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sired to retain, not to estrange, sympa. I hitherto worshipped — their past history, thies. They are very good hands at their affections, their very selves. If that keeping political accounts, these Alsa-l is not what their rulers aim at-it is what tiaos. You can find no one now among they have made the Alsatians believe that them to say a good word for Napoleon they intend. After twenty years, surely III. — “who has betrayed us.” Even the some relaxation might have been made, empress does not escape reproach. “The some advance should have been prac. empress,” said a thoroughly patriotic Al- ticable, some beginning of a show of trust sacienne to me, “must be a downright there ought to be. bad woman." I protested against this I must just say a few words about the sweepiog indictment. No, we know material losses which the conquered prove very well, it was she who caused the war, ince has suffered, and, in justice, about which brought us into servitude.”

the efforts which the German government But of all the measures calculated to is honestly making to provide some repakeep alive sore feelings without accom- ration. plishing any useful effect, the provision Of course, annexation dealt a very serelating to passports, coupled with the vere blow to that wonderfully developed barriog of the frontiers against “optants ” industrial prosperity which made Alsace is about the most effective. Its hardship so rich. For its wares were designed for is felt in almost every hamlet. And it the French market; they excelled in seems such a senseless measure, so de quality, for which Germans do not pay as liberately cruel! I know it is relaxed one dearly as French people do. Twenty little jot from time to tiine - on paper. years have not nearly sufficed to repair But kreisdirectors and geodarmes are al. this loss. The German authorities say it lowed a considerable latitude in the appli- is because Alsatian industry will not act cation. “Optants " forbidden to visit their upon their advice, and adapt itself to the properties (which are much depreciated in German market. That may be. The loss consequence), sons prohibited from seeing is beyond dispute. The trade of Metz I their dying mothers, helpless old men, found ruined, and Metz was a thriving with nobody left above ground to care for, town once. “ The old Messins,” said a turned back when they ask leave to visit commercial traveller from German Rhinetheir wives' and children's graves - even land to me - under the shadow of that a poor old negress has been sent some cathedral which Quicherat places in the thousands of miles home to her colony same category with St. Ouen

" hate us. when coming to visit a family with whom And they are right. I say it as a German. she had been as nurse - the cases are We have all but ruined them.” Among plentiful, and they are just of the nature the minor industries more or less damwhich appeals most to human sympathy, aged, the manufacture of woollen socks, “ Is old So-and-so likely to do mischief? to be worn in sabots, may serve as an and poor So-and-so ?" Unfortunately, example. That industry used to employ German bureaucrats reck not of reasons. about twelve thousand hands.

It is now The letter is the god they swear by. The all but extinct. Another interest very letter says:

“ Thou shalt not with the hardly hit is that of innkeepers and the objects of the prohibition they have noth- liquor trade generally. The hotels have ing to do. That is just where the French suffered severely. It takes no particularly rule, with all its defects, sat so much large hotel to be still £600, £800, or lighter upon the country. It was tem- £1,000 a year short in its takings. I have pered by human feeling.

heard the same complaint in the Black It seems as if the German government Forest. The French came and spent was bent upon wholly breaking the will money. The Germans do things “on the of the Alsatians, as a trainer breaks the cheap.” The liquor interest has been will of a dog. It is not enough that they hurt chiefly by new taxation. M. About accept the new state of things. Many of makes out that Germany is paying the them would do that now, and might easily Alsatians a bribe by taxing them lightly. be led up to a kinder feeling. It is as if Never was partisan assertion less founded. they were to be made to feel the full “ They have taken off no old tax ; but weight of the German power of worrying, they have added more than one new one. in order to be thoroughly cowed. It is not the liquor tax payable formerly out of enough that, like Chlodwig, they bow their profits, is now collected in advance. neck, and agree to worship what they have There is a new license tax, a new tax on burnt. They are not to be trusted till the removal of liquor from one place to they have uiterly burnt what they have I another, and a door and window tax. And

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private distilling for home consumption, | empire, and bid fair to make that property formerly free, is made taxable. That is an worth half as much again in a compara. unpopular measure, because the Alsatians tively short time. They have made €.4,dearly love their marc de raisins. To 000,000 available most acceptable the cultivator, the abolition of the tobacco boon for loans to small tradesmen, monopoly is a serious blow. That mo. peasants, and the like, who were previously nopoly, whatever its economic defects, at the mercy of the village Jews, a thorwas a veritable god-send to the peasants. oughly objectionable class in Alsace, They got a good price for their produce; They are doing much for agriculture and they knew beforehand by the government viticulture. By a new law they have entariff what they would get, and they got abled small proprietors to combine for it just at the time when they most wanted purposes of subsoil drainage and imit. The goveroment officers held a regular provements, both of which were sadly tobacco audit in the autumn, when they needed, but were quite impossible under took over the leaves and paid the money French rule. down. Of course the bargain was duly I might tell of more. No charge can wetted at a convivial gathering. In con- be preferred against the government on sequence of the abolition, the land under the score of remissness in respect of tobacco in Alsace-Lorraine has shrunk by material improvements. But what are more than half, and is still dwindling. they — the tithing of mint, anise, and To the landed proprietors annexation bas cummin — in comparison with the weightproved a ruinous business. Property ier matters of government? Constructiog continues depreciated. At Gérardıner, I water reservoirs is one thing, according sat at dinner next to a lady whose uncle civil rights and winning hearts is quite had, in 1854 or thereabouts — at his mar- another. In this matter the government riage — bought for a round million of has sadly failed, and the consequence is, francs an estate in Lorraine which the that we see what we do see -a law dis German emperor the other day, I am told, trusted, bearing on the whole of its face secured for a hundred thousand. While the stamp of conquest, of subjugation, of I was at Colmar, a gentleman there bought practically martial law, and, therefore, dis. for his sister an entire convent (secular- content and disaffection. If ized) - large buildings, vineyards, and extensive grounds — very accessible, and

It is impossible for us to frown

On those who smile upon us, capable, he told me, of maintaining from its produce a family of fair social position as impossible is it to smile on those who

for not more than elever thousand never relax their features from a scowling francs, that is, a little more than £400. frown.

So much for the losses. The catalogue The fatal mistake was made when it was is, of course, far from complete. As re. decided that Alsace-Lorraine should be gards new measures for the development governed directly from Berlin. That of local resources, I must do the Ger. meant placing it under Prussia. And with mans the justice to say that they are most all their rather overpowering efficiency active and judicious, even under discour. the Prussians are the last nation in the agement. They would gladly do more. world to accommodate themselves to other But Alsatian industry, they say, will not people's ways. To the ways of the Alsa. be helped. So they have had to content tians they can accommodate themselves themselves, in respect of industry, with as little as a dog can to the ways of a cat. constructing water reservoirs, on a large With the military uniform into which scale and a great cost, to the undoubted their government puts them, they don a benefit of the country. But they have military spirit, which is exceedingly effecspent something like twenty-five millions tive in maintaining discipline, but not by sterling on railways, besides most unfairly any means a quality to propitiate people diverting traffic to Alsace from Baden. with. Their own king, the late Emperor They have made capital roads, sadly William, volunteered the statement pub. needed, all over the country. They are lished in his correspondence with General spending £450,000 on widening and deep. Natzmer : Our officers have a curious ening canals. They have opened their knack of making themselves disliked. purses freely to popular education. Certainly with the Alsatians they have Among other things, they cause girls to succeeded in this admirably. receive instruction in doinestic work. Under the old empire what would have They have greatly improved the adminis- been done with Alsace-Lorraine is this. tration of the forests, neglected under the l It would have been assigned a regular,


constitutional, and recognized place in the craft, by suzerainty claimed over vassals, empire, as a State, or part of a State, which vassals were afterwards cleared out having its own prince on the spot, who of the way, both have by degrees built up would have governed it by means of its a solid, powerful — and not a federated own men and in its own way always empire. Aod both of course are, or were, subject to the supremacy of the empire. military, conquering powers. Normandy, It makes a great difference whether a Brittany, Provence, and so on-in Ger. country has its own prince, whose interest many have all been captured. Aquiis identified with that of the people, who taine has not yet been incorporated, but it is a permanent, accessible chief-or a is not beyond the reach of imagination to deputy, sent with limited powers from picture the Bretigoy of Nicolsburg folsomewhere else. Personal feeling is lowed in due course by a capitulation of bound to claim a place in a prince's rela. Bordeaux." The German Staies still have tions with his subjects. The mere glitter their vassal princes. But that arrangeof his court and presence of his person ment need not be designed forever. Åldoes something. We know how devoted ready people are asking "cui bono?" If were the Lorrains to their dukes, and what the larger half of Saxony, annexed in 1815, a happy effect the reign of their mere can be satisfactorily governed by a Pruswarming-pan sovereign, King Stanislas, sian“ president,” why should the smaller bad in bridging over the gulf of political half, half annexed in 1866, permanently transition. Had Prince Bismarck even require a king? If Hanover and the only sent a warming-pan Stanislas to Hessian electorate can be governed from Strassburg, such as Louis Quinze had the Berlin, why not the other Hesse and the wisdom to send to Nancy! The most Thuringian duchies ? It would be much natural proceeding of course would have cheaper to do without these princes. And been for Alsace to be incorporated with it would materially consolidate the union. the country of nos bons voisins of Ba- “ We are united," argued a leading Gerdeo. The two peoples are one bone man paper some years ago," but we are and one fesh; their language, their man- not perfectly united. Were we perfectly ners, their ideas are identical. And the united, we should be like the English, one grand duke is almost as popular in Al. people with one crown." There has been sace as he is in Badeo. But to this nat. mediatizing of German princes ere now, ural solution Berlin raised objections. why should there not be mediatizing Alsace-Lorraine_had been won by the again? whole empire. The whole empire accord- What is felt is, that in Alsace-Lorraine ingly must share in the prize. The same a political experiment is being made, not scruples were allowed no place a few at all to the liking or profit of Alsatians mooihs ago, when Heligoland was ac- and Lotharingians, but of very important quired likewise by all Germany, and in bearing on the future destinies of Ger. exchange for claims in Africa which, many. The object seems to be, to dem. whether good or bad, were the claims of onstrate that a country may be governed, all Germany. Nothing was said then and effectually governed, without the in. about “reichsland.” Heligoland was tervention of a local sovereign. What is tacked on to Schleswig-Holstein, which possible in Alsace ought to be possible Schleswig-Holstein is part of Prussia. also in Baden, and Wuerttemberg, and Under the influence of Prussia's objec. Saxony, though time may have to be left tion, Alsace was in 1871 not handed over for its application. to Baden, but was, with a striking depart. If this suggestion is correct, the Alsatoure from the spirit of the old empire, Lotharingians have doubly cause to comemployed for the creation of an entirely plain of the hardships inflicted on them. new species of political body, a nonde. They have been made needlessly to suffer, script thing, termed "reichsland." But and the result is what might have been the spirit of the old empire has in reality expected. Though twenty years have very little to do with the new, For on passed since their annexation, thanks to the shoulders of the ruler of the latter has a rule which, with all its good intentions, evidently not fallen the mantle of the all its excellent work in detail, has wholly Charleses and the Henrys, but of acquisi. failed to appeal to their affections, has tive and aggrandizing France. It is curi- given them absolutely nothing to be Gerous to follow the parallel between the man for, they are at heart aliens still. growth of little Carolingia and of little And aliens in spirit they are likely to reBrandenburg. It may all be for the best ; main while that rule is persisted in. I merely note the fact. By force, by Thanks to this, we have Germany still in


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– more so than before - and appre: ment as what the Prussians have practised hensive of war. Count Moltke startled in Alsace-Lorraine can draw but very Europe, when he spoke of Germany hav- scanty encouragement from what may be ing to defend her conquests during fifteen regarded as its test application. years. That was a sad reverse side to the

HENRY W. WOLFF. boast, that what it had taken France seven generations to wrest from Germany, Germany had recovered in seven months. But fitteen years proves to have been a ridicu. lously low estimate. Twenty years have

From The Sunday Magazine.

THE FLIGHT OF THE SHADOW. passed, and, instead of disarming, we see Germany arming more, and instead of

BY GEORGE MACDONALD, LL.D. relieving Alsace of its garrison, we see her

ALBC FORBES," ROBERT FALCONER," adding to it. In spite of all these armaments, Alsace, disaffected, remains a source of danger. Of course it may be so

CHAPTER I. trodden down as to yield a final submission.

MRS. DAY BEGINS THE STORY. Some despondent Alsatians, despairing now a little of a better fate, put the time at I AM old, else, I think, I should not which this may be expected to happen at have the courage to tell the story I am fifty years hence — that is, when all the going to tell. All those concerned in it present generation will have passed away, about whose feelings I am careful, are and a new generation will have risen up, gone where, thank God, there are no se. thoroughly cowed. At best that is not a crets. If they know what I am doing, I cheering outlook. And something so know they do not mind. If they were much better was within reach! I do not alive to read as I record, they might per: believe that the Alsatians are so irrecon. haps now and again look a little paler and cilably French as is made out. They wish the leaf turned, but to see the things know that they are Germans. And if set down would not make them unhappy; allowed to be full Germans they would in they do not love secrecy. Half the mis. course of time become so. Even now ery in the world comes from trying to their complaint is less that they have been look, instead of trying to be, what one is made Germans, than that they are deprived not. I would that not God only but all of citizen rights and treated as a subject good men and women might see caste. They are not insusceptible of through and through. They would not be kindness. General Manteuffel's rule was pleased with everything they saw, but not perfection. But General Manteuffel then neither am I, and I would have no had too big guns to allow himself to be coals of fire in my soul's pockets. But categorically dictated to by ministers at my whole nature would shudder at the Berlin. He came of all governors nearest thought of letting one person that loved a to the position of a local prince. He secret see into it. Such a one never sees showed some consideration. And the things as they are would not indeed see Alsatians talk of his rule with something what was there, but something shaped of gratitude and almost affection. Had and colored after his own likeness. No that spirit been persevered in and allowed one who loves and chooses a secret, can to expand, Alsace would, there can be no be of the pure in heart that shall see God. doubt, present a different picture now Yet how shall I tell even who I am ? from what it does.

Which of us is other than a secret to all To sum up, German rule has, with all but God! Which of us can tell, with its little successes, failed in Alsace, just poorest approximation, what he or she is! to the extent that it has been “firm and Not to touch the mystery of life — that resolute ” — domineering and despotic, one who is not myself has made me able that is, disregarding the rights, the legiti- to say 1, how little can any of us tell about mate claims, the natural wishes of the even those ancestors whose names we people. It has bowed necks, it has not know, while yet the nature, and still more won hearts. It has failed to accomplish the character, of hundreds of them, have the main part of its task. Although first shared in determining what I means to impressions count for a great deal, it is him every time one of us says it. For not too late to change from coercion to myself, I remember neither father nor confidence. Let us hope that that will be mother, nor one of their fathers or mothtried. But certainly, those politicians who ers, how little then can I say as to what are in favor of the same kind of govern.! I am.

But I will tell as much as most of


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my readers, if ever I have any, will care houses — things that could not have been to know.

invented by God, though he made the I come of a long yeoman-line of the man that made them. It is not the fashDame of Whichcote. In Scotland the ionable only that love the town and not the Whichcotes would have been called country; the men and women who live in lairds ; in England they were not called dirt and squalor -- their counterparts in squires. Repeatedly had younger sons of this and worse things far more than they it risen to rank and honor, and in several think — are afraid of loneliness, and hate generations would his property have en God's lovely dark. titled the head of the family to rank as a squire, but at the time when I began to be aware of existence, the family posses. sion had dwindled to one large farm, on wbich I found myself. Naturally, while LET me look back and see what first some of the family had risen, others had things I first remember. suok in the social scale; of the latter was All about my uncle first; but I keep Miss Martha Moon, far more to my life him to the last. Next all about Rover, than can appear in my story. I should the dog --- though for roving I hardly reimagine there are few families in England member him away from my side! Alas, covering a larger range of social difference he did not live to come into the story, but that ours. But I begin to think the chief I must mention him here, for I shall not difficulty in writing a book must be to write another book, and in the briefest keep out what does not belong to it. summary of my childhood, to make no

I may mention, however, my conviction, allusion to him would be disloyalty. I that I owe many special delights to the almost believe that at one period, had I gradual development of my race in certain been set to say who I was, I should have special relations to the natural ways of the included Rover as an essential part of world. That I was myself brought up in myself. His tail was my tail; his legs sach relations, appears not quite enough were my legs; his tongue was my tongue to account for the intensity of my pleasure so much more did I, as we gambolled io things belonging to simplest life – in together, seem conscious of his joy than everything of the open air, in animals of of my own. Surely, among other and all kinds, in the economy of field and greater mercies, I shall find him again! meadow and moor. I can no more under. The next person I see busy about the stand my delight in the sweet breath of a place, now here now there in the house, cow, than I can explain the process by and seldom outside it, is Miss Martha wbich, that day in the garden but 1 Moon. The house is large, built at a must not forestall, and will say rather- time when the family was one of consethan I can account for the tears which, quence, and there was always much to be oow I am an old woman, fill my eyes just done in it. The largest room in it is now as they used when I was a child, at sight called the kitchen, but was doubtless of the year's first primrose. A harebell, called the hall when first it was built. much as I have always loved harebells, This was Miss Martha Moon's headquar. never moved me that way. Some will ters. say the cause, whatever it be, lies in my Sbe was my uncle's second cousin, and dature, pot in my ancestry; that, anyhow, as he always called her Martha, so did I, it must have come first to some one — and without rebuke; every one else about the why not to me? I answer, Everything place called her Miss Martha. lies in every one of us, but has to be Of far greater worth and far more gen. brought to the surface. It grows a little uine refinement than tens of thousands in one, more in that one's child, more in the world calls ladies, she never dreamed ibat cbild's child, and so on and on of claiming such a distinction. Indeed with curious breaks as of a river which she strongly objected to it. If you had every now and then takes to an under said or implied she was a lady, she would ground course. One thing I am sure of have shrunk as from a covert reflection

- that, however it came, I did not make on the quality of her work. Had she it; I can only be glad and thankful that in known certain of such as nowadays call me it came to the surface, to tell me how themselves lady-helps, I could have underbeautiful must be be who thought of it, stood her objection. I think, however, it and made it in me. Surely one is nearer, came from a stern adherence to the factif not to God himself, yet to the things ness - if I may coin the word - of God loves, in the country than amid ugly things. She never called a lie a fib.

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