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hoarded up our woollens and our hardware, but the direct creation of wealth by com or exchanged them for Italian marble, or for merce is the opinion bere controverted,' Ainerican bars of gold, that in a short tinje says. Mr. Spence. But, here, Sir, I should we should have none of our own goods, or think, that Mr. Spence must have forgotten more, marble or goid bars, than we should the title of his book, because Britain is no know what to do with, or that they would more independent of commerce, if combé of no value, because nobody would buy merce increase her wealth indirectly, than thom. Mr. Spence says, that the land pru it it did so directly; and, in order to prove prietors ought to spoud their rents for the that Britain is independent of coinmerce, it good of the nation, that lururies offer, and must be shewn that commerce does neither onght to offer induerments to them to spend the ove nor the other; or, at least, that these rents; but, that he means home maile Britain can do equally well without it: lururies: now, is it not the same thing, which, I apprehend has not yet been proved. Sir, with respect to encouragement to the Mr. Spence says, that it is in consequence of manufacturer, whether the rents of the na- the consumption of so great an amount of tion be spent in tobacco, and paid from Amne- foreign commodities in this country, that rica to our manufacturers for their goods, or there is so great a consumption of our mawhether the money be paid by ihe land. nufactures by foreign nations; and, who holders for goods immediately to the manu- ever doubted this fact. But if this consump facturers? But, here Mr. Spence and you turn tion of our manufactures by foreign nations, upon me and say, then the commerce is use- in consequence of our consumption of foless, cut it off, or let the laudholders buy the reign commodities, adds as much to the goods of the manufacturers. and, I agree, wealth of the nation by stimulating agricul. that this would -answer exactly every par- ture, as if that wealth had been created by pose, if the landholders could be induced to
commerce, where lies the difference, and purchase the manufactures; but, unluckily what does it signify, whence the wealth is they are already supplied with as much derived? If (according to Mr. S.) the land woollen and hardware as they want : let the of the country produce £120 millions a year, manufacturers then, say you, be employed and a sixth part of the population be em about something that the landholders do ployed in producing it, that sixth part of the want. Now, it lies upon you and Mr. Spence population will consume 20 millions, and to show what these articles are which the There will remain one hundred millions, one consumers will want, and which the nianu. half of which is esported in some shape or facturers can supply: for my own part, I be- other, and the remaining half is expended by lieve, it will be found, that no such articles the manufacturers for home consumption : can be supplied at home to the same extent on this state of the case, I cannot perceive that commerce can supply them; and, if why the vation is not indebted for its pros. so, it being necessary; that the land proprie- perity, as much to the 50 millions exported tors should spend their rents, that luxuries by conmerce, as to the 50 millions consumed should ofter inducements to them to do so; by our home manufacturers; and, it appears that the more luxuries are offered, the great- to me, that the nation is more prosperous, er the inducement; that home manufacut- not by 4 or 10 millions at most, as Mr. S. rers cannot offer so many or great induce- states it, which may be gained by trade (and ments, as manufactures and foreign com- which, I believe, is not gained at all) but bythe merce together can offer, it follows that to- whole 50 millions exported in our produce, reign cominerce is necessary to the prospe- or manufactures. But, say you, the nation rity of the country; the conclusion is inevi- can do without commerce, because cointable ; and it must not be forgotten that, as merce is only an exchange: here the money Mr.Spence states, 'for tbe constantly pro- is, and it may be applied directly to the "gressive maintenance of the prosperity of maintenance of the manufacturers, if the
the community, it is absolutely requisite land proprietors chuse it. The manner in • that the class of land proprietors should go which this money is to be so applied is the 'on progressively increasing their expendi- case in point. Supposing any great check
ture. It lies therefore, upon you and Mr. to the export of our manufactures, you do Spence to show, how, the fortunes of not suppose, that the land proprietors (or €10,000 and of £20,000 a year in this rather the home consumers whoever they country, can be spent in home manufactures. be) will immediately buy the produce of the *At page 58, Mr, Spence supposes an ob- manufacture. No, for I remember in one jection to be started, that although-com- number of your Register, that you suppose • merce does not increase tbe wealth of the the manufacturers to be thrown out of ens 1. nation direcily, it may do it indirectly; ployment, and propose that, they shall be
employed in agriculture: but, here Mr. i all our seamen employed in their export, and Spence stops you, by saying, that the pro- in importi:g what we purchase with them,
duce of the land must be always in propor- must be maintained by government, or by * tion to the consumers, and that not one their parishes. Now, Sir, I ask Mr. Spence
acre more can be cultivated, until the and you, or any o her men of understanding,
number of manufacturers shall increase,' whether in their opinion, in such a state of Mr. Spence, in obviating this difficulty says, things, manufactures and agriculture would that we have the remedy against any great flourish; or, whether, on the contrary, ma
check to our manufactures in our own nufactures would not diminish, agriculture · bands, and that it is only for us to spend would not decline, rents would not fail, and the money, which we before vested in to- such a scene of distress and nrisery ensue in bacco, in a new coat or two a piece, to the this country, as the stoutest heart in it would
encourageinent of our own home nanu. fear to look upon. Desiring you, or Mr, 'factures, and all is well again.' Mr. Spence's answer to this question, I take my Spence, Sir, is I dare say a very sensible leave of you for the present, and subscribe man, and of your understanding, Mr. Cob. myself, your obedient servant,-F.--Jan. bett, no one, I believe donbis; it is lamenta
22, 1808. able tber to see how far sensible men may be driren aside by a favourite system. It is an
PERISI COMMERCE." obrioas question to ask Mr. Spence, and it SIR,When I'tirst perused the exis wonderful he should not have asked him- tracts from Mr. Spence's “ Britain Indepenself the question, who is to oblige, or what dent of Commerce," which were inserted in motive is to induce the consumers of this your Register, and the remarks made by you country to purchase a coat or two a year, or thereon, I entertained the same opinion as any other sort of our manufactures more yourselves that national wealth is neither than they want. Mr. Spence says, man is created by manufactures, nor is derived from naturally selfish, and we well know, that toreign commerce; but, having read the selfish persons are to be acted upon only by work itseif, and traving given the subject selfish considerations. Mr. S. must know, more mature reflection, my opinion is very that it is not his profusely saying, if we are much altered; and though I now think that *such slaves to our appetite, we prove our- agriculture is by far the most productive of * selves unworthy of existence as a nation,' the three branches, yet I do not agree with that will make men in general spend their you that there is not any national wealth: money in two coats, when one is sufficient, created by manufactures, nor that there is instead of in those luxuries, to which, they rot any addition to the national wealth dehave been accustomed most : as if Mr. S. vived from foreign commerce. The doctrine was conscious that this plan would not suc- you contend for, appears to me to be supceed, he adds in the next page, that govern-ported by erroneous positions, fallacious reament should mterfere, and employ ihe idle soning, and unwarrantable deductions, which manufacturer in making roads and new canals; as far as they relate to the position that no upoa which then, you observe, that they wealth is derived from manufactures, it is
might just as well be employed in throw- my intention by the present communication *ing stones at the moon;' in which senti- to attempt to controvert. It is stated that ment I fully agree with you. But, besides the rent which the tenant pays to bis landthat their work would be liseless, alas ! lord out of the proceeds arising froin the Mfr. Cobbett, I believe, you and I shall think cultivation of his estate, and the surplus prothem hard times, whenever our manufactu- fits which remain to bimself are wealth ada rers shall apply for assistance to government. ded to the national stuck; but that no such Bat, Mr. Spence, perhaps, putting this con- wealth is produced by the profit of the mass sideration out of the question, (for I am not ter manufacturer, mor by the wages of the acquainted with bis political sentiments) common manufactureri (svirich it is truly may say, still here the money is; it is not staied do not amount to more than is suffi• sent abroad for wine or for tobacco, and if cient for his bare subsistence.) The rea* our manufacturers' cannot be employed by soning in support of this position that no 'it, at least they may be maintained ; and national wealth is produced by the profit of
the money may be raised, as all money for the master manufacturer is this. "The government is raised, by taxes.' Upon the master manufacturer may acquire riches, supposition then, and this is the fair sippo- but the whole of his gains would be at sition, that Buonaparte succeeds in annihila- the expence of the laud proprietors, and ting our commerce, all out manufacturers no addition would be made to the nation employed'on goods for foreign consumption ; 55 al wealth.": And the following case is adduced as a demonstration. * If a coach- be a downright dunghill on this subject, as “ maker were to employ so mauy men for he termed me in that) has observed that the “ half a year in the building of a coach, as master and journeymen manufacturers if " that for their subsistence during that time they had not been einployed in building the “ he had 50 quarters of corn, and if we coach, must notwithstanding have eaten,
suppose that he sold this coach to a land and would in point of fact, have consumed “ proprietor for 60 quarters of corn, it is the same quantity of food. In answer to " evident that the coachmaker would be ten this, your correspondent says, to have eaten quarters of corn richer than if he had sold
without producing something in return, " it for 50 quarters, its original cost. But it would have been attended with a diminution " is equally clear that the land proprietor of the wealth of the country. Now, I think " would be 10 quarters of corn poorer than it is clear that to eat upon any event, whe" if he had bought his coach at the prime ther upon the event of producing something “ cost." This being the case, the following in return, or upon any other, will be producremark is added. "A transfer then, not a tive of a diminution of wealth. And, I “ creation of wealth has taken place, what- think it is equally clear, that if the manu. “ ever one gains the other loses, and the facturer must have eaten at all events, and “ national wealth is just the same.' Mr. have thereby occasioned a diminution of naSpence, in the passage which I have just tional wealth, the coach which he produces quoted, supposes that the master manufac- must be an addition to that wealth. It is to turer derives his profit at the expence of the him as manufacturer the public is indebted land proprietor, and that what the former for the coach, but it is not to him as manugains the latter loses; but, this I entirely facturer that the public loses the food which dissent from, and do contend that the latter he consumes, for he would eat that food has sustained no loss in parting with his whether be were a manufacturer or not. If corn, for he has got an equivalent in the the diminution of food were owing to the coach in exchange for it. I say, Sir, an manufacture of the coach, it might be then equivalent, for if the coach can be sold for with reason contended that no accession of 60 quarters of wheat, I maintain that it is wealth was produced by means of the manu. worth that quantity. An article is worth facture, not more so than if by entering a just as much as it will sell for and no more. shop and taking away 21s, in silver, and What other criterion is there to judge by? leaving 1 guinea in gold in exchange, I . Can you, Mr. Cobbett, or can Mr. Spence should add to the wealth of the shopkeeper, point out any other? The labour of the But as the diminution of the food is entirely workman, and the cost of the materials then distinct and independent of the manufacture amount to 50 quarters of wheat, and the of the coach, this manufacture must ob. coach is sold for 60 quarters of wheat, then viously be a source of wealth, as much so as there must obviously be a clear gain of 10 if I take the 21s. from the shopkeeper in quarters. It was stated by Mr. Spence, that taxes, and pay him one guinea as a remune: the surplus profit arising from the cultivation ration for vending in his shop certain artiof land, is clear gain after the expences at- cles of my property, this one guinea would tending the cultivation and the maintenance be an accession to his wealth. To ascend of the cultivator are deducted. Then why to a much higher subject, but which I cang is not the surplus produce of the coach not forbear noticing on account of its strissi equally clear gain. There does not appear king analogy. The ocean loses its waters to me to be the least difference between the by evaporation, and is supplied by rivers,
6,41 two cases. In the one the value of the now as this evaporation is wholly uncom! corn, horses, cows, sheep, and other articles nected with, and not occasioned by the ri on the land depends on the price they vers, those rivers are undoubtedly the source will sell for... In the other, the value of the sea; and so as the consumption of of the coach depends on a similar con- the manufacturers food is not occasioned by tingency. I do, therefore, think it is quite' the manufacture of the coach, the manufac o clear that the profit which the master manus ture of the coach is indisputably a squrce of facturer derives from the manufacture of the wealth to the nation. Those are the obsercoach is clear gain to the nation. And, I vations which have presented themselves 10 think it will presently appear that the wages my mind, in opposition to your doctrine that of the common workman are equally so. manufactures are not a source of wealth to Your correspondent Wroc, and my old anta- the nation. I shall at present confine myself gonist (The Game Cock as he modestly to this subject, and will on some future, oor called himself in his communication on the casion enter into the consideration ofas. dominion of the sea, but who has proved to and attempt to answer the exceedingly ob
jectionable matter which I find in many would not-His, ingenuity perisha along with other parts of Mr. Spence's pamphlet, parti it, and would notthe towns of Birmingham, cularly that which relates to our foreign and Manchester, where this ingenuity is commerce in both its branches of export and exerted to the greatest extent, be: deserted import.-G-- Jan. 23, išos.
and perish also ?. And holy could you em
ploy ileir. inhabitants in any other way so " PERISA COMMERCE.
productively as this? We now acquire the ** SIR, You observe in your strictures on productions of the very best lands and the commerce, that foreigri coinmerce does not fruits of the labour of other countries by produce wealth, and that the manufacturers | their industry. at the forge and loom instead of Birmingham and Manchester might be bet. of the scanty crops which their labour would ter employed in cultivating the land. I am furnish if employed upon the sterile waste not a merchant, nor am- 1 connected with lands of England. - In your lucubrations on manufacturers ; but have travelled throngh this subjeet I perceive that money, as a cirsome of the mining and manufacturing parts, culating medium, is excluded, and food sub--of England, and the following observationsstituted, in order, as it is said, to simplify hare occurred to me. If i am wrong I shall the question, But is this fair Is not the bé happy to be corrected by your better labour of the Englishmenemployedon the iron judginent. -I believe I am pretty near the of England as much the production of our truth when I state that as much iron ore, country as the corn raised by the cultivation
at the mine, as would make a pound of iron, of the soil ? And is not clothing a neces· would hardly cost a half-penny, and the coals sary of life as well as food? Or take it in and lime-stone to flux it perhaps a half- your way, and call food the only national, penny more, or thereabouis..
wealth, Will not hard-ware, will not rials therefore to make six pounds of iron we manufactured cotton, instead of wine and will say cost about six-pence, at the mine. Af. tobacco which no doubt are superfluities, ter it has been fluxed, and gone through the purchase grain in foreign countries. Icon. process pecessary to render it malleable, it fess I cannot answer these questions in sucis sent to Birmingham ; then it is made into a manner as to enable me to accede entirely steel, and of this steel the ingenious mana- to the opinion which you have supporteh facturers of that place make articles of the with your usual ability; and I therefore value of £500 and upwards; 1 know dress propose them not as a disputant, but from a swords have been made there of that value. real wish to have my donitis resolved.-| But for the illustration of my argument, we am aware that my story of the sixpenny will take the more moderate sum of £50. worth of iron ore and coals, may bear some This sword, or whatever other article of the resemblance to that of the girl and her basvalue of £50, is exported and sold for that ket of eggs į but my iron ore is not as peamount in a country producing cotion. With rislable an article ; and, as I insure my this sum we will assume that 1000lbs. of goodi, I go upon better. grounds than that cotton may be purchased. This cotton is mulucky personage.
-Em-24th Jan. imported into England and carried to Man- ISOS. chester, where, we will say, each pound is mátiufactured into articles of the value of
OFFICIAL PAPERS. 10. ; and it will be admitted that it may be WESTPHALIA.te hing Jerome's. Proclamafabricated into goods of much greater value, tion, date Cassels 17th Dec., 1807. TheRioolbs of cotton will therefore, when We Jerome Napnlaon, by the grace of re-exported in a manutactured state, pro- God and the Constitution, King of Westduce £500. With this €500. 10,0001b5.phalia, f'rencli Prince, &c. &c. 19 our good of cotton may be parchased and again im- and faithful subjects, and inhabitants of our ported into England. Now we have 10,000 kingdom of Westphalia, greeting :-Westlbs. of cotton, which may be manufactured phalians, Divine Providence ltas pointed this into a thousand different things for the ara in order to re-unite your scattered proconvenience and comfort of the rich as well | vinces under one august institution, together as the four of this country: Is not this real with neighbouring families though strangers wealth And more traly so than either gold to each other.-Icome to occupy this throne, or silver And what is it that has produced" prepared by victory, raised by the assent of tiis wealth why the labour and ingenuity the greatest powers of Europe, founded on of our countrymen emploved upon sixpence a title no less saered, by your real interest. . worth of iron ore and cộals. What is it -Too long has your country suffered from that has produced this ingénuity? Is it not the pretensions of families and the intrigues coaimerce, and were coinmerce to perish of cabinets : you were exposed to all thes? calamities of wars, and your were excluded tions of erporting goods to St. Catherine, from all the benefits of peace. Some of until the plensure of the Prince Regent le your towns only reaped the barren honour known.-London, bearing date the 6th of of annexing their names to treaties, in which January, 1908. nothing was overlooked but the well-being of Agreeably w the letter which I had the the people who inhabited then-How wille- honour of addressing you, under date' of the ly different are the results of the war; stirred 4th January of the present year, and in up against the august head of my house! It which I explained at large to your excellency is for nations that Napoleon has conquered; the motives which induced me to sanction and each of the treaties he has concluded, is thie sending out of British merchantmen to a step farther towards the end proposed by the island of St. Catherine, provided that his mighty genius, of giving to entire na- their cargoes consist of articles hitherto retions a political existence, government and ceived into ihe custom house of Portugal, I Jaws dictated liy wisdom, the establishment have now to request that yon will be pleased to each of them of a country, and the dire. to order that the shin- should be admitted liction hereafter of none in that deplorable | into the custom house of that island, the nullity, in which they were equally unable captain or niaster of which, (who is the either to steer clear of war, and avail then- bearer of this letter), you will permit to in. selves of peace.---Westphalians !--Such was load and sell his cargo, and give directions the issue of the batiles of Marengo, of Au- that no more duties shall be required of her, sterlitz, of Jena ; such now is for you the re- than were said in Portugal for the same arsili Ofihe memorabie treaty of Tilsit. On that ticles ; and also that those duties should not day you obtained the first of blessings, a coun- be demanded until he has sold and dispatch. try. Far be now removed from your recol- ed his cargo, in every particular conforming lection those scattered doninarius, the last to the practice of the custom house at Lisbon. result of the feudal system, whicho prepared ---And as it may possibly happen that your a master for each city; these different in- excellency may not yet find yourself authoterests are now to form but one ; your inas- rised to consent to the sale of such cargoes, ter vow is the law ; your protector, the I earnestly request you that at all events you monarch, who is to cause it to be respected : will be pleased to allow that they should be henceforth you shall have 110 other.--West- lanudd and properly warehoused, and that phalians, you have got a constitution adapt you will order that the ships should moor ed to your manners and to your interests : it in that port, waiting there with their crews, is the fruit of the meditations of a great man, without molestation, until your excellency and of the experience of a great nation : its shall receive the instiuctions and orders of principles are in unison with the present state his Royal Highness the Prince Regent on this of the civilization of Europe, and are big head.-Your excellency will observe, that the with prospects of improvement, which will bearer of this letter o'g'it also to present you far overbalance the sacrifices which this new with the manitest ci ihe cargo, confirıned order of things may impose upon some of by me, and the licence of the Britisha privy you. You must, therefore, atach rour- council; to fultil the conditions of which, selves to it with confidence, since upon it your excellency will be pleased to order the rests your liberty and your prosperity.-In officers of the customs to deliver to the ascending the throne, I contracted the obli. bearer a certificate of the regular discharge gation of making you happy, and I will be of the articles specified in such manifest. faithful to it. The equality of the modes of Conililions.-- Ist. That all merchants wishreligion shall be maintained, property as- ing to make adventures to the Brazils withsured and guaranteed. Thus shall there be out waiting for the regulations of liis roya! established between me and my people an bighness, should be obliged to take a licence alliance of wishes and of interests, that shall from the privy council, which will point out never change. Westphalians, your sove. the port that will be agreed on by bis excelreign henceforward relies on your fidelity | lency Mr. Cauniug and ne, and to which and inviolable attachment.
alone they must give bond to go.-Idly.
That every master, and every shipper, will Brazil TRADE.-Circular Letter from the give the usual bonds at this custom bouse
Portuguese Amlassador to the Governor of for the due delivery at the custom bouse of the Island of St. Catherine, and Condi.
the said port.
(to le continued.)
Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Greut Quren Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Bredges Street, Corent Garden, where former Numbers may be had ; gold also by J. Budd, Crowa and Aline Pall Mall