation, and that a generation suggested as available for future burials, wbich differs from all the rest in not knowhas not been used for that purpose for six ing its own mind, or being certain what hundred years. But at that date it seems it likes. The suggestion of memorial to have been full of bodies, and any exca brasses is free from these drawbacks, but vation disturbs the bones that stiil remain. it shares to the full another. A monument This, to our minds, disposes of Mr. to a person buried in a church ought to Knowles's proposal. It is a fatal objection be close to the place of burial. It would to a place of burial that every foot of the be eminently unsatisfactory to the visitor ground has already been used for the who comes to see the tomb of a great man, same purpose.
Whatever title the re- to be told that the man himself lies in quite mains of the dead to reverent treat- another part of the church ; whereas the ment, is not invalidated by mere lapse of monument he is looking at covers the line. Still, there is no need to take dust of quite a different person. To make thought for the twenty-first century, and if monuments really valuable, they must do we can bury the great dead in the Abbey for what they profess to do, – keep alive the a hundred years more, we may be content. memory of those who are buried under
At least, we might be content if burial Death them. were all that we had to think of. But as
Except, therefore, in those rare cases in a public honor, Westmioster Abbey means which the honor of burial in Westminster more than burial. It means a monument, Abbey is enough without any record of and for monuments, the Dean of Westmin. the fact in the immediate neighborhood, ster tells us, “there is almost no space.” some kind of additional building is really The Abbey is already full of them, greatly, needed. And here the evidence of the in many cases, to its distigurement. There Archbishop of Canterbury is exceedingly are two ways, indeed, in which this objec. valuable. "He begins with the very true lion might be got over. The worst of the observation that we should first uoderexisting monuments might be removed, stand clearly what it is we want. Is the and the space they occupy filled with new Westminster Abbey to be a civil or something better, or future monuments an ecclesiastical building, - a church or might be limited to a single kind - in a pantheon? If the former, it cannot be itself one of the most beautiful — memo too closely united with the existing buildrial brasses. But the first of these plans ing; if the latter, it ought to be distinctly is open to objections proper to itself as separate from it. Though the two build. to one which is common to the two. Weings would have a common use, they agree with Mr. Somers Clarke, that the would express quite different ideas. In fact that a monument is there is a suffi. France or Italy, it might be a question cient reason for not disturbing it. Be it which of these two ideas should be chosen. bad or good, it has a historical value. It But in England it is not so. Those who speaks from the time when it was put up, wish to lie in Westminster Abbey, wish and little as we may care for full-bottomed it in part because it is a church.' They wigs or feeble classicalities in stone, they would not be equally anxious to be buried
in Westminster Hall. What is wanted, poned, as the decoration of St. Paul's has therefore, is a building which shall be as been postponed, to a future which seems much a church as the Abbey, and yet never to come any nearer. If the architect be something neither distinct from nor is left unfettered, we shall at least get the inferior to ihe Abbey. Consequently, best be can give us, and if he is chosen the addition must be part of the same wisely, that means the best that lies within consecrated building. The new chapel our reach. should not be simply a receptacle for monuments for which there is no room in the Abbey, but a genuine extension of the Abbey, partaking of the same sacred char
From The Speaker, acter, and available from time to time for
THE CAROL the same sacred purpose. In fact, it should stand in the same relation to the Abbey as that in which Henry VII.'s I WAS sixteen that Christmas ; all VerChapel stands. The archbishop then crit. yan parish koows the date of the famous icises from this point of view two of the black winter," when the Johann brig suggested sites for the new building. The came ashore on Kibberick beach, with a “wreath of chapels” round the Chapter. dozen foreigners frozen stiff on her foreHouse he rejects on the ground that the top, and Lawyer Job, up at Ruan, lost all Chapter-House is the civil or secular part bis lambs but two. There was neither of the Abbey, and that to make chapels rhyme nor wit in the season; and up to open into a place of business would be to St. Thomas's eve, when it first started to sacrifice the idea of a church. The refec. freeze, the folk were thinking that summer tory, which lies to the south of the cloisters, meant to run straight into spring. I mind he thinks a bad site for the same reason. the ash being in leaf on Advent Sunday, The idea of a church, indeed, is not sacri. and a crowd of martins skimming round ficed, as in the former case, but the identity the church windows during sermon time. of the church is. The cloisters would be Each morning brought blue sky, warm interposed between the Abbey and the mists, and a dew that hung on the bram. new chapel; and, unless the character of bles till near
The frogs were the cloisters were altered, any two build spawning in the pools; primroses were ings so placed would be distinct and sep out by scores and monthly roses blooming arate from one another. This argument, still; and master shot a goat-sucker on if it is accepted as conclusive, leaves two the last day in November. All this puzsites between which the choice would lie, zled the sheep, I suppose, and gave them
the north side of the nave, and the east a notion that their time, too, was at hand. side of the Chapter-House. To the former, At any rate the lambs fell early; and the archbishop objects, we think with jus. when they fell, it had turned to perishing tice, that it would block out the one clear cold. view of the Abbey that can be obtained That Christmas eve, while the singers from the sireet.' The latter might be were up at the house and the fiddles going utilized in more ways than one; but into like mad, it was a dismal time for two of this question we shall not enter.
Laban Pascoe, the hind, spent bis One wish, however, we may be permitted night in the upper field where the sheep to express. It is that the commission or lay, while I spent mine in the chall * lookcommittee, or whatever the authority may ing after Molly, our Guernsey, that had be which has charge of the matter, shall slipped her calf in the afternoon — being content themselves with choosing the site promised the casling's skin for a Sunday and the architect, and not attempt to waistcoat, if I took care of the mother. choose the design. If they pick out the Bating the cold air that came under the man who, from his previous work and door, I kept pretty cosy, what with the present reputation, they think best quali- hay-bands round my legs and the warm fied to build a worthy addition to the great breath of the cows; for we kept five. Abbey, they will have done the utmost There was no wind outside, but moonlight that a committee of amateurs can hope to and a still, frozen sky, like a sounding. accomplish. If they essay anything more, board; so that every note of the music one of two results will almost certainly reached me, with the bleat of Laban's follow. Either the design will be modified sheep far up the hill and the waves' wash to meet this and that criticism, so that in on the beaches below. Inside the chall the end all its distinctive character will be the only sounds were the slow chewing of lost, or the choice will have to be post
the cows, the rattle of a tethering-block, “Just fancy, Dick," the little ove went now and then, or a moan from Molly. on, “it happened in a chall like ours ! ” Twice the uproar from the house coaxed She was quiet for a moment, her eyes me to the door to have a look at Laban's fixed on the glossy rumps of the cows. scarlet lantern moving above, and make | Then, turning quickly, “I know about it, sure that he was worse off than I. But and I'll show you. "Dick, you must be mostly I lay still on my straw in the one St. Joseph, and I'll be the Virgin Mary. empty stall, staring into the foggy face of Wait a bit my own lantern, thinking of the waistcoat, God forgive me if I wanted to laugh! and listening
Her quick fingers began to undress the I was dozing, belike, when a light tap sailor doll and fold his clothes carefully. on the door made me start up, rubbing my “ I meant to christen him Robinson Crueyes.
soe,” she explained, as she laid the small Merry Christmas, Dick!"
garments, one by one, on the straw; “but A little head, bright with tumbled curls, he can't be Robinson Crusoe till I've was thrust in, and a pair of round eyes dressed him again properly.” The doll stared round the chall, then back to me, was stark naked now, with waxen face and rested on my face.
and shoulders and bulging bags of sawMerry Christmas, little mistress.” dust for body and legs. “Dick, – if you tell, I'll never speak to “Dick,” she said, folding the doll in you again. I only wanted to see if 'twas her arms and kissing it, “ St. Joseph, I true.'
mean — the first thing we've got to do is She stepped inside the chall, shutting to let people know he's born. Sing that the door behind her. Under one arm carol I heard you trying over last week – she hugged a big boy doll, dressed like the one that says · Far and far I carry a sailor, - from the Christmas tree, I it." guessed, - and a bright tinsel star was So I sang, while she rocked the babe :: pinned on the shoulder of her bodice. She had come across the cold town-place in
Naked boy, brown boy, her muslin frock, with no covering for her
In the snow deep, shoulders; and the manner in which that
Folks out of sleep; frock was hitched upon her made me stare.
Little shoes, thin shoes, "I got out of bed again and dressed
Shoes so wet and worn myself,” she explained. “ Nurse is in the
But I bring the merry news kitchen, dancing with the young man from
-Christ is born! Pen-rare who can't afford to marry her for ever so long, father says. I saw them
Rise, pretty mistress, twirling, as I slipped out
In your smock of silk; "You have done a wrong thing," said I ;
Give me for my good news
Bread and new milk. "you might catch your death."
Joy, joy in Jewry, Her lip fell; she was but fourteen.
This very morn! “ Dick, I only wanted to see if 'twas
Far and far I carry it true.”
- Christ is born! “What?” I asked, covering her shoulders with the empty sack that had been
She heard me gravely to the end ; then my pillow.
pulling a handful of straw, spread it in the Why, tbat the cows pray on Christmas empty manger and laid the doll there.
Nurse says that at twelve o'clock No, I forget; one moment she held it to-night all the cows in their stalls will be close to her breast and looked down on it. on their knees, if only somebody is there The God who fashions children can tell
So, as it's near twelve by the tall where she learnt that look, and why I re. clock indoors, I've come to see,'
she membered it ten years later, when they
let me look into the room where she lay “It's quig-nogs, I expect. I never
with another babe in her clay.cold arms. heard of it.”
“Count forty,” she went on, using the “ Nurse says they kneel and make a very words of Pretty Tommy, our parish cruel moan, like Christian creatures. It's clerk; "count forty and let fly with. Now because Christ was born in a stable, and draw around so the cows know all about it. Listen to
Now draw around, good Christian men, Molly! Dick, she's going to begin!
And rest you worship-ing But Molly having heaved her moan, merely shuddered and was still again. We sang the carol softly together, she
resting one hand on the edge of the their courses overhead moved all to one manger.
tune, – the carol of two children on the “And now there's nothing to do but sit hillside.
Q. down and wait for the wise men and the shepherds."
It was a little while that she watched, being long over-tired. The warm air of
From The Leisure Hour. the chall weighed on her eyelids; and, as
METEORITIC THEORIES. they closed, her head sank on my shoulder. For ten minutes I sat, listening to her
MR. NORMAN LOCKYER'S newly probreathing. Molly rose heavily from her pounded and brilliantly reasoned'"mebed and lay down again, with a long sigh; heavenly bodies has at length been chal
teoritic” theory of the constitution of the another cow woke up and rattled her rope a dozen times through its ring; up at the lenged by Dr. Huggios. Mr. Lockyer, it house the fiddling grew more furious ; but will be remembered, argues that the the little maid slept on. At last I wrapped nebulæ, the comets, and nearly all the the sack closely round her, and listing her stars are really aggregations of meteor. in my arms, carried her out into the night. ites, whose collisions make them luminous. She was my master's daughter, and I had Dr. Huggins enjoys a world-wide reputanot the courage to
so much as her
tion as the co-founder, with the late Father hair. Yet I had no envy for the dancers,
Secchi, of the science of stellar spectrothen.
scopy; and he is also the author of the As we passed into the cold air she more orthodox view of the simply gaseous stirred.
constitution of the nebulæ, which Mr. “ Dick, did they come? And where are
Lockyer's researches tend to contravene. you carrying me?” Then, when I told In a brief letter published in June, on her, “ Dick, I will never speak to you
“ The Spectrum of the Nebulæ,” Dr. again, if you don't carry me first to the Huggins announces a very important cor
roboration of his own view, The astrongate of the upper field.” So I carried her to the gate, and sitting omers at the now famous Lick observatory
at Mount Hamilton, in California, report up in my arms she called twice, • Laban Laban!”
that they have discovered in the nebula > “What cheer - 0?" the hind called 5 that which Dr. Huggins himself had back. His lantern was a spark on the asserted of the great nebula in Orion hillside, and he could not tell the voice at namely, that the chief line seen in the specthat distance,
troscope is not due to the substance which “Have you seen him ? "
Mr. Lockyer so commonly finds in the " Wha-a-a-t?"
spectra of meteorites viz., magnesium,
or its oxide. Dr. Huggios is content at “ The angel of the Lo-o-ord!' 66 Wha-a-a-t?"
present with this negation of Mr. Lock“I'm afraid we can't make him under- yer's position. He does not undertake to stand," she whispered. Hush; don't say what constituent of the nebula the line shout!" For a moment, she seemed to
in question really represents; he simply consider ; and then her shrill treble qua. have to take of the nebulæ and of their
adds the pregnant words : “ The views we vered out on the frosty air, my own deeper relationship to the other heavenly bodies voice taking up the second line,
depend very greatly upon the coincidence The first “ Nowell” the angel did say
or otherwise of the chief nebula line with Was to certain poor shepherds, in fields as the magnesium band." The alleged cointhey lay,
cidence, it must be remembered, is the In fields as they lay, a-tending their sheep, largest postulate of Mr. Lockyer's meteor. On a cold winter's night that was so deep itic theory.
Nowell! Nowell i In order to appreciate a question so Christ is born in Israel !
grand in its scope, probing, as it does,
some of the most hidden secrets of the Our voices followed our shadows across great cosmical laboratories of the distant the gate and far up the field, where La- heavens, we shall do well to recall a few ban's sheep lay dotted. What Laban facts antecedent to the immediate inquiry. thought of it I cannot tell; but to me it We have to bear in mind not only the seemed, for the moment, that the shepherd astounding discoveries of the spectroamong his ewes, the dancers within the scope io stellar chemistry, through which house, the sea beneath us, and the stars in we learn the kind of fuel which is glowing
in the most distant of the stars, but also heat brought about by condensation of the progress which had been made in the meteor swarms. The spectra of all bodics earlier investigation of the nebulæ when depends upon the heat of the meteorites that ioquiry passed from the hands of Sir produced by collisions, and the average William Herschel into those of Dr. Hug- space between the meteorites in the gins. Herschel, the greatest of modern swarm, or in the case of consolidated astronomers, and, indeed, the founder of swarms, upon the time which has elapsed sidereal astronomy, was the first to make since comp vaporization. the nebulæ a serious study.* The view The temperature of the vapors pro.
so commonly accepted, that these duced by collisions in nebulæ is about mysterious-looking objects are huge gas- that of the Bunsen burner. The temperaclouds, which eventually condense into ture of vapors produced by collisions in stars and solid worlds, was arrived at by the hot stars is about that of the Bessemer Herschel himself. From the most dif- fame. fused nebulosity, barely visible in the Meteorites are formed by the condensa. most powerful, light-gathering telescopes, tion of vapors thrown off by collisions. to the planetary nebulæ, which he sup- The small particles increase by fusion posed to be centrally solid, instances were brought about again by collisions, and this alleged by him of every stage and phase increase may go on until the meteorites of such condensation. But ihe telescope may be large enough to be smashed by was then, as now, unable to distinguish collision, when the heat of impact is not between the dim rays of the remoter clus. sufficient to produce volatilization of the ters and the milky light of true gaseous whole mass. New stars, whether seen in nebulæ. It was with an altogether differ- nebulæ or not, are produced by the clash ent instrument that Dr. Huggins, in 1864, of meteor swarms. put an eod to the fluctuations of opinion These are some of the conclusions to which even the great Parsonstown six-foot which Mr. Lockyer's researches have led reflecting telescope had failed to termi. him. It will perhaps make his point of nate. His examination of a bright plan. view more intelligible if we mention in its etary nebula in the constellation Draco favor (1) Schiaparelli's discovery that showed that this body was a mass of glow. comets at least are connected with swarms ing vapor. In the next four years the of meteorites; (2) Dr. Huggins's observastudy of some seventy other nebulæ tion of the chief nebular ray as a bright showed that fundamentally the composi- point on the continuous spectrum of tion of all bodies of this class may be comet 1866 1, which remains valid eviassumed to be the same; all are probably dence of the physical links between neb. in more or less advanced stages of conden- ulæ and comets insisted upon by Mr. sation from mere gases into stars. Lockyer. It may also be said that in
This view of the gaseous character of some respects the meteoritic theory would the nebulæ would have to be considerably supply the clue to certain phenomena, modified bad Mr. Lockyer's chief premiss such as the sudden brightening up in the been substantiated. Mr. Lockyer seeks Andromeda nebula a few years since, and to prove that even the most rudimentary the apparition of new stars, which seem to of the nebulæ are not solely gaseous, but point to the passage and clashing together owe their luminosity to the collisions of of meteor swarms. So far as meteors or solid meteoritic bodies of which they are shooting stars themselves are concerned, composed. He even extends this general. he is able to quote Professor Herschel ization to all the heavenly bodies except and Konkoly to the effect that in the genthe hottest stars, in which the meteorites erality of meteor falls the lines of magne: became completely vaporized by the high siui are the first to show themselves, and temperature. The following are some of that the beautiful green light which is so the leading propositions he lays down. often associated with these falling bodies
The existing distinction between stars, is due to the incandescence of the vapor comets, and nebulæ rests on no physical |of magnesium. basis.
Nevertheless, Mr. Lockyer's theory All self-luminous bodies in the celestial would appear to have been an a priori spaces are composed of meteorites, or of theory, followed by a diligent search for masses of meteoritic vapor produced by facts to illustrate it. He sees meteorites
everywhere. “ The heavens are full of For an admirable résumé of Herschel's work in stones, and hardly anything else." And this and other departments of observational astronomy, what can these be, he seems to say, but see Miss A. M. Clerke's “History of Astronomy in the Nineteenth century.".
the rudimentary stuff which goes to the