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of raising teady money are gone with it. | vord rar (with England), then, takes away "We foriunateiy have no mines of consi- four fitths of the whole reren.uc; nor, let it .. derable value, and it is notorious," we be forgotten, that neariy one half of this " have very little coin remaining in ihe cof- whole revenue is wanted to pay the interest "« fers of our citizens. Hence we can look of the nanonal debt. Where, then, if they
to cominierce, and to commerce alone, to have war with us, are le stockholders to " fill our treasury; which, without it, would find their next year's dividends ? Are they
very soon be empty. The whole of our to come from internal taxes to be imposed? revenue at this time arising from other “ King Cang" knows well, that it would
sources, would not half pay our civil list, be safer for him to thrust his head, hydra as 146 Hence we perceive, we are leaving to the it is, into the fire, than attempt io iinpose
mercy of every maritime foe,' the only internal axes, the total amount of which
means we have in our power, for an easy should equal a quarter part of the taxes now " and adequate support of our government. | arising from English goods. How farcical is " Let us suppose, that a war with Great it, then, to talk of this people making“ a ** Britain at this moment existed.' Whence navy,” ards fortifications," and " raising «« should we derive a revenue to carry it on ?
That they might make an in" From our commerce it will be answered. road into Upper Canada is probable enough; 4. But four-fifths of our commerce, to speak because the people of Hampshire might 4 moderately, would be imniediately an- easily invade Surrey; but, they will never "nihilated. From our trading towns, and reach Lower Canadi!; and, if they were to “ banks of deposit. Very well; but would do it, and to conquer wild woods, seeing that “ not our trading towns be either burnt or the n liberty of the seas" is not so easily
plundered ? Or supposing, contrary to conquered, what would they gain ?." They “ reason, that neither of these happened to cry,” says the writer above quoted, « for
any one of them ; their business being “ more land, although we cannot cultivate, “ interrupted, would they not be obliged to or eren raise boundaries to, the fiftieth “ cast their dependence npon the country part of what we already have in pos" instead of supporting government? How “ session : for an extension of jurisdiction “ many who now find full employment, " they cry, although, from its enormous « would be obliged to turn vagrants for “ size, the Union is already, threatened with * sustenance ? How many now in af- - dismembermeni."-an I have spoken be“ fluence, would soon be reduced to po- fore of the “ American navy” and fortifica* verty ? Our doors are open ; and the rob- tions. In terms very contempluous cer“ byer may enter and plunder as he pleases. tainly; but, as will appear from the next “ Our banks of deposit, however, would af- and last extract I shall make from iliis pam. « ford a temporary supply. But who will phlet, not beyond the truth:-" The na"invade private property, to gain an ig- vy has been sold, burnt, and wasted away, “ nominiqus tespite ? I grant you, a very
until it has almost disappeared. Our "good republican might; but then it would arms, arsenals and military stores, instead “? be only to borrow it; and no one could “ of receiving considerable augmentation, " be under apprehension but that it would " have suffered all the diminution of ac« be scrupulously returned, with interest. “cident and decay. The fortifications of " But again, another difficulty wonld arise. our different. harbours were in a condi6 Our banks contain little else but fictitious " tion to prevent our being the derision of " capital; they might emit paper in abun- an invading enemy. These have beep " dance ; yet, in a time of doubt and un- “ demolished, or have mouldered back to “ certainty, what scheme would give it cur- “ earth, until you can scarcely find a piece “ rency? The stockholder would by no " of ordnance mounted for a signal gun. •« means find himself exempt fron the ge- " Where is the ship that has been built “ neral calamity. On the contrary, His “ Where the barrier raised against inva“ bobble would burst; and he would tell “sion? Where the preparation for defence “you, paper was not silver, nor parchment “ worthy of mention ? None is to be found gold." Such is the statement of this " along our extensive and exposed coast
. writer, and it is, in no respect exaggerated. « The timber and materials for putting There is no internal tax worth speaking of. “ afloat the ships of the line, authorized by I believe, the post-office is now the only " law, are gone with the rest; while the source of internal revenue; and, observe, “ ruins only remain, to reproach us for our that four.fifths of the custom duties are col- folly, or as memorials of the desolating lected upon goods going to, or coming from, « effects of time."--And, this is the peoEngland and her possessions. The very ple who are going to war, while they cut off,
by barely pronouncing the word war, four, jesty.-- In the execution of this duty, so far fifths of their revenge. Tbis is the people, as related to the Danish fleet, his Majesty whom the lining, Chronicle would fain has commanded us to assure you, that it was persuade us to tear : woul! fain persuade us with the deepest reluctance that his Majesty to make aew concessions to, in order to found himself compelled, after his earnest appease their wrath.
-But, I shall be endeavours to open a negociation with the asked, “ how did they carry on war lyfore, Danish government had failed, to authorise “ without reierue!" 0, 'on! You mean his commanders to resort to the extremity they shouldians to work in o the making of force, but that he has the greatest satisof paper mocet, aid to the iaking of peo- faction in congratulating you' upon the sucple's quods by force with that money, and cessful xecution of this painful, but necesto ti: - confiscating of the propest: of Tories sary service - We are further commanded (or rich mea), a' to the payılıg off old to acquaint you, that the conrse which his scores with an act oi King Corg;" in Majesty hatto pursue with respect to Porshort, you mean, that there should be an- tugal, was happily of a parare more congeother revolution. That is quite another nial to his Majesty's feelings. The timely thing; and, it is a thing, too, which ii they and unreserved communication by the court
to war, you will certainly see take of Lisbon of the demands and designs of plac., vir war against us (for it is they | Fiance, while it contined to his Majesty who ozke it) being evideni., (iustined to the authenticity of the advices which he had termine, like the war, which, the table received from other quarters, entitled that tells us, was, by the glasses and dishes com- court to his Majesty's confidence in the sinbined, made against the hammer.
cerity of the assurances by which that comBoiley, Jan. 21, 1805.
munication was accompanied.--The fleet of
Portugal was destined by France to be emKING'S SPEECH.
ployed as an instrument of vengeance against On Thursday, the 21st of January, 1809,
Great Britain. That fieet bas been secured
from the grasp of France, and is now emthe two Houses of Parliament having met, the Session was opened by Commission,
ployed in conveying to its American domi.
nions the bopes and fortunes of the Portuwith the following Sperch, which was
guese monarchy. His Majesty inplores the read by the Lord Chancellor.
protection of Divine Providence upon that My Lords and Gentlemen,- We have
enterprise, rejoicing in the preservation of received his Majesty's commands to assure a power so long the friend and ally of Great you, that in calling you together at this ini- Britain; and in the prospect of its establishportant conjuncture of affairs, he entertains ment in the new world with augmented the most perfect conviction, that he shall strength and splendor.We have it in comAnd in you the same determination with
mand from his Majesty to inform you, that which his Majesty himself is animated, to
the determination of the enemy to excite uphold the honour of his crown, and the hostilities between his Majesty and bis late just rights and interests of his people.-We allies, the Emperors of Russia and Austria, are commanded by his Majesty io inform and the King of Prussia, has been but too you, that no sooner had the result of the
successful; and that the ministers from those negociations at Tilsit, confirmed the in
powers have demanded and received theirAuence and control of France over the
passports.—This measure, on the part of powers of the continent, than his Majesty Russia, has been attempted to be justified was apprized of the intentions of the enemy by a statement of wrongs and grievances to combine those powers in one general con- which have no real foundation. The Enifederacy, to be directel either to the entire
peror of Russia had indeed proffered his mesubjugation of this kingdom, or to the in
diation between his Majesty and France. posing upon his Majesty an insecure and ig. His Majesty did not reiue that mediation, nominious peace, —That for this purpose, it bui he is confident you will feel the propriewas determined to force into hostility against ty of its not having been accepted until his his Majesty, states which had hitherto been Majesty should have been enabled to ascer. allowed by France to maintain or to pur- tain that Russia was in a condition to me chase their neutrality; and to bring to bear diate impartially, and until the principles of against different points of his Majesty's do- the basis on which France was ready to ne, minions, the whole of the naval force of | gociate were made known to his Majesty.-Europe, and specifically the fleets of Portu- No pretence of justification has been alledged gal and Denmark.-To place those feets out for the hostile conduct of the Emperor of of the power of such a confederacy became Austria, or for that of his Prussian Majesty. therefore the indispensable duty of his Ma. -His Majesty has not given the slightest ground of complaint to either of those sove- | admit. His Majesty, nevertheless, hopes reigos, nor even it the moment when they that the American government will be achave respeciively withdrawn their ministers, toated by the same desire to preserve the have they assigned to his Majesty ay dis- relations of peace and friendship between 110ct cause for that proceeding.--His M.1- the two countries which has ever intuenced jesty has direcieel that copies of the corre. his Majesty's conduct, and that any diinspoulence beiween luis Majesty's ambassador culties in the discussion pow pending may and the minister for foreign atars of his be erectually rendred. His Majesty bu6. linperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia, commanded me to state to you, that in during the negociations ai Tiisii, and the consequence of the decree by which France official nute of the Russian minister at this declared the whole of bis Majesty's domicourt, containing the offer vi his Inperial nions to be in a state of blockade, and subMajesty's beliation betweeu his Majesty jected to seizure and confiscation, the proand France, wgriber with the answer re- duce and manufactures of his kingdom, bis furneci to that note by huis Majesty's com• Majesty resorted, in the first instance, tu a mand; and also copies of the othcial measure of mitigated reialiaiion; and that notes, presented by the Austrian minister this measure having proved ineilectual for at this court, and of the answers which its object, bis Majesty has since found it his Majesty commanded to be returned necessary to adopt others of greater vigour, to them, should be laid before yoll- which, he commands is, to state to you, it is with concern that his Majesty, com- will require the aid of Parliament to give munds us to inform you, that not willstand. them complete and effectual operation. His ing bis earnesi wishes to termine the war Majesty bias directed copies of the orders in which he is engaged with the Oitoman which he has issued with the advice of bis Porte, his Majesty's endeavours, unhappi- ! Privy Council upon this subject to be laid ly for the Turkish empire, have been de- before you, and he commands us to refeated by the machinations of France', not commend them to your curly attention, less the enemy of the Porte ihan of Great Gentlemen of the House of Comp. Britain. But while the intiuence of France las mons,--His Majesty has directed the estibeen thuis unfortunately successful in pre- mates for the ensuing year to be laid before venting the termination of existing hostili- you, in the fullest contidence that your ties, and in cxciting ikw war against this loyalty and public spirit will induce you to courry, his Majesty commands us to in- | make such provision for the public service form you that the King of Siveden has re
as the urgency
of affairs may require. His sisted every atten, pi io induce bina to aban- Majesty has great satisfaction in informing dun his alliance wiih Great Britain ; and you, tat, notwithstanding the difficulties that his Majesty entertains no doubt that which the enemy las endeavoured to impose you will feel with him the sacredness of the upon the Commerce of bis Subjects, and upon duty which the tirmness and fidelity of the their Intercourse with other Nations, the king of Sweden inpose upon bis Majesty; Resources of the Country have continued in aid that you will concur in enabling his the last year to be so abundant, as to have 11-jest; is discharge it in a manner worthy produced, both from the permanent and of this country. It remains for us, accord-temporary revenue, a receipt considerably in to his Majesiy's command, to state to larger than that of the preceding year. The you that the Treaty of Commerce and Amity satisfaction which his Majesty feels assured between his M jesty and the United States you will derive, in common with his Maof linerica which was concluded and sign- jesty, from this proof of the solidity of ed by commissioners duly authorized for these Resources, cannot but be greatly inthat purpose, on the Olst of December, creased, if, as his Majesty confidently 1505, bas not taken effect, in consequence hopes, it shall be found possible to raise the of the retusal of the President of the United necessary Supplies for the present year States to ratify that instrumert. For an un: without any material addition to the Public authorised acisi force committed against an Burthens. American ship of wor his Majesty did not My Lords and Gentlemen,-~We are hesitate to off r immediate and spontaneous especially commanded to say to you, in the reparation. But an attempt has been made name of his Majesty, that, if ever there by the A gerican governiny.nt to connect was a just and National War, it is that with the question which lias arisen out of which bis Majesty is now compelled to this act, pretensions incensistent with the prosecute.---This War is in its principle paritime rights of Great Britain: such pre purely Defensive. His Majesty loubs but iklsions bis Majesty is determined never to to the attainment of a secure and honourablo
Peace ; but such a Peace can only be nego | takes, in some degree, of that property of a tiated upon a footing of perfect equality, despotic government, which exen;pts the The eyes of Europe and of the world lower orders from its severity ; but, as it are fixed upon the British Parliament. If, multiplies the sources of infliction, must aga as his Majesty contidentially trusts, you gravure the sufferings of a nation. The ty. display in this crisis of ihe fute of the coun- ranny of the mass, collecting and concentratry the characteristic spirit of the British ting every element out intolerance and artiNation, and face unappulled the onnctural trary power', pours forth such a huge Heat combination which is gaihered around 17s, of oppre-sion. '* to overthrow every barrici, bis Mysly bids is to assure you of bis and involve all classes of saciety in one indistire persuasion, that under the blessing of criminate state of misery and degradation. Divine Provideoce, the struggle will prove These are the three great sources of national successful and glorious to Great Britain. | suitiring; for to sone one of these may be We are lastly commanded to assure you, that traced the oppression of every mion, u hese in this awful and momentous contest, you calamities are recorded in history. Yet not niy rely on the firmness of his Majesty, to any one of these, nor to a conibination of who has no cause but that of liis people, any, or of all of them, are the miseries of ani tiat his Majesty reciprocally relies the Irish nation to be ascribed. The wreichon the wisdom, the constancy, and the edness of that people appears written, in kaatfectionate support of his Parliament. gible characters, over the face of the land ;
but, whilst the efiect is thus visible in the IEELAND,
light of day, the obscurity of midnight darkl'index, LETTER II.
ness envelops, and conceals the real cause SIR, -- "Vhit has been remarked of the from view. Many truths, various errors, texture of the Eoglish language, that it has and much misrepresentation have been pubnuore anomalies than any otherkoown, may lished upon this subject, but no writer, that be inore truly applied to the oppressed cone I have consulted, has, according to my opi. dition of the Irish people. In contempla- nion, pointed out the radical, the remote ting the severe and multitarious grecances, source of all the evils, that mar the internal which that nation endures, one can easily quiet and prosperity of that country. Caperceive the universality of oppression; but tholic disabilities, and the hardships, arising ii ii vain to look for that unity or uniformity from tythes, have been, and are, at present, of calise, that generates the sufierings of much insisted on, as ihe great causes of oiher amicted countries. It is a maxim Irish grievance. It would be false, to asequally applicable to politics as to physics, sert, il at the Irish nation has no just ground th.2: t!:e simpler the cause the less injurions of complaint, no well foarded claim for rewill be the consequence. It is not the sin- dress, under these beads; but, it would begle fountain, from which a great river may tray a gross ignorance of the subject, à total take its rise, that swells its proud tide, and I disacquaintance with the real state of die makes it flow with majesty to the ocean. people of Ireland, to contend, that the re. Various acressary streams feed its progress ; mural of either, or both, could have any and the figod, which it discharges at its perman nt eifect upon the internal tranquila mouth, is the accumulation from many : lity of thai country. These are but sympsources. The oppression, which flows fron toms; the disense lies deeper. The force of aury single cause, is simple, and may be light, bibit, or the flattery of self-love, may render when spread over the vast surface of society. those, who are most affected, least sensible of But, when all the springs of power are open- the existence of the disease. The patient, ed, when every channel, tbrough which op- 1
m. taking the symptoms for the complaint, pression can flow, contributes iis contents to ! looks with confidence to re-establishment swell the common tide, how frighiful must upon their remoral; yet, unless the phybe the effects of the desolating inundation. sician era:licate the peccant cause from Those, somewhat elevated in rank or station, the constitution, the relief is but ternporary, may escape with little comparative injury, the relapse certain, and often fatal. in trábri ail the lower orders of the community cing the real source of the malady, with must be overwhelmed by the Hoou.--The which Ireland is afficted, we must not look, iron rod of a government falls with most solely, to the Protestants, or to the Catho. weight on the objects, most immediately lics, or to the clergy, or to the privileged within its reach, and spending its force, is it orders, or to the unprivileged classes; we descends, is scarcely perceptible, when it must consider the whole, as forming one boo touches the lowest links of society. The dy, presenting certain indications of its real oppression of an overbearing aristocracy par indisposition, iu those affections, which appear to pervade every part of that whole. to its final accomplishment.-The subject of Partial observers, or interested individuals tythes and their cperation are equally missemay, without violation of truth, ascribe to a presented, and alike misunderstod in this part, what belongs to the whole. The pre- country: On the ground of right, the promises may be true, though the conclusion perty of the clergy and of 'ay impropriators, f.41 short of the extent, to which it would be in tyihes, is unquestionable ; and certainly borne out by them. Such'views and such the attack' upon that description of property deductions answer all the purposes of a sect
bad grace from ihe land or a party, that may have an interest, in dis- proprimors.
proprimors. It would be superfluous here guising the true state of the case, or in em- to enter into any proof of the common law barrassing the government and deceiving the right of the clergy to tythes, in their several public by a false one. There is no subject benefices. That proportion of the produce of public importance, upon which so little of the soil has been imprescriptably vested correct information, or so much real igro. ! in the church ; and, I doubt much, whether fance is, betrayed in this country, as in the any land proprietor in the einpire, can proimpressions given and entertained, on the duce so venerable a title to his estate. It is actual state of Ireland. To form a judge necessary to bear this in mind in order to ment by the factious representations of those decide upon the principles, which have acmen, who scandalously abandoned the Ca- tuated the land proprietors of Ireland in their tholics, whilst in office, one would su[pose, hostility to the rights of the clergy. It has that, emancipation was now a measure of the been stated above, that the title of tlie clergy last importance to Ireland. In my former on tythes is immemorial and imprescriptable; letter, I stated, and I here repeat the asser- not so the claims of the Irish land proprietion, that the total emancipation of the Ca. tors. Nine tenths of the lands of Ireland tholics, would prove an incalculable benefit bave been regradied on forfeiture since the to the empire, without having anyconsiderable reformation. The lands, of course, passed effect on the internal state of Ireland. I am to the grantees, subject to ihe claims of the convinced, that any man, acquainted with the church, which were indcfeasible even by the general catholic mind, will agree with me, that crown; for those lands only, which be. the measure, if unaccompanied by others for longed to the suppressed monasteries, were, the redress of practical grievances, would not or could be, granted over by the executive, have the smallest effect, either to eradicate discharged of tythes, because these lands Mr. Grattan's quaint pimple, or supercede alone were previously exempt from their the necessity of Mr.Sheridan's equally quaint operation. The proprietors, therefore, of potch. But, even though ihe balsain of nine-tenths of the lands of Ireland, whether emancipation were to clear the complexion claiming by descent, or purchase, from the of the beauty from the pimple, it would not original grantees, or the:r representatives
, remove from the constitution those ill hu. must hold their estates according to the mours, of which the pimple is but a symp- terms of the original grant.
They can have tom. The act of emancipation would have no right to wbat was noi, and could not, be no more intiuence upon the wretched pea- conveyed by it--the property of the clergy. sant, than an act, for allowing him to inha. Every species of tenure, by which land is bit a slated house, would have, in reconciling onw held in Ireland, has been effected in him to his miserable cabin, because of the the contemplation of this prior claim of the privilege conterred upon him, of being lodg. clergy. The purchaser and the occupier ed, as well as his superiors, if ever his cir- have acquired iheir different degrees of procumstances should enable him to procure the perty or interest, upon lower terms, in the accommolation. His grievances are practi- proportion, that the amount of the tythes cal, his wants real; and it is not by the com- diminished the value of the acquisition. It munication of political rights, which he can wonld be unjust, therefore, not only to the never hope to enjoy, that he is to be recon- clergy, but to those, who either sold or iet ciled to great present privations and grievous lands, under this impression, to give, by the prospective burthens. Every honest and im- abolition of tythes, so valuable an accession partial man must be a friend to emancipation, of property to the present propricturs or but no good or well intentioned subject terre-tenants, for which no consideration would wish to force that question into dis- whatever had been paid, or reserved, at the cussion, at present, without some reasonable time of making the purchase or the lease. ! prospect of success. Indiscreet precipitancy know it may be said, that it is not the total would only tend to retard an event, which abolition, but a reasonable conimutation, of every day of sober reflection, on the part of tythes, that is songht. I admit that com. those, who now oppose it, must accelerate mutation is the ostensible object of those