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and all our other proofs of decline in numbers (ost of which were urged by Dr Price ↑ and M. Jackson and were refuted by me morehau thirty years ago; the returns to the opulation act have sufficiently proved wh was right) these methods of depressing Safir adversary; (than whom no man more adhires your talents) rarely answer longer than for a moment the triumph is short;

and you will certainly admit that I did For produce to the committee the authority of a writer who mistook rabbits for women. Although you are ready to declare that the singular fact I produced has nothing to do with the main question, you must permit me to think very differently. It ought to convince the legislature that barley is the last object upon which to make experiments ; that depressing consumption is not the way to encourage production; these truths, so obvious to plain understandings, are denied, Sir, by the evident tendency of all you have written on this business of the distillery. kam, &c, ARTHUR YOUNG.

the objects of them might justly and reason, ably have entertained widirespect to the use of their property, this prohibition to the cot growers seemed top bead And I some what wondered that you had not in your former discussions of this subject, expressed your disapprobation of this prohibition. But, now I parceive, be your yesterday's Regis ter, that you agree with me in this sens ment, and, therefore, I now earnestly, and confidently hope, that your arguments will have the effect of procuring sucess to the present bill for the relief of the poor sugar planters, without that prohibitory clause against the corn growers. For the planters are really in great distress, and justly entitled to the attention and compassion of govern ment, by all practicable and reasonable me, thods; and are, as you rightly observe, the subjects of the crown as much as the inhabi tants and natives of Great Britain itself. And the arguments of Mr: arthur Young and Mr. Wakefield, against the intended permission to the sugar plauters, when unaccompanied with; the prohibition to the corn growers, appear to me to have been thoroughly refu ted and overthrown by the answers you have given them reman your obedient-servant, I. T-May 15, 18087

CHUP S

dkq 2.1 CORN AGAINST SUGAR.

SIR,I am a constant, reader of your excellent Political Register, and a great admirer of the powerful reasons, and your clear and strong manner of stating them, with which you generally support your opinions; and, for the most part, I accede to those opinions. And I have accordingly had great pleasure in reading your reflections on the measure now in parliament, for permitting the sugar-planters of our West India islands to distil, for the use of the inhabitants of Great Britain, the great quantities of sugar they have lately been imported into England, and which they cannot otherwise dispose of o their advantage. Your reasonings upon this subject convinced me that this permission ought to be granted to them; but they did not thoroughly convince me that the bill that is now in parliament, ought, in its present form, to pass, because, I understand that this bill does not only grant a permission to the sugar planters to distill their sugars, but prohibits the growers of barley from disilling their corn and this I thought rather bard upon them, as it was depriving them by an er post facto law (excuse the expression borrowed from the Latin language, as I don't know how so readily to express the ruatter in plain English,) of the liberty, of employing their corn in the manner in which they might have intended to employ it when they sowed! it in their fields. Ingeneral I have an aversion to restrictions and prohibitions; and especially to such as are unexpected and con--to trary to the views that the persons who are

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CORN AGAINST SUGARIO SUNY

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SIR,- -I have read with much pleasure, your very excellent address to the Freehold ers of Hampshire, and I think the country highly indebted to you, for the clear elucida tion; of the subject therein given. There is, however, one part of your statement (in which Mr. Wakefield appears to acquiesce) not quite correct. You assume t that the com used in the distilleries is, as food thrown away." This is not the fact, for of the 470,000 qrs. of grain used (as the Report of the Committee states) in the British, distilleries, there remain after the extract is made 300,000 grs. of grains. There is also a very considerable quantity of wash left after the spirit is drawn from the extraet of the corn, These grains and wash are used in the feedIng of cattle, which must otherwise be fattened on corn. This statement however, so far as it goes diminishes the value of the dis tilleries as a granary. For if grain be proin the manufacture of spirits, the must still be a quantity of coru used either for feeding cattle or making bread to supply that deficiency of food occasioned by the want of the refuse of the com distilleries, la estimating the value of three quarters of grains (the refuse after the extract is made),

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be equal in the production of food, to one quarter of barley, I think I am rather under

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the mark. Upon this supposition, however, in case the distilleries should be compelled to use sugar instead of corn, 100,000 qrs. of barley would be required for producing that food which is now supplied from the distilleries.I must say, Mr. Cobbett, that before so general and determined an opposition to this measure had been raised throughout the country, it would have been but decent to have waited till the report of the committee, and the evidence given before it, had been printed, in order that the principles, on which the prohibition of corn in the distilleries is recommended, might have been calmly considered and fairly discussed. The report and the appendix are now before me, and if any reliance whatever is to be placed on the opinion of Mr. Arthur Young and Mr. Wakefield (the great champions of the agricultural interest), the prohibition of the use of corn in the distilleries is a measure not only fit and proper in itself, but such as the ministers of the country are bound to do all in their power to carry into effect. On Mr. Young being asked." 'Q. Under the "probable circumstances of the country "with respect to the supply of foreign "grain, can we look forward to the effects "of a short crop or mildew, or a wet har

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vest without apprehension ? A. Not "without great apprehension." In fact, the whole tenor of his answers, upon which you have so ably commented in the Register of last week proves the great distress this country would suffer in the event of a short crop, and even with a plentiful harvest there would be a deficiency in the usual supply equal to the amount of the importation. Mr. Wakefield after stating the average annual importation from 1800 to 1806, to be 1,447,500 grs., was asked, "Do you conceive that we are likely to have a supply ❝ equal to the average of the last five

years, in the present state of Europe? A. Knowing the, ports of the Baltic to be shut against us, I should say, certainly not. I "know that the importations from America have been very trifling indeed. Q. Must you not then, apprehend that there will *** be a great scarcity of grain in the market?

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A. The present prices of wheat best speak the contrary fact at this moment: but if a short harvest was to take place next ***year, the coming-in year, I should think

the country in an alarming state indeed." Now, Sir, having before us this evidence from two of the best practical agriculturists in the country, shut out as we are from the whole continent of Europe, and excluded from all commerce with America, having in addition to all this, our own West India co

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lonies to supply from the growth of this country, can any unbiassed man hesitate for one moment, as to the propriety of bringing into consumption as food 370,000 qrs. of grain, (for I take it for granted that 100,000 qrs, would be still required for feeding cattle) especially, too, when it is recollected that the king in council will be enabled to put an end to the prohibition of the distilleries whenever the interests of the farmer shall require it? It appears to me, that very serious consequences may be the result of our not availing ourselves of every mean of increasing the food to be used in this countay; and, I cannot but hope that the patriotism of the landed interest, will induce it to withdraw its opposition to a measure so just in itself, and, under the present political circumstances of Europe, so necessary to our welfare.I am, &c.-Z.-May 12, 1808.

SIR,The present disposal of the crown lands," would certainly be worth investigation, and I much wish that the public attention should be directed to the subject.-1 am surrounded by a valuable portion of them, which have been leased for so many years back to the representatives of an opuTent family in the neighbourhood, as to be considered at this day a part of their own property. This family, of course, is enabled

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CROWN LANDS. Z

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to return the members; for the crown lands and houses are judiciously stocked at an under rent with free and independent electors, as I understand they usually are in cities by the leading men. I sincerely hope that an immediate resumption of these grants may be made. First, that the benevolence of the king, which might be directed to more deserving objects, should not be intercepted and turned to unconstitutional purposes by the middlemen. Or, secondly, that in these draw the full value of its estates, now by no times of difficulty, the government should means the case, and which can only be fairly ascertained by a public auction. And, finally because, by the destruction of this source of undue influence, the first stone would be thrown into the chasm which yawns between the honest voter, and the independent candidate. UTOPIAN.May 12, 1908.

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LIVERPOOL PETITION,I ding DISTILLATION FROM SUGAR To the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in Parliament assembled the humble Peti tion of the Gentlemen, Clergy, Merchants,

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and other Inhabitants of the Town of Liverpool:

ceed seyen hundred and eiglity thousand quarters, and therefore the corn to be excluded from the distilleries by the proposed measure, supposing it to extend to Ireland as well as Great Britain, will only supply the Lan-place of the quantity hitherto imported from foreign parts. That in addition to this usual foreign supply (of which a large proportion has been received at Liverpool), there has been imported into this place from Ireland, on an average of the last five years, two hundred and forty two thousand five hundred and twenty-five quarters of corn, flour, and oatmeal, per annum; that during the period now past of the present year, this usual supply has been greatly diminished, and in place

of a continuance thereof, at this time, orders for the purchase of considerable quantities of wheat and oats have been received by merchants in Liverpool, from millers and others in Ireland, at unlimited prices, to be shipped from hence for the supply of districts in that part of the United Kingdom, where scarcity appears to be apprehended. -That large supplies of corn are annually received at Liverpool from Scotland, that these supplies during the present year have been much less than usual, owing to the deficiency of the last crop in several quarters in that part of the United Kingdom, all which tends to enhance still more the price of bread here, already too high for the lauring poor generally to afford, and par ticularly the manufacturing poor, from the present want of employment, and consequent depreciation of wages-That if any insuperable obstacles should prevent this restriction from being extended to Ireland, it appears there would then be a deficiency of three hundred thousand quarters of foreign supply, to be provided for, if possible, by. an extended cultivation of the soil of the United Kingdom, in order to meet the usual consumption of the country, without taking into the account the extraordinary supplies of corn, flour, and bread, which, in the present situation of afieirs must inevitably be wanted by the British West India Colonies from the United Kingdom, as well as that our allies the Swedes, being deprived of their usual supply of bread corn from the opposite shores of the Baltic,' and their own growth being generally inadequate to their ordinary consumption, may at this time be compelled to resort to this country for supplics of barley, which when mixed with rye is, as your petitioners are informed, used for bread in times of scarcity in Sweden.→ That in the opinion of your petitioners, the prices of corn are likely to continue high, though they trust that the adoption of this

Sheweth, That this town essentially depends. for the supply of bread to its numerous inhabitants, and a large and populous district in the interior of the county of caster upon importations of corn and flour from other parts, and that a large proportion of such supply has heretofore been derived from foreign countries.--That of late, in consequence of the unhappy situation of the. Continent of Europe, and the embargo which has taken place in the United States of Ame rica, the importation of foreign corn and flour has ceased, and the prices of these articles have advanced considerably, and are still advancing, while at the same time from the stagnation of trade, and the consequent want of employment and depreciation of wages, the labouring classes of the people are become less able to purchase those necessaries of life at a high rate, or even more reasonable rates, as fully appears by the report lately made of evidence taken before a committee of your honourable house, ordered to be printed on the 12th of April last, on the petition of certain cotton manufacturers and journeymen cotton weavers living in this county-That from the united operation of these circumstances your petitioners have been and continue apprehensive of much distress amongst the poor in this populous town and county; and it was with peculiar satisfaction that they observed, in a late report of a committee of your honourable house, the recommendation of what your petitioners humbly deem a wise measure of precaution loudly called for by the existing situation of the country; namely, the suspension of the use of grain in the distilleries of the kingdom, and the restriction of them to the use of sugar for a limited pe-. riod,That in proportion to the satisfaction. of your petitioners in so well-timed a recom-' mendation, is their regret in perceiving that meetings have been held in some parts of the country for the purpose of obtaining petitions. to your honourable house, against the measure in question, as calculated to injure the farmers and discourage agriculture.That your petitioners humbly contend that this measure cannot produce those effects, as it appears by the report of your committee, that on an average of the last five years the importation of foreign corn into Great Britain, has not been less than seven hundred and seventy thousand quarters per annum, which must of course have found a consumption, but which can no longer be imported; while the quantity of corn used in the distilleries of the United Kingdom does not ex

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measure will prevent them from becoming have recourse to barley bread, which exorbitant. That the advantage of exorbi- they are not accustomed to use except in tant prices even to the, farmers is very ques- times of scarcity and comparative dearness of other sorts of tionable, experience having shewn that they of grain. That terminate eventually in uncommon depre- your petitioners conceive that the ciation, while, in the meantime, the evils fining of the operation of the measure in that ensue to the public at large are unques- question to a single year, with a power vested in his majesty in council to put an end to it tionably great, and your petitioners feel assured that your honourable house will. within that period, if necessary, would be so deen the good of the whole to be preferred guarded a proceeding, as under all the cirto a doubtful interest of one class of the cumstances of the case, cannot reasonably excite in the minds of those concerned the people, however numerous and respectable; a class, moreover, which being protected, least feeling of alarm or apprehension.-That by a special act of the legislature, from the although your petitioners are anxious to recommend the proposed measure to your injurious effects of an excessive depreciation of the prices of corn in times of plenty, by honourable house, on grounds of general bounties on its exportation, payable out of benefit, without reference to any partial inthe public revenue, ought, at other times, terests, yet they cannot be insensible of its in fairness and justice, to submit cheerfully to tendency to afford relief to the West India such measures as may be necessary to guard colonies, in their present distressed situa-, tion, which have been shewn to have pecuthe public against the contrary extreme of exorbitant prices, particularly in the preliar claims on the consideration of the legislature, and which, in the apprehension of sent peculiar situation of the country, and unprecedented state of the continent of Europe. your petitiouers, affords a strong additional ar-, -That with regard to the local interests of gument in favour of this measure, more esany particular districts in which barley may pecially as the preservation of the colonies from the ruin which threatens them, is conbe chiefly cultivated, your petitioners humbly conceive they have a still less claim to fessedly an object of the first national importbe put into competition with a measure of ance, as it appears the article of sugar alone general advantage; but your petitioners are pays an annual duty of above three millions of opinion, that even the local interests of to the country, that the manufactured goods the barley counties are now likely to be exported annually to these colonies have exceeded six millions in value, and that this materially affected by the proposed measure, for though barley is the grain chiefly used trade is one of the principal remaining nurin the English distilleries, and though it series for our seamen, and of employment for our shipping. -- Your petitioners therefore appears there are some lands in this kingdom where, no substitute for the crops of that pray that your honourable house will pass grain can be resorted to without injury to. an act to suspend the use of grain in the distilleries of Great Britain and Ireland, and the farmer; yet, on the other hand, it to confine them to the use of sugar for one appears there are also lands on which barley is grown where oats would prove an year from the 1st day of July next, subject advantageous substitute; and when your to a discretionary power to be vested in the petitioners consider, that, of the quantity of king in council, upon a sufficient notice, barley annually produced in England, only to do away the suspension, and allow the disone sixteenth part, or thereabouts, has been tilleries to carry on their trade in the accusconsumed in the distilleries, they cannot tomed manner. And your petitioners will doubt that such a change of culture might ever pray, &c. take place as would prevent barley from being reduced below its proportionable price compared with other grain, or if it should for a time be somewhat lower than its just proportion, it would soon, in the opinion of your petitioners, find a more extended consumption as bread corn, the effect of which must inevitably be to raise it to its natural level, in confirmation of which, your petitioners are enabled to state to your honourable house, that of late, in sequence of tire advance in wheat and oats, as well as the reduction of wages, the lower classes in this county have begun to

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OFFICIAL PAPERS.

Report from Lieut. Col. Robertson, Com mandant of Scylla Castle.(Concluded from page 800.)

The fire from the breaching batteries had been variously directed till the evening of the 16th, when they bent. their undivided fury against the left bastion with such success, that the breach would probably have been practicable by the following evening. It was under these circumstances that I received your orders to evacuate the castle, and have the great satis

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faction of reporting, that we accomplished
this yesterday morning, in full view of the
enemy, and without leaving an individual
behind. The approach of the boats from
Faro gave the French full intimation of our
design, but the tempestuous state of the
weather obliged us to seize the short oppor-
tunity of an hour's lull.-Every battery
poured its utmost fire upon the castle, and
subsequently upon the boats; while infantry
with field pieces tried the breach on either
side. The garrison was drawn off in succes-
sion, and the embarkation effected with the
greatest order, notwithstanding the tremen-
dous fire of grape, shells, &c. Our loss in the
operation was small; and before we were a
musket-shot distant, the French were in the
fort-The masterly arrangement of the
transport boats and man of war launchers
upon this occasion, does high honour to
Capt. Trollope, of his majesty's ship Elec
tra, who personally superintended this ser-
vice; and the conduct of the officers and
men under him was marked with all the
coolness and dexterity of British seamen.
regret to add, that one of them was killed
in the operation, and ten wounded, some of
them dangerously. The uniform good con-
duct of the garrison which I have had the
good fortune to command, demands my
warmest gratitude; and their intrepid spirit
during the siege is hardly more commend-
able than the zeal with which they went
through the fatigues that preceded it-The
detachment of the Royal Artillery was high-
ly conspicuous; the excellence of their
gunnery was proved by the severe losses
which the enemy has sustained; and I can-
not too strongly express my sense of the
skill and indefagitable zeal which Lient.
Dunn has displayed throughout the siege.
I feel highly indebted to the exertions of
Capt. Cruikshanks of the 624, Jordan of the
27th, and Pringle of the 21st, as well as to
the officers and men under them.—From
Lieut Dickons, of the engineers, I received
every assistance; and my adjutant, Lieut.
Hadfield, of the 35th, has been throughout
indefatigably zealous.-I cannot, conclude,
Sir, without expressing my particular thanks
to Capt. Nicholas, Assistant Quarter-Master
General, whose abilities and activity render-
ed him eminently useful. And I have the
satisfaction of reflecting, that the support I
have received from all ranks has enabled me

to sell Scylla dear; and that General Reg-
nier has obtained possession of this little
heap of ruins with the loss of several hun-
dreds of his best troops.-The return of cur
killed and wounded is annexed. We have

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lost some gallant men; but considering the
weight of the enemy's fire, the number is by
no means great.—I have the honour to be,
&c.-G. D. ROBERTSON, Lieut. Colonel,
Commandant Scylla Castle,
To Maj. Gen. Sherbrooke, commanding his
British Majesty's troops in Sicily.
Return of the killed and wounded of the
detachments forming the British garrison of
the Castle of Scylla, in Calabria, from the
4th to the 17th of Feb. 1808; viz.-Royal
Artillery, 3 gunners killed; 1 bombardier,
8 gunners wounded.-27th Reg. 1st bat. 3
rank and file killed, 14 rank and file wound-
ed.-68th Reg. 3 rank and file killed, 6 rank
and file wounded.-62d Reg. 2 rank and file
killed, 2 rank and file wounded. Total, 3.
gunners, 8 rank and file killed; I bombar.
dier, 8 gunners, 22 rank and file wounded,
(Signed) J. CAMPBELL, Brig. Gen.
Adjutant-General.

RUSSIA. Declaration published at St. Pi
tersburgh, March 16, 1808, in conse
quence of the Arrest of the Russian dm-
bassador at Stockholm.

The emperor has informed all the cabinets of Europe and his own subjects of his constant, endeavours to inforce his rights grounded on subsisting treaties with Sweden, and to obtain by virtue thereof the co-operation of his Swedish majesty against England. Atter having pursued these measures for several months, his imperial majesty was concerned to find that while he was endeavouring to preserve a good understanding between Russia and Sweden the latter preferred the friendship of England his enemy.--His imperial majesty has not concealed from the king of Sweden, or all Europe, that the welfare of his people required of him to employ all the means which Providence has bestowed on him for the safety and welfare of his empire.-Faithful to his system of moderation, his majesty declared to the king of Sweden his readi ness to convert the step which he had re luctantly taken, into a mere measure of prudence, if the king would immediately and without delay, perform bis engagements, and co-operate with him and the king of Denmark to shut the Baltic against the English fleets. The silence observed by king of Sweden, the accounts given in pubic papers of the conclusion of a treaty, which subsidies, a fleet, and part of the land forces of Great Britain were placed the disposal of that monarch; in short every thing bespoke the real sentiments of that prince with regard to Russia; every clearly shewed, that his imperial majesty སྙན་བ་བ་བཟང་ཁང་བ་མེད་ཡིན་དུ། ང་ན་བ་དུ་མ་སྐྱེས་པ་ W

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