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attention of his people from warlike pursuits, and to inspire them with a love for the practices and arts of peace; he quelled the dissensions existing among themselves; and inculcated upon them a reverence for the Deity. The neighboring nations, who anticipated from the Romans an interminable war, were filled with astonishment at such an unexpected change. They threw aside their arms, and hailed the Romans as friends. The statement of Livy is, "finitimi populi, qui ante, castra, non urbem, positam in medio ad solicitandam omnium pa. cem, crediderant, in eam verecundiam adducti sunt, in civitatem,in cultum versam Deorum, violari ducerent nefas!”
The republic of Switzerland is another instance, favorable to the illustration of our subject. Since the early efforts of that remarkable people to throw off the yoke of Austria and to establish themselves as an independent State, (that is to say, for the long period of 500 years,) they have, with but few exceptions, been at peace with the surrounding nations. While other nations around them, France, the States of Italy, Austria, Prussia, Saxony and Holland, have been engaged in an endless series of bloody wars, the Swiss have remained quiet upon their mountains; have tilled with patience and cheerfulness their rugged soil; and have reaped the rewards of their laborious industry and pacific principles in the possession of health, competence, honor, and domestic enjoyments. Will it be said, that the security, which Switzerland has enjoyed, has been owing to the acknowledged fact of the distinguished bravery of her sons? That this has had its weight cannot be doubted; but this circumstance alone does not furnish an adequate explanation. The form of the Swiss government is that of a confederated republic; the cantons are dissimilar in religion and habits; and the bond of the confederacy, while it secures the great object of union, is too feeble to
secure that of strength.-Independently of the acknowledged bravery of her inhabitants and of the facilities for defence furnished by her Alpine position, Switzerland is undoubtedly one of the weakest countries in the world. -Her citizens are brave undoubtedly, but what does that avail, if there is not strength enough in the General Government to concentrate them in sufficient numbers and for a sufficient length of time in those strong holds, which nature has built up in the midst of her? Beyond all question it is in the power of some of the neighboring States, to overrun and conquer Switzerland, if they had. the disposition so to do; and yet she remains undisturbed, free, flourishing, happy. And the simple reason is, not that she has any thing like the military strength of England, France, or many other nations, but because she exhibits no undue ambition to enlarge her territory, aims at no other object than security within her own limits, is scrupulously upright and honorable in her treaties and political conventions, in a word, endeavors to give no just and well grounded offence to any one. Such a nation will always be found to be essentially impregnable, because it will have in its favor the moral sense of the great community of civilized nations.
Another instance in favor of our views is to be found in the history of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Of the character of the distinguished founder of Pennsylvania, by whose advice its early doings were chiefly directed and who stamped upon its early history the impress of his own great mind, it is unnecessary to speak any further than to say, that by its simplicity, benevolence, and strict uprightness, it was the pattern of what every statesman, who wishes well to his country, ought to exhibit. He had no ends of violence to accomplish; and whatever he did, was done in the spirit of justice. And what was the result? Was his colony the scene of strife
and bloodshed? So far from it that for seventy years after the forming of his celebrated treaty with the Indians, (that treaty of which Voltaire said with too much truth, "that it was the only one ever concluded between Savages and Christians, that was not ratified with an oath, and the only one that was never broken,") not a single note of warlike preparation was heard. While the Puritans of New England, with all their estimable qualities, were involved in frequent and bloody wars with the savage tribes, the colony of Penn remained at peace; the Indians around them, mistrustful through ignorance and violent by habit, recognized with an instinctive quickness the preeminence and sacredness of benevolent principles, held forth the wampum of pacification, and smoked with their Quaker brethren the calumet of love. It was not the sword, that tamed their unconquerable spirit; it was not the threatening aspect of military array; but the simple principle of non-resistance; a principle so unheard of, so out of the common track, so sublime, so godlike, that they bowed down before it as
And might we not further appeal to the history of our own beloved country, acting in its confederated and national capacity? The policy of the United States, since the acknowledgement of our independence by England, has been essentially, and in a very marked degree, pacific. It must be very obvious to any one, who has studied the history of our country, that our rulers have based their expectations of success in their external policy, not so much upon our military power, as upon the just and equitable principles, which they have endeavored to infuse into that policy. Our national expenditures for military and naval purposes, compared with those of other nations of the same amount of population, are exceedingly small. And yet the United States have ever
received, in their intercourse with foreign nations, their full share of respect and confidence; they have indeed sometimes, owing chiefly to the peculiarly disturbed state of Europe, suffered great and unmerited injuries; but they have seldom failed in the end of obtaining ample redress. We certainly hazard nothing in saying, that they would not be more respected, happy, successful, or better treated, if their policy were of a more martial and belligerent cast.
In bringing this Chapter to a close, let us not forget, that the Supreme Being always regards those with a peculiar interest, who, in the exercise of a sincere and humble reliance upon Him, endeavor to do his will. Human nature is undoubtedlyso constituted, that a truly and consistently pacific life is the best protection, so far as human agency is concerned, which one can possibly have. But in addition to this, the eye of that God, without whose notice not even a sparrow falls to the ground, watches and guards those, who trust in him. "It is better to trust in the Lord, than to put confidence in princes." "When a man's ways please the Lord, he maketh even his enemies to be at peace with him." These are his own declarations. Let us take him at his word; and not incur the wo denounced upon those, who went down to Egypt, and trusted in chariots and horsemen; but looked not unto the Holy One of Israel. Let us rather imitate the example of the pious Ezra, when placed in a very trying situation. "And I was
ashamed to require of the king a band of soldiers and horsemen to help us against the enemy in the way; because we had spoken unto the king, saying, The hand of our God is upon all them that seek him, but his power and his wrath is against all them that forsake Him. So we fasted and besought our God for this, and He was entreated of us."
CHAPTER TWENTY FIRST.
OF NON-INTERCOURSE IN CONNECTION WITH PEACE.
If nations cannot, consistently with the principles of the Gospel, go to war with each other, it becomes an important inquiry, what course they shall take in certain emergencies constantly occurring, such as the partial infraction of treaties, the confiscation or detention of property, the non-payment of debts acknowledged to be due, a refusal to reciprocate the privileges of commerce, and the like. In maintaining the inviolability of human life, and the utter unlawfulness of all kinds of war, it does not necessarily follow, nor do we intend by any means to assert, that we are bound to subject ourselves to the repetition of such injuries, if we can rightfully and peaceably avoid it. There is one practice already known in the Law of nations and sanctioned by high authority, which we apprehend will be more likely than more violent methods to secure the objects for which war is commonly commenced, and which at the same time possesses the immense advantage of being accordant with the principles of the Gospel. We refer to the practice of Non-Intercourse. It will not surprise us, if the mere soldier, or the man, who is so busy with his own private interests as to have no thought for the sufferings and tears of his fellow men, should contract his lips with contempt at what he will deem, no doubt, a very pusillanimous suggestion. We do not hesitate, however, to assert, that, when our efforts to secure with other nations