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tion to relieve one class at the expence of "another; with the landlords therefore, it "lies to avert the evil day from Ireland, "and from the empire: they alone are

competent to save both. Need I urge "them more-'tis time that they awake "from a lethargic inactivity; 'tis time that they look the state of Ireland fairly in the face, and for their own sake at least, en"deavour to alter a line of conduct, which "has stamped that face with features so expressive of ill usage and mismanage"ment."

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"chiefs in Ireland, which no legislative in"terference can reach." He is right, and the rapacity of squires of all sects, and their systematic grinding of the poor, is one of these mischiefs. Our whole Irish representation consisting of one hundred wise and well informed gentlemen, who, as Fontenelle said of the French academicians, "ont l'esprit comme quatre," joined to the equally wise and well informed representation of England, Scotland, and Wales, could not, I will venture to say, in their united wisdom, devise any law competent to remove this evil. It is intertwisted with the very fibres of a squire's nature; he imbibes it from his mother, and his father inculcates it along with the alphabet and the multiplication table.This is the party in Ireland that is most formidable to the real prosperity of the country; this is the sour balm that leavens the lower classes into turbulence; these are the people that Mr. Grattan should have pointed his rhetorical rockets against: he humm'd and he ha'd, and he see-sawed himself into a very pretty sort of an oratorical rage against a French party; but he should have been coolly indiguant against the squires, and proved plainly and simply that they are the fountain head, from whence the real wa ters of bitterness flow, and that if they were but commonly just to the most grateful, noble hearted people in the world the Irish, the French party might either dwindle into dancing masters and dentists, or go to America and debate with closed doors (and windows too) upon the propriety of going without great coats and breeches, by way of distressing the Yorkshire clothiers. What wretched shuffling and twisting and temporizing is this! Will members of parliament for ever come forward and stigmatize the Irish as idle, rebellious and ungrateful, and yet conceal the real causes of these curses; the wretchedness entailed upon the Irish by the landed proprietors. One honourable gentleman makes a very neat speech, and attributes all the disturbances to the tythes; these are the Grattanites Another tells the house that the Pope, poor man, is at the bottom of the riots. These are the Redesdalites; but, I have yet heard no antisquirulist get up in his place, and declare boldly. and honestly that the distractions of Ireland arise from the exorbitant price of land, the thumbscrewing of rack rents, and its ruinous, impolitic, and inhuman expedient of refusing,. leases, disallowing the tenants right, and enhancing the rate of farms by the horrid expedient of canting. pedient of canting. By such infamous conduct on the part of the landed proprietors, the whole population of the country are alie

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SIR,- -I have taken the above extract from an excellent Pamphlet, recently published in Dublin, entitled "An Enquiry into "the History of Tythes, with a plan for " modifying that system, and providing an "adequate maintenance for the Catholic "and Presbyterian Clergy," which I seriously recommend to the perusal of all members of parliament, or other hereditary or accidental counsellors of state, and integral parts of the government, as a work replete with valuable information, clear rea soning and dispassionate statement; and, therefore, of particular use, when, as in all probability there will be, a talk in parliament about Ireland and tythes, it is indispensibly necessary for the members to get a luncheon of information on these subjects, (for the pamphlet is too short to constitute a full meal); to the spread of instruction upon these interesting points, it would be injustice not to confess that your valuable Register has greatly contributed. If I do not mistake, you were the very first who detected the trick of the Protestant country gentlemen (whom you most properly designated as the keenest set in the world) and exposed it as it deserved to be exposed. Trust me, Mr. Cobbett, till that race of Centaurs is regenerated-till their bestial is converted into ra. tional, neither Catholic emancipation, nor commutation of tythes will ever work the great work of peace. Till land is let at such rates as will enable the tiller to feed, clothe, and educate his family, the Irish peasantry must remain ignorant, naked, and wretched. It is well observed by a very ingenious correspondent of yours, "that there are mis

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nated. All the bonds that bind man to
man, and men to their native land are
snapped in twain; the permeating principles
of local attachment, that like the roots of the
pine, make their way through the hardness
of the barren mountain, and bind the
even to the naked rock, are rudely extirpas
ted. Home, that dear delightful refuge of
the human heart, is denied to the poor Irish-
man, he may be turned from one moment
to another from the hut he has reared, and
the garden he has planted. And, yet this
creature whom the Almighty endowed with
every noble propensity, and generous feel-
ing, shall be stigmatized as innately savage,
intemperate, and intractable, because he
turns upon the curs that are hunting him to
desperation, and refuses to lick the hand
that is raised to scourge and to torment him.
This, Mr. Cobbett, is the truth-and till the
truth be told in and out of parliament,
things will proceed as they have done, most
disastrously. I really congratulate the coun-
try that there is one channel yet left for the
dissemination of truth--the Political Register
is that channel. I will not pretend to assert
that you are always right, but this I will af-
firm from a long acquaintance with the Poli-
tical Register, that it contains more truth in
the publications of one month, than the
whole tribe of newspapers in one year; and
I am rejoiced that you give a column now
and then to the affairs of Ireland; they are
indeed in a perilous state; but as the author
from whose pamphlet I have quoted, well
abserves, "with the landlords it lies to avert
"the evil day from Ireland, and from the

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have appeared in your Register on various subjects, one in your last, signed J. P. D. has, I confess, excited not a little surprise in my mind. My object in addressing you (and I confess I do it with diffidence, betreeing the first time I have ventured to write, Mr. Cobbett) is to notice the fallacy of J. P. D.'s statement with respect to tithes and their influence on religion; and to ask whether you seriously think the churches are deserted, and the established religion suffered to decline from any such cause?-Is it possible, Sir, such a delusion can have successfully palmed itself on J. F. D.'s imagination? Or, is not it more probable that he has taken this ground, knowing how soon, above other causes, a religious outcry will have effect. It surely cannot be difficult to trace the desertion of our churches to some other cause. It arises out of the palpably notorious negligence of so many of its clergy. I know the objections that exist against such an opinion, but I also know that you and all other honest men, Mr. Cobbett, must conclude, that while the majority, or at least a large proportion of the church clergy are deficient in their duty to the people committed to their charge, the nature and unavoidable consequence is, that the people, in their turn, should fall short in the respect due only to a man worthy of the office he sustains; and it must be equally clear, that where the ministers of religion fail to stimulate by their own energy and example, the religion of those under their carc will soon degenerate into nothing but the name. Such being the case, it is to this cause principally, and not to the obnoxious nature of tythes, we are to ascribe the decline of our established religion, and the desertion of our church. I would be un derstood to mean, by the word "established," the form of religion in use with the church of England; for the assertion that real religion is on the decline, if your corre spondent means real religion by the terms used, I can by no means admit. On the contrary, I firmly believe it to be increasing.

I do not intend entering more on this part of his letter, for in that case I should expect, if you deemed my letter worthy any notice, you would declare your publication not the vehicle of religious communications, and very properly; but I could not read J.F. D's statements without a few remarks on their fallacy, as far as they refer to the point I have noticed; and though you may not admit remarks on religious topics to swell your pages generally, I have read your Register long enough to know how willing you are always to expose error yourself, as well as afford others the opportunity of doing it. I would also say a few words on another assertion in the

empire; they alone are competent to save "both." I may trouble you hereafter with some further observations upon this subject, and throw out some hints upon the education of squires, which might if adopted by their sires and dams, prove eminently useful to the future breed. Ireland is of vital consequence to Great Britain, and recent events have only confirmed the observation of Sir Richard Cox, in the dedication of his history to William and Mary, after stating that Ireland had Cost their predecessors an unspeakable mass of blood and treasure," but no cost can be "too great where the prize is of such va"lue, and whoever considers the situation, "ports, plenty, and other advantages of "Ireland, will confess that it must be re"tained at what rate soever, because, if it "would come into the enemies hands, Eng"land would find it impossible to flourish, "and perhaps to subsist without it.”—I remain, &c.-MALB.-Dublin.

TITHES.

SIR;-Among the many letters which

same letter.—J. F. D. has said, that “ were the tithes abolished, Old England would from that circumstance become happy, prosperous, and thriving," that. " our granaries would always be filled with corn," and that, under any circumstances, we should never need the aid of importation. And is this great and wonderful change to be effected by taking from the church its tenths

terly with this subject as it regards Ireland; although I have always understood every thing that has appeared in the Register on this point, (far as my recollection will carry me) except the letter of J. F. D. to refer only to the sister kingdom.-I am, &c. S.A.-London, 15th Feb. 1808.

OFFICIAL PAPERS.

ENGLAND AND SWEDEN.-Convention between his Majesty and the King of Sweden -signed at Stockholm on the 8th February, 1808.

The consequences of the treaty of Tilsit, between Russia and France, unfolding themselves more and more, in such a manner as to threaten Sweden with a speedy invasion, for the purpose of enforcing her to accede to the French system; and his Swedish majesty finding himself therefore under the necessity of bringing forward, to resist its effects, a greater force than he has at his ordinary disposal, his Britannic majesty, animated with the constant desire of contributing to the defence and security of his ally, and of supporting him, by every means, in a war, undertaken for the mutual interests of both

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the produce of the laud, and giving the value of that tenth in some other way? I do heartily join in that gentleman's zealous. hope, but I would suggest that such an event from such a cause may never take place. No, Sir, whoever may live to see this country again" prosperous and thriving," will witness much more important changes than the abolition of tythes: he will see our satesmen breathing the spirit of public virtue; he will see no factious opposition to those statesmen, because one set are in power and the other out; pensions and places will be done away; and a due regard paid to the country's rights. He will see the taxes of his country lessened or more equally imposed; the national debt diminished, and our dignity, as a great and independent nation, proudly maintained. He will see a parliament pure and independent; its seats occupied according to the laws; and every member bearing within himself the spirit of impartiality, deciding according to the dictates of a conscientious, upright judgment, and not, as now, either indolently or intentionally giving his yea or nay to enactments agreeably to the side he sits on in the house. --I would not now say much on the justice or injustice of the mode adopted in collecting the tithes ; I am afraid with J. F. D. that too generally it is oppressive and vexatious but surely in the instance he has adduced his friend could have easily gained ample compensation by other means than remonstrance for so wanton an insult, so flagrant a breach of equity and justice.-The laws of this country must be defective indeed, if they permit such an outrage against society without producing adequate punishment to prevent its repetition; and if they do provide such a remedy, there must have been some defect on the part of J. F. D.'s friend, who could refrain from bringing such an offender under its operation. - I have myself known instances where much ill will has arisen on the subject of tithes, but in many of them (I mean where the incumbent has collected them himself) it had its origin with the person from whom the tithe was due, and not with the person claiming it. I confine myself, of course, to England in my remarks, for I am unacquainted ut

states, has determined to give to his Swedish
majesty an immediate aid in money, as being
the most prompt and efficacious, to be paid
from time to time at fixed periods; and their
majesties having judged it expedient, that a
formal convention with regard to their reci-
procal intentions, in this respect, should be
concluded, they have for this purpose named
and authorised their respective plenipoten-
tiaries; that is to say-in the name and on
the part of his majesty the king of the Uni-
ted kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,
Edward Thornton, Esq. his envoy extra-
ordinary and Minister plenipotentiary to
his majesty the King of Sweden; and in
the name and on the part of his majesty
the King of Sweden, the Baron D'Ehren-
heim,
heim, president of his chancery, and
commander of his order of the polar star,
who, after having communicated to each
other their respective full powers, have
agreed upon the following articles
Article. I. His majesty the king of the
United kingdom of Great Britain aud
Ireland engages that there shall be paid to
his Majesty the King of Sweden the sum
of twelve hundred thousand pounds ster-
ling, in equal instalments of one hundred
thousand pounds sterling each, per month,
beginning with the month of January of
the present year inclusively, and to continue
succesively in the cource of each month,
the first of which instalments shall be paid
on the ratification of the present convention

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by his Swedish majesty.-II. His majesty Cardinal Cassoni. Dated Rome Feb. 2, the King of Sweden engages on his part to 1808. employ the said sum in putting into motion, and keeping on a respectable establishment, all his land forces, and such part as shall be necessary of his feet, and particularly his flotilla, in order to oppose the most effectual resistance to the com-, mon enemies.-III. Their said majesties moreover engage to conclude no peace, or truce, or convention of neutrality, with the enemy, but in concert and mutual agreement.-IV. The present convention shall be ratified by the two high contracting parties, and its ratification shall be exchanged at London within the space of six weeks after the signature of the said convention, or sooner if it can be done. -Separate Article. The two high contracting parties have agreed to concert, as soon as possible, the measures to be taken, and the auxiliary succours to be stipulated for, in the case of a war actually taking place between Sweden and the powers her neighbours; and the stipulation which may thence result shall be considered as separate and additional articles to this convention, and shall have the same force as if they were word for word inserted therein.

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PORTUGAL.-Proclamation issued from the
Office of the Secretary of State for the
Affairs of Portugal. Dated Liston, Dec.
4, 1807.

The rulers of this kingdom being informed, within these few days, that the prices of some articles of the first necessity had been raised to an exorbitant price, order the Senate to check every excess which may in this respect take place, with all due vigilance and severity, in order that, without the authority of government, and without the most urgent motives,, the prices of provisions must not be raised; and the Senate will, by proclamation, make this, known-In prompt obedience to this injuction, the Senate hereby ordains, that no person of any class or condition whatever, shall raise the prices of all or any articles of the first necessity, beyond the rate at which

ch article, or any of them, were sold on. the 28th of Nov. last.-And whoever shall transgress this order shall incur a penalty of 8000 reis, and be confined in prison, where he shall remain ten days for the first offence, and for the second such penalties shall be doubled, and such person to be prohibited from opening a shop, or to sell any article whatever, &c. &c.-(Signed) FRANCISCO DE MENDENZ CARRAISE MULEO.

His Holiness Pius VII. being unable to conform to all the demands made on him by the French government, and to the extent required of him, as it is contrary to his sacred duties, and the dictates of his conscience; and being thus compelled to submit to the disastrous consequences which have been threatened, and to the military occupation of his capital, in case he should not submit to such demands:-Yielding, therefore, in all humility of heart, to the inscrutable determinations of the Most High, he places his cause in the hands of the Al. mighty; and being unwilling to fail in the essential obligations of guaranteeing the rights of his sovereignty, he has commanded us to protest, and formally protests in his own name, as well as in that of his successors, against any occupation whatever of his dominions, being desirous that the rights of the holy chair should remain, now and henceforward, uninjured and untouched. As the vicar on earth of that God of Peace wno taught by his divine example humility and patience, he has no doubt, but his most beloved subjects, who have given him so many repeated proofs of obedience and attachment, will make it their peculiar study to preserve peace and tranquillity, private as well as public, which his Holiness exhorts, and expressly commands; and that, far from committing any excesses, they will rather respect the individuals of a nation, from whom, during his journey, and stay in Paris, he received so many flattering testimonies of devotion and regard.

WESTPHALIA-Royal Decree, by which it is ordered that the English Goods found at Marburg shall be publicly burned.

We, Jerome Napoleon, &c. on the report of our minister of justice and af fairs of the interior, have decreed, and do decree as follows:-Art. 1. The English commodities, which, by orders of the prefect of the Wirra, were seized on the 1st instant, at Marburg, and which have been ascertained to be English manufacture by the merchants and assessors of the deputa tion of commerce appointed to make the inquiry, and by the printed notices of the commercial house of Wendeker and Co. at Wetzlar, shall be forthwith burnt in the pub lic places at Marburg-Art. II. Our mi nister of justice and the affairs of the in terior is commissioned to carry into execu tion the present decree, which shall be in serted in the bulletin of laws.-Given in our royal palace at Cassel, the 5th of Feb, 1808, and in the 2d year of our reign.

ROME. Notice of the Secretary of State

Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Covent Garden, where former Numbers may be had; sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Miue, Pall Mall,

VOL. XIII. No. 14.]

[PRICE 10D.

DESTINELYKER BORAL CARRY CREA

Water & adatke

"As to the Petition, of which the Sheridans' advertisement talks, nothing can be a more gross deception. "There is no foundation for a petition; there is even no pretended foundation. The Sheridans well "know, that it is impossible for any candidate to observe the laws of election more strictly than Lor! "Cochrane has observed them. He despises, as all his friends do, the base and contemptible attempt here "made to cast an aspersion upon his character. The whole is an impudent attempt at imposition. It is a "trick whereby to get money to be pocketed by the parties. Let the contrivers be prepared, however, for a revival of the subject."--POLITICAL REGISTER, Vol. XI. page 975.

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LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 2, 1808.

SUMMARY OF POLITICS. WESTMINSTER ELECTION. At the place, in the Register, above referred to, beginning at page 973, is the whole history of the promised Petition against Lord Cochrane's return, which petition has now seen its end. It will be remembered, that, just after the Westminster contest was over, there was a meeting called, by the Sheridans and their friends, through the means of a public advertisement; that, at this meeting, the celebrated Mr. JOHN FROST was a leading man, and that his health was given as a toast, by the elder Sheridan at one time, and by the celebrated PETER MOORE at another time; that, at the aforesaid meeting, of which Peter was chairman, it was resolved to raise money, by public subscrip. tion, for the purpose of prosecuting an ap peal to parliament against the rsan of Lord Cochrane; and, it is well known to all those who had an opportunity of hearing the language of the Sheridans and their friends, at that time, that they, in the most unreserved manner; asserted, Cochraney were able to prove, that Lord been guilty of bribery, and that they stated one particu lar instance, wherein he gave an elector the sum of two guineas for his vote. I have referred to the passage, wherein I contradicted these assertions, in print; but, so well had the base tricksters, the green room gang of impostors, the vile herd of diverting vagabonds; so well had they devised their scheme of calumny, and so industrious had they been in the execution of it, that, almost every person, with whom one spoke upon the subject, appeared to believe, that Lord Cochrane would be ousted in consequence of the petition. Nay, to such an extent did this belief exist, that some of the Electors have had several meetings, in order to come to a resolution respecting the nomination of a person to be chosen in the room of Lord Cochrane, the writ for which they expected about the tenth day of this present month of April. Just as all this

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was going forward, out came the following laconic report of the proceedings in the House of Commons, touching the matter in question. On Thursday, the 24th of March, The Speaker informed the House, "that, as Tuesday last had been appointed "for taking into consideration the petition

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complaining of the last election and return "for Westminster, and the right hon. Ri"chard Brinsley Sheridan had not appeared "by himself, his counsel, or agents, with"in one hour after the time fixed for taking "the same into consideration, he had cer

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tified such default to the Court of Exche quer, in order to the recovery of the re"cognizances." Thus has ended this long promised petition; thus are the greenroom impostors exposed, for the thousandth time, to public contempt; and thus are the calumnies, invented and propagated for the purpose of blasting the character of an honourable man, thrown back in the teeth of those from whom they had proceeded. But, it is right that the now undeceived public should be informed of some of the silent proceedings of Messrs. Sheridan, Frost, and Moore, a trio not, perhaps, to be matched in his Majesty's dominions.In the business of the election, Messrs. DAWSON and WRATISLAW of Warwick Street, Golden Square, were Lord Cochrane's agents. Mr. Wratislaw, to whom the business relating to the petition was more particularly committed, always was of epinion, that the Sheridans, notwithstanding the important support of the celebrated John Frost, would not proceed to trial, and, therefore, he delayed, till the last moment, the consultation of counsel. On Saturday, however, previous to the day appointed for the ballot, he delivered his briefs to Mr. Dallas and Mr. Warren. On the next day (Sunday), the celebrated John Frost, and, after him, his most worthy associate, Peter Moore, addressed very civil notes to Mr. Dawson, who, of course, delivered them to Mr. Wratislaw, and the latter expressed R

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