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Death, having preyed upon the outward parts, Sal. Be of good comfort, prince : for you are born
Re-enter Bigot and Attendants, who bring in Confound themselves.—'T is strange that death
KING JOHN in a chair. should sing!
K. John. Ay, marry, now my soul hath elbow I am the cygnet to this pale faint swan,
room! Who chants a doleful hymn to his own death, It would not out at windows nor at doors. And from the organ-pipe of frailty sings
There is so hot a summer in my bosom, His soul and body to their lasting rest.
That all my bowels crumble up to dust :
I am a scribbled form, drawn with a pen | And so ingrateful, you deny me that ?
P. Hen. O, that there were some virtue in my Do I shrink up.
Within me is a hell: and there the poison
| On unreprievable condemnéd blood.
Enter the Bastard. To make his bleak winds kiss my parchéd lips, Bast. O, I am scalded with my violent motion And comfort me with cold.—I do not ask you And spleen of speed to see your majesty! much :
K. John. O cousin, thou art come to set mine I beg cold comfort: and you are so strait
eye ; VOL. III.
..zob scraesed and m e . As we va bene and respect may take; w werewith arife si sui h purpose presendy to leave this war. reau, mne irtie jar:
Buat. He wil te rather do is when he sees weide uur saring to star I by, Orse res vel sirvéd to our defence. .. .. ny news de terei;
Sal Xar, is in a manner done already: 1.ou seest is it a cist
For mary cargas he hack despatched
· To the sea-side, and put his case and quarrel ne Jaupun is preparig ervad; To the disposing of the crinal: I leava de snows 10 vesiliaansverdim: With whom your milk and other lords,
T V , the jest part of a pove, If you think mert tis aferson will post yeah luvantage and rearte,
To cóesummse this business happily. Scree wasies ail unvar ,
Bast. Let it be sa-adree, as noble prince, Descu wy the unexpected ssd
With other princes that may best be spared,
The Kiss diet. Skal wait upon Tone father's funeral. Son You breathe these dead Deus i as dead. P. Ha. At Worcester his body be inan ear.
terred: Vy'ege, mvordBet sowatig; sow thes! For so be wied it Jent. Even se must I remes, and even so Bsst. Teitbers onde
Aod Lappis may you sweet seir pet on What surety of the world, what bope, what stay, The Lineal state and gry of the land: Where his was mor a king, and sosis d'ar! To sbom, with al. submission, on my knee,
Bir Are the gune so:1 às but stay belind I do bequeath my fate fal services To do the tice for thee of rereage;
And trae subjection ererlastangir. hance there war sul se vait on thee to beares, Sal. And the like tender of our lore we make, Asi on earth hath been the serrant stii- To rest without a spot for evermore. Now, now, you stars that more in your right P. Hen. I have a kind soul that would give
you thanks, Where de rour powers! She now your mended And knows not how to do it but with tears. faiths;
. Basí. 0. let us pay the time but needful woe, And instantly return with me again,
Since it hath been beforehand with our griefs.T* push destruction and perpetual shame - Tuis England derer did, por nerer shall, Out of the weak door of our fainting land. Lie at the proud foot of a conqueror, Straight let us sek, or straight we shall be sought; But when it first did help to wound itself. The Dauphin rages at our rery heels
Now these her princes are come home again, Sak It seems you know not then so much as we: Come the three corners of the world in arms. The Cardinal Pandu'ph is within at rest,
And we shall shock them. Nought shall make Who half an hour since came from the Dauphin,
us rue, And brings from him sich offers of our peace If England to itself do rest but true. (Exeunt.
! have acquired his distinguishing appellation by having
plucked out a lion's heart, to whose fury he was exposed by the Duke of Austria, for having slain his son with a blow of the fist. The story is also related by several of the ancient chroniclers.
* Your faithful subject I, a gentleman,
Born in Northamptonshire; and eldest son,
Act I., Scene 1. Shakspere's "KING JOUX" was founded on an older play, of which further mention will be found subsequently, A rough sketch of the character of Falconbridge appears in that production. Holinshed says that King Richard had a natural son, named Philip, who killed the Viscount de Limoges to revenge the death of his father.
“Before Angiers well met, brave Austria."-Act II., Scene 1.
Leopold, Duke of Austria, by whom Richard had been thrown into prison in 1193, died in 1195 (previous to the siege here recorded), in consequence of a fall from his horse. The older play led Shakspere into this anachronism. Leopold's original hostility to Richard is said to have been derived from some affront put upon him by Caur-de-lion at the siege of Acre.
"Because he hath a hall-face, like my father,
Act I., Scene 1. The allusion here is to the silver groats of Henry VII. and Henry VIII., which had on them a half-face or profile, as is the custom on all our coin in the present day. Previously to the time spoken of, the groats of our kings, and, indeed, all their silver coinage, had a full face crowned.
"My boy a bastard! By my soul, I think
Ilis father never was so true begot:
Act II., Scene 1. Constance alludes to Elinor's infidelity to her husband, Louis VII., of France, on account of which she was divorced, and afterwards married Henry II., of England, father of Richard and John.
"Or the reputed son of Caur-de-lion;
Act. I., Scene 1. The phrase " lord of thy presence," means, master of that dignity and grandeur of appearance that may sufficiently distinguish thee from the vulgar, without the help of fortune. "Lord of his presence" apparently signifies great in his own person; and is used in this sense by King John in one of the following scenes.- Jouxsox.
"Thal daughter there of Spain, the lady Blanch,
Is near to England."--Act II., Scene 2. The lady Blanch was daughter of Alphonso, King of Castile, who was married to a sister of King John.
- "My face so thin, That in mine ear I durst not stick a rose, Lest men should say, “Look where three farthings goes !'"
Act I, Scene I. Queen Elizabeth coined three-penny, three-halfpenny, and three-farthing pieces; they all had her head on one side of the coin, and a rose on the reverse. Being of silver, the ** three-farthing rose" was of course extremely thin, and hence the allusion. It appears to have been the fashion, also, for men to wear roses, either real or artificial, in a lock near the ear.
“ To me, and lo lhe state of my great grief,
Let kings assemble."--Act III., Scene 1. In “Much ADO ABOUT NOTHING," the father of Hero, depressed by her disgrace, declares himself so subdued by grief, that a thread might lead him. How is it that grief in Leonato and Lady Constance produces effects directly opposite, and yet both agreeable to nature ?-Sorrow softens the mind while it is yet warmed by hope, but hardens it when it is congealed by despair. Distress, while there remains any prospect of relief, is weak and flexible: but when no succour remains, is fearless and stubborn: angry alike at those that injure, and those that do not help: careless to please where nothing can be gained, and fearless to offend when there is nothing further to be dreaded.-Such was this writer's knowledge of the passions.--JOHNSON.
"Gur. Good leare, good Philip.
Act I, Scene 1. The sparrow was called Philip from its note, which was supposed to have some resemblance to that word
"Knight, knight, good mother, Basilisco-like."
Act I., Scene 1. The allusion here is to a ridiculous old drama, called "SOLYMAN AND PERSEDA." One of the characters is Basilisco, a bragging coward, who, however, insists upon his rank, and desires a buffoon servant to call him " Knight, good fellow, knight."
"O Lymoges! 0 Austria! Thou dost shame
That bloody spoil."-Act III., Scene 1. The poet has here fallen into a mistake of persons, by following the older play, in which Austria is called "Ly moges, the Austrich duke." The castle of Chaluz, before which Richard fell (1199), belonged to Vidomar, Viscount of Lymoges, or Limoges; and this circumstance led, no doubt, to the original error.
He that perforce robs lions of their hearls,
May easily win a woman's."-Act I., Scene 1. There is an old metrical romance of "RICHARD CUR DE-LION," wherein this celebratel monarch is related to
"My mother is assailed in our tent,
And ta'en I fear."-Act III., Scene 2. The queen-mother, whom King John had made Regent in Anjou, was in possession of the town of Mirabeau, in that province. On the approach of the French army with Arthur, she sent letters to King John to come to her relief,
which he immediately did. As he advanced to the town, This account of the timidity of guilt is drawn, ab ipsis he encountered the army that lay before it, routed them, recessibus mentis, from the intimate knowledge of mankind: and took Arthur prisoner. The queen, in the meanwhile, particularly that line in which John says, that " to have bid remaining perfectly secure in the castle of Mirabeau
him tell his tale in express words " would have "struck him Such is supposed to be the most authentic statement; dumb." Nothing is more certain than that bad men use all bat, according to some accounts, Arthur took Queen Elinor the arts of fallacy upon themselves, palliate their actions to prisoner, who was afterwards rescued by her son
their own minds by gentle terms, and hide themselves from
their own detection in ambiguities and subterfuges.· Bell, book, and candle shall not drive me back,
" I'ithin this bosom never entered yet
The dreadful motion of a murderous thought." By the old ecclesiastical law, it was decreed that sen.
Act IV., Scene 2. tence of excommunication was to be "explained in order
Nothing can be falser than what Hubert here says in his in English, with bells tolling and candles lighted, that it
own vindication : for we find, from a preceding scene, that may cause the greater dread: for laymen have greater te.
the “ motion of a murderous thought" had entered into him, gard to this solemnity, than to the effect of such sentences."
and that very deeply: and it was with difficulty that the
tears, the entreaties, and the innocence of Arthur, had “Then, in despite of broodcd tcalchful day,
diverted and suppressed it.-WARBUNTOX. I would into thy bosom pour my thoughts."
The critic here is correct as to the fact; but the poet
Act III., Scene 3. was dramatically justified in representing Hubert, since he " Brooded," I apprehend, is here used, with our author's had not acted on his "murderous thought," as anxious to usual licence, for "brooding;"-that is, “day, who is as claim the merit of having never entertained it. This is one vigilant, as ready with open eye to mark what is done in his of Shakspere's exquisite touches of reality.-J. O. presence, as an animal at brood." Mr Pope, instead of + brooded," substituted "broad-eyed;" a more poetical epithet, perhaps, but certainly an unnecessary emendation.
* The King, I fear, is poisoned by a monk." All animals while “ brooded" (with a brood of young under
Act V., Scene 6. their protection), are remarkably vigilant.-MALONE.
Not one of the historians, who wrote within sixty years of the event, mentions this improbable story. The tale is, that a monk, to revenge himself on the King, for a saying at
which he took offence, poisoned a cup of ale, and brought it " Northampton. A Room in the Castle."-- Act IV., Scene 1. to his majesty, drank some of it himself to induce the King There is no circumstance, either in the older play or in
to taste it, and soon afterwards expired. - Thomas Wykes is
the first who mentions it in his chronicle, as a report. AcShakspere's, to denote the particular castle in which Arthur
cording to the best accounts, John died at Newark, of a is supposed to be confined. That of Northampton has been
fever.-MALONE. adopted, because in the first act, King John seems to have
Holinshed states, that the monk's motive was to defeat been in that town.
the revenge of John, who had said (from hatred of the According to the French historians, Arthur was first in
people on account of their revolt) that he would cause "all prisoned at Falaise, in Normandy, and afterwards at Rouen,
kind of grain to be at a far higher price, ere many days where he was secretly put to death by John's own land.
should pass." " Yel I remember, when I was in France,
"For, in a night, the best part of my power,
As I upon adranlage did remore,
Were in the washes all unwarily,
Devoured by the unexpected food." This affectation of sadness is ridiculed by various writers
Act V., Scene 7. of Shakspere's day. Lyly, in his “MIDAS," says, “ Melan
This disaster really happened to King John, and is supcholy is the crest of courtiers, and now every base com
posed to have been the immediate cause of the fever that panion says he is melancholy."
took him off. As he passed from Lynn into Lincolnshire,
he lost by an inundation all his treasure, carriage, baggage, "And here's a prophel that I brought with me
and regalia. From forth the streels of Pomfret."
Act IV., Scene 2.
“King Jony" was first published in the original folio, This man was a hermit in great repute with the common people. Notwithstanding the event is said to have fallen
and is founded on an older play, in two parts (1591), called out as he prophesied, the poor fellow was inhumanly
"THE TROUBLESOME RAIGNE OF Joux, KING OF Exge
LAND." dragged at horses' tails through the streets of Wareham, and together with his son, who appears to have been even more
The present historic drama is pronounced by Johnson to
be " not written with the utmost power of Shakspere." The innocent than his father, hanged afterwards upon a gibbet, · Holinshed, in anno 1213.-Speed says, that Peter the hermit
truth is, the poet had no "utmost power." He has told us was suborned by the pope's legate, the French king, and
in this very play the barons.
"When workmen strive to do better than well,
They do confound their skill in coretousness." " Hadst thou but shook thy head, or made a pause, There were no throes, there was nothing spasmodic, in the When I spake darkly what I purposéd."
genius of Shakspere. He never "confounded his skill."
Act IV., Scene 2. Take any two of his plays written in his maturer years, and There are many touches of nature in this conference of if a well-judged preference is to be given to either, it will be John with Hubert. A man engaged in wickedness would found to arise from the subject, not its execution. In his keep the profit to himsell, and transfer the guilt to his ac. historical plays, as we have said (Introductory Remarks), complice These reproaches vented against Hubert are not he was controlled and was content to be so. He might the words of art or policy, but the eruptions of a mind swel. I have made King John a more striking character, with less ling with consciousness of a crime, and desirous of discharg. I art and labour; but he spared neither, when he was to paint ing its misery on another
him as he lived.
PERSONS REPRESENTED. KING RICHARD THE SECOND, EDMUND OF LANGLEY, Duke of York, Uncles to the Kixo. JOHN OP GAUNT, Duke of Lancaster, ) HENRY, surnamed BOLINGBROKE, Duke of IIereford, Son to
Joun or GIUNT; afterwards Kiny Henry IV. DUKE OF AUMERLE, Son to the DUXE OF York. MOWBRAY, Duke of Norfolk. DUKE OF SURREY. EARL OF SALISBURY. EARL BERKELEY. EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND. HENRY PERCY, bis Son. LORD ROSS. LORD WILLOUGHBY. LORD FITZWATER. BISHOP OF CARLISLE. ABBOT OF WESTMINSTER. Lord Marshal; and another Lord. BUSHY, BAGOT. (Creatures to KıxG RICHARD. GREEN, S SIR PIERCE OF EXTON. SIR STEPHEN SCROOP. Captain of a Band of Welclmcn. QUEEN to KING RICHARD. DUCHESS OF GLOSTER. DUCIIESS OF YORK. Lady attending on t he QUEEN. Lords, Ieralds, Officers, Soldiers, Two Gardeners, Kecper,
Messenger, Groom, and other Attendants.
Scene. Dispersedly in England and Wales.