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and whilst the climate and soot of Blooms- | far more injurious to them than the clibury are slowly affecting their crumbling mate of the Acropolis. The climate of surface, the pure air of the Acropolis the Acropolis is certainly the very best would preserve them longer by centuries. for their preservation that Europe could Athens is now a far more central archæo- afford; and the climate of Bloomsbury is logical school than London; and the art certainly one of the worst. Every one students of the world would gain im- knows that the marvellous Pentelic marmensely if the ornaments of the Parthenon ble resists in the Attic air the effect of could be seen again together and beneath exposure for very long periods whilst its the shadow of the Parthenon itself. The surface is intact. When the surface is Parthenon marbles are to the Greek na- gone and the cracks begin to pass deep tion a thousand times more dear and into the substance, the deterioration of more important than they ever can be to the marble goes on rapidly. Go to our the English nation, which simply bought Museum and observe the cruel scars that them, And what are the seventy-four have eaten in parallel lines the breast and years that these dismembered fragments ribs of the River God (llissus). Night and have been in Bloomsbury when compared day those scars are being subtly filled with the two thousand two hundred and with London soot. It is no doubt true forty years wherein they stood on the that the antique marbles are occasionally Acropolis?
washed and cleaned. But at what a cost, The stock argument for retaining the and at what a risk! marbles in London is that they are safe Of course the man in Pall Mall or in here, and nobody knows what might hap- the club armchair has his sneer ready: pen at Athens. In one sense, we trust “ Are you going to send all statues back they are safe in London ; but they stand to the spot where they were found ?” in the heart of a great city, and no man | That is all nonsense. The Elgin marbles can absolutely say that the Museum might stand upon a footing entirely different not be destroyed in some great fire in from all other statues. They are Bloomsbury. As to political or riotous statues; they are architectural parts of a commotions, they are more to be unique building, the most famous in the dreaded in Athens than they are in Lon-world; a building still standing, though don. Whilst Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and in a ruined state, which is the national Rome have been the scenes of fearful symbol and palladium of a gallant people, street battles within fifty years, there has and which is a place of pilgrimage to civbeen nothing of the kind at Athens since ilized mankind. When civilized man the establishment of the kingdom. And, makes his pilgrimage to the Acropolis and even if there were, it is inconceivable that passes through the Propylæa, he notes either a street fight or a fire could touch the exquisite shrine of Nike Apteros, the Acropolis. One might as well say that with part of its frieze intact and the rest a row in the Canongate at Edinburgh of the frieze filled up in plaster, because might destroy the colonnade on Calton the original is in London. He goes on to Hill. Even a bombardment of the city of the Erechtheion, and there he sees that Athens would not touch the Acropolis, one of the lovely Caryatides who support except with direct malice aforethought the cornice is a composition cast, because It may be taken for certain that the Mu- the original is in London. He goes on to seum now standing on the summit of the the Parthenon, and there he marks the Acropolis is a spot ideally protected by pediments which Lord Elgin wrecked and dature from any conceivable risk of fire, left a wreck stripped of their figures; he accidental injury, civil or foreign war. sees long bare slices of torn marble, One can only wish that the contents of whence the frieze was gutted out, and the the Louvre, the National Gallery, and the sixteen holes where the two ambassadors Vatican were anything like as safe. And wrenched out the Metopes. We English it so happens that this ideally safe spot have wrung off and hold essential parts of for preserving priceless relics is the very a great national building, which bears spot where a glorious genius and a won wreckage on its mangled brow, and which, derful people placed them two thousand like Edipus at Colonus, holds up to view years ago.
the hollow orbs out of which we tore the Admit that the Elgin marbles are (hu- very eyes of Pheidias. manly speaking) safe in Bloomsbury When Lord Elgin committed this dread. from any conceivable risk of fire or riot ful havoc, he may have honestly thought which is to admit a good deal — still it is that he was preserving for mankind these certain that the climate of Bloomsbury is precious relics. The Turks took no heed
of them, and the few Greeks could only Chapter House, had been carried off, dur. mutter their feeble groan in silence. But ing the occupation of the country by a everything is now changed. To the Greek foreign enemy, by an amateur with a fine nation now the ruins on the Acropolis are taste for antiques, and a good nose for a far more important and sacred than are bargain, to put into his “collection? any other pational monuments to any other The case is far stronger than this; for people. They formed the outward and the Elgin marbles are not statues, or visible sign of the national existence and tombs; they form indispensable parts of re.birth. But for the glorious traditions the most symmetrical building ever raised of Athens, of which these pathetic ruins by man. are the everlasting embodiment, Greece Naturally, the antiques found in Greece would never have attracted the sympathy form a far more important interest to the of the civilized world and would not have whole nation than they can to a nation been assisted to assert herself as a free which has simply purchased or “conState. At the foundation of it, Corinth, veyed" them. No people in the world are astride on both seas on her isthmus, had so intensely jealous of their national memany superior claims as a capital. The morials as the Greeks of today. They existence of the Acropolis made any cap- form their claims to sympathy as a people, ital but Athens impossible, as it makes the symbol of their traditional past, their Greece herself in rated on the base peculiar claim to a un interest, and no of her ancient glory.
doubt much of what Demetrius the silverThus to free Greece the Acropolis is smith and Alexander the coppersmith told the great national symbol ; more than the their fellow citizens was the practical Forum and the Palatine are to Rome, more value of Diana of the Ephesians. At a than the Duomo and the Palazzo Vec- moderate computation the ruins and the chio are to Florence, more than Notre museums are worth 100,000l. a year to the Dame and the Louvre are to Paris, more Greek people. They have made stringent than the Abbey, Westminster Hall, and laws not only to keep every fragment of the Tower are to London. Rome, Flor- antiquity in the country, but to keep every ence, Paris, London, have scores of his- fresh discovery in the very district and toric monuments and national memorials ; spot where it is found. We need not and they all have many other centuries of discuss the policy of this. A very strong ancient history and many other phases of government recently found it impossible national achievement. Athens has only to move the Hermes of Praxiteles from one; Greece is centred round Athens; Olympia to Athens. Aod no doubt the and ancient Athens means the Acropolis ruins of Olympia are now worth a and its surroundings.
railway to the modern inhabitants of Elis. We profess to be proud of our Tower Greece is now quite full of museums. and Abbey and our national monuments. In Athens alone there are seven or eight, To the patriotic Athenian of to-day the of which three are principal and distinct Acropolis represents Tower, Abbey, St. national collections. These, at any rate, Stephen's, Westminster Hall, Domesday are as suitable, as well kept, and as accesBook, Magna Carta, and all our historic sible as are the museums of any capital in memorials together. He has nothing the world. They are year by year, and else; and the sight day and night of that almost month by month, increasing in vast, lonely, towering mass of ruin, with value and importance. With excellent its weird but silent message from the past, judgment the Greeks have resolved to produces on the subtle imagination of a form a special museum on the rock of the sensitive people an effect infinitely deeper Acropolis, conveniently sunk in the souththan even our Abbey produces on a Lon. eastern angle, in which is placed every doner. And every morning and evening fragment recovered, not in sitre, from any that the Athenian raises his eyes to his building raised on the Acropolis itself. Abbey he sees the scars where, in a time This museum, small as it is, is already to of national humiliation, a rich Englishman the art-student one of the most indispenwrenched off slices of the building to sable in existence. Here are the exquisite place in his collection at home. What reliefs of Nike; here are all the detached would be the feelings of an Englishman if fragments which have been recovered he saw the Abbey gutted within this cen from the Parthenon, from pediments, tury, and knew that the shrine of the Con- metopes, and frieze ; here too are the fessor, the tombs of the kings, the altar archaic figures from the temples de. screen, the chair and sword, and the Pur- stroyed by Xerxes before Salamis. The beck columns from the transepts and the last feature alone places this little museum
in the front rank of the collections of the the Muscovite public a faint sense of the world for purposes of studying the history genius loci. of art. For the history of glyptic art, the It is enough to make the cheek of an Acropolis has within the last twenty years honest Englishman burn when he first become the natural rendezvous of the sees the ghastly rents which British student. The Greeks, Germans, English, (North British) taste tore out of this temand French have founded special schools ple, and then passes into the humble of archæology, and other nations have museum below where the remnants are preformod less formal centres of study. The served. They are not so important as our result is that Athens is now become a Elgin trophies, but they are very important school of archæology, far more important - beautiful, unique, and quite priceless. in itself, and far more international in And then come long ranges of casts - - the character, than London is or ever can be. originals in London — and so the whole
By what right, except that of posses. series is maimed and disfigured. In the sion, do we continue to withhold from the case of at least one metope the Acropolis students and pilgrims who flock to the Museum possesses one half, the other half Acropolis from all parts of the civilized of which is in London. So that of a single world substantive portions of the unique group, the invention of a consummate building which they come to study, those genius, and the whole of which is extant, decorations of it which lose half their London shows half in marble and half in artistic interest and their historic meaning plaster cast, and the Acropolis shows the when separated from it by four thousand other half in marble and the rest in plaster, miles of sea ? The most casual amateur, Surely it were but decent, if he honestly as well as the mere tiro in art, can at once respect great art, that the original should perceive how greatly the Pheidian sculp. be set up as a whole. But it seems that iures gain when they can be seen in the in the nineteenth century we show our Attic suolight, alongside of the architec. profound veneration for a mighty genius tural frame for which they were made, and by splitting one of his works into two and at least under the shadow of the building exhibiting the fragments severed at oppoof which they form part. The ruined col. site corners of Europe, as mediæval monks onnades are necessary to explain the cary. thought their country's honor consisted in ings; and the carvings give life and voice exhibiting here a leg and here an arm of to the ruined colonnades. These demi. some mythical patron saint. gods seem to pine and mope in the London No one in his senses would talk about
in their native sunlight the frag. restoring the Parthenon, and no ments seem to breathe again. On the dreams of replacing the marbles in the Acropolis itself every fragment from Phei- pediments. What might be done is to dias's brain
as sacred and as replace the northern frieze of Nike Apvenerable as if it were the very bones ofteros, and restore the Caryatid to her sisa hero. In a London museuin they are ters beneath the cornice of Erechtheion. objects of curious interest like the Dodo The difference between the effect of the or the Rosetta stone most instructive Pheidian fragments as seen in Bloomsbury and of intense interest - but they are not and that of the Pheidian fragments as seen relics, such as make the spot whereon we on the Acropolis is one that only ignostand sacred in our eyes, as do the tombs rance and vulgarity could mistake. Who of the Edwards or the graves of the poets would care for the virgins, saints, and in our Abbey. In the British Museum “ Last Judgments " from the portals of the excellent directors, feeling how much Amiens, Reims, or Chartres, if they were the genius loci affects these Elgin mar- stuck on pedestals and catalogued at bles, have placed models, casts, and vari- Bloomsbury, with or without cork models ous devices to explain to the visitor the of the cathedral? form of the Acropolis and the place of The notion that the interests of art those carvings in the Parthenon. They try demand the retention of parts of a great to bring the Acropolis into our Elgin room building in a foreign country is a mere bit at Bloomsbury, instead of sending the of British Philistinism and art gabble. contents of the Elgin room to the Acropo. The true interests of art demand that the lis! One might as well imagine that the fragments which time and man have tombs of the kings in our Abbey had been spared of the most interesting building in carried off to put in a museum in St. the world should be seen together, seen in Petersburg, and that the Russian keeper their native sky and under all the complex of the antiquities had set up a model of associations of that most hallowed spot. the Abbey beside them, in order to give One might as well argue that the interests
of art would be served if Michael Angelo's (2) Some grand fragments from both
(4) About one-third of what exists of
Atridæ. and nearly as large as Florence or Venice. The Greek nation, small as it is, is as It would not consist with our honor to much entitled to honorable consideration make a paltry bargain. Let the thirty-five as Holland, Belgium, Denmark, or Swit- thousand pieces of silver (or was it gold ?) zerland. The familiar sneers of Pall Mall that we paid to milord perish with him. and Fleet Street about Greek democracy We shall restore the Parthenon marbles and the Hellenic blood have nothing to do much as we restored the Ionian Islands with the matter. Greece is now a friendly and Heligoland to their national owners, nation with a regular government. It has because we value the good name of Enalso within twenty years become a settled gland more than unjust plunder. If the country, open to all men, and one of the barkers of Pall Mall and the opposition great centres of art study for the civilized rags have to be quieted, let us give them world. To Greece the Acropolis is more to munch a commercial treaty. A little important than are Malta and Gibraltar to free trade with England would satisfy the England. The question is how long this growlers, and would do the Greeks permacountry, in an ignorant assumption of nent good. But let us have no higgling. " the interests of art,” will continue to Let us do the right thing with a free hand. inflict a wholly disproportionate humilia. Is it too much to hope that such a treaty tion on a small but sensitive and otherwise may be made by the Englishman whom friendly people.
the world knows as the lover of Homer, How the restoration could be managed and whom the Hellenes of to-day always it is not worth discussing here. Obviously associate with their country and their by some kind of international treaty. The hopes ? He earned the gratitude of bulk of the Parthenon, of course, is now Greeks, the thanks of England, and the on the Acropolis. But London holds the respect of honest men everywhere when most precious remnants from both pedi- he restored the western islands to their ments. Paris, it seems, has one of the own countrymen. Let him earn a more south metopes, some fragments from the enduring and touching gratitude by rewest pediment, and a small section of the placing on the sublime rock wherein ceneast frieze. London has fifteen metopes, tre so many of the memories of mankind out of the original ninety-two. What re those inimitable marbles which Pericles mains of the rest are still in situ, or in and Pheidias set up there in a supreme the Acropolis Museum. London has the moment of the world's history. It is a larger part of the south, north, and east cruel mockery, in the name of high art," frieze; the remainder is on the Acropolis, to leave then scattered about the galleries except a section at Paris. Happily the of Europe. FREDERIC HARRISON. noble west frieze remains nearly perfect in situ. Thus the Acropolis now con.
* These proportions are stated roughly, for the gen tains :
eral argument, and not with archæological pretensions (I) All that remains of the building I know that the archæologists bark and growl at a la
interloper, like the street dogs of Constantinople at itself.
From The Asiatic Quarterly Review. | strictly enjoined by it to assimilate them. LIFE AMONG THE DRUSES IN 1845 AND selves outwardly to whatever religion may 1882.
be prevailing and victorious, and inwardly maintain a secret deadly hatred to its be
lievers, with a firm grasp on their own A TEN years' residence in the Lebanon, tenets. Their places of worship are from '45 to '55, before its inhabitants had called khalwat, which means secluded, come into much contact with Europeans, and are really secret and secluded houses, and wbile they still preserved intact their which are jealously guarded from all inown ways, gave me much insight into the trusion. What is done in the secrecy of home-life and customs of both Druses those meetings has never come to light, as and Maronites, into which two great sec- it would be certain death to any one who tions the inhabitants of the Lebanon are would dare to divulge it. divided. There were to be found a few The Druse religion divides its adhe. Mohammedan villages, and a sprinkling rents into two parts: the "U'kkál,” and of Greek Christians here and there; but the “ Juhlál,” which, literally interpreted, the two great factions, which had pos- means the wise or reasonable, from a’kl, sessed themselves of the Lebanon, and reason, and the ignorant or foolish, from kept it in a constant state of disorder and jehl, folly. tumult, were, as has been said, these two. There are many degrees of initiation, They were, at the time of which I speak, and it is only those who have reached the and are still to this day, always in a state highest degree that may know all the mysof feud with each other; and their internal terious secrets of their religion ; and these dissensions too often culminate in entire exact the most abject, unquestioning districts being laid waste, and whole vil. obedience from all others, and are looked lages burnt, on the path of the victorious up to with the greatest awe and reverparty, sometimes on the one side and ence. A very few women are allowed to sometimes on the other.
be enrolled among the raoks of the “in. The Maronites, so named after their itiated," in the lower degrees; but the teacher and head, Mar Maroon, are de. cases are very rare indeed (though I was scendants of the ancient inhabitants, who, told that in isolated instances they did being already Christians, submitted to the exist) that the higher degrees are permitted Roman Church at the first Crusade in the to them. twelfth century. They never had much It is easy to distinguish the “ U’kkál,” of a martial spirit, and in their battles or initiated, from the “ Juhhál," or uninwith the Druses are generally beaten in itiated. Everything about them betokens almost every engagement, even though in the burden of a mystery; and the higher point of numbers the advantage may be they ascend in the scale of degrees in on tbeir side, thus proving themselves far initiation, the more deeply imbued is the inferior both in courage and tactics. They whole person, countenance, figure, and live chiefly in the northern part of the dress with the consciousness of a weight, Lebanon, from the Dog River, near Beyo a something to be kept secret at all hazrout, to Tripoli, but are found also all ards. From the moment they begin the over the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon, coveted degrees, the whole person com. with a few in the larger cities of Syria. mences to undergo a change, which grows
The Druses are the descendants of insidiously upon them. what were supposed to be the remnants The Druses, as a race, are of middle of the old Canaanites, and are (so-called) height, strong and well built, with fine, Arabs, who took possession in 821 of the open countenances, full of fire and inMetten, a part of Mount Lebanon which telligence. I do not think I ever saw a was then an empty waste, and which rec. particularly tall or stout person among ommended itself to them as being most them; but every movement of their lithe, difficult of access to intruders.
wiry figures gives an impression of great They afterwards adopted the tenets of energy and perseverance. Hakim-bi-amr-illah (goveroor by the com- They often make strong professions of mand of God), as taught by bis adherent, warm, undying friendship; but it needs Mohammed - ibn - Ismail-el-Darázy, from only one glance into their restless, burning whom they have taken their name of eyes to feel sure that they can be bitter Druses.
fóes, and are exceedingly suspicious of To enter into the peculiar doctrines of every one outside their own nation. their religion is not the object of this That they are of the same origin as the paper. Suffice it to say, that they are Bedouins of the desert, and of the de.