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colonies require to be supplied? Flour, salt pork and beef, and butter. I will say nothing of the live-stock, which are carried thither from the American States, and which, if they could possibly be found in sufficient number in the Brazils, would, doubtless, greatly relish, and thrive exceedingly during, a voyage of from six to ten weeks, and sometimes of three months. The flour, supposing the mills and all constructed ready, must, after such a voyage, come very cheap to our planters, especially when we consider that the agricultural labourers are brought from Africa at the price of two hundred guineas each. Besides these objections, which apply to corn and flour, there are others with regard to the salt meat and butter. I should suppose, that the very coolest days ever known in the Brazils, almost the whole territory of which lies between the tropics, exceed in heat the very hottest days ever known in England. Now, it is well known, that no sort of meat will take salt, unless the weather, speaking in our language, be cold; how then, is it possible to preserve meat in the Brazils, much less to put it up in a state fit to be kept for a twelyemonth? And, I should think, that even the smoke-dried tenants of the city, many of whom never saw the morning dew in their lives, would require but very little to convince them, that the potting down of butter under a vertical sun must be delightful sport, surpassing even that of eating hasty-pudding with an awl.-One would really suppose, that this writer of the Morning Chronicle never thought. That his words dropped out from his pen at random. And, yet, he sometimes sports a word or two of Latin at the close of a paragraph, in order, I suppose, to shew, that he is a gentleman of education," a man of "classical learning." The truth is, he has no time for thinking about any thing but what will serve the purposes of his faction. Upon party squabbles it is admirable what dexterity he shows; how he stickles and quibbles and shuffles, and with what charming grace he unsays to day what he said yesterday; but, upon all matters, wherein the public look for, and need information, it is truly surprising to see what ignorance he discovers; though it must be confessed, that he is fully equalled, even in this respect, by a great majority of his brethren.Nevertheless, I dare say, that it is, by this time, pretty generally believed, that the Brazils are capable of supplying our West India colonies with lumber and provisions.; and that John Bull begins to hug himself in the idea, that he has found out a population of half a mil

lion of people, who, with the surplus of their produce, are able to feed a million of people in another country. He will, too, I dare say, perceive, that, supposing the Brazilians to be able to send forth so much subsistence, it will be mightily advantageous to them to receive in exchange, sugar, coffee, indigo, and tobacco, all of which they grow abundantly in their own country. John can swallow a pretty good dose, and should not be so free with his jokes upon those who place reliance upon the virtues of holy-water. His priests (I mean the London news-editors) are much greater impostors than those who taught his forefathers to perform pilgrimages to the shrine of that famous scoundrel "Saint "Thomas a Becket," and who exhibited the blood of a duck for that of Jesus Christ. John may laugh, and shake his fat jowls, at being gravely told of the Virgin Mary's house taking a flight from Palestine to Italy; but, in revenge, the Italians have nothing to do but to remind him of his building a monument in honour of the memory of Pitt, in consequence of the national services of that minister; or, of his rejoicing at the emigration of the Portuguese Government, as an event auspicious to England, John is an honest, industrious, unsuspicious fellow; but, it becomes not him, above all others to laugh at those who suffer themselves to be amused and cheated by quacks and impostors. The above examination into the abilities of the Brazils may serve to enable us to, judge of the probability of the new government ever being capable of supporting itself, and maintaining the independance of the country. It appears to me quite impossible, that it should be able to keep up either a fleet, or an army, without recruits from England, and without grants of English money; and, then, what will the Brazils, be, but another accursed colony, another mill-stone about our necks, another East Indies? I think, however, that the likely thing is, that, when we come to make peace, Napoleon will insist, that the Brazils shall belong to Portugal; and, in that case, what are we to do? Shall we continue the war, "eternal war," rather than give up our hold upon the Brazils, especially when that important country, Hanover, which is "as

dear to us as Hampshire," may be offered to us in exchange? Ah, poor Prince Regent! dismal as you will find the Brazils, you will not, I am afraid, upon your landing there, have seen half the mortifications that are in store for you. What we have to consider, at present, however, is the expence that this new government will be to us; the quantity of labour we shall have to

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perform to raise the taxes that will be required of us for its support, But, if I am not greatly deceived, we shall not be left long in doubt upon this subject; that meeting of parliament, for which the Morning Chronicle is so anxious, will, I am pretty certain, enable the world to judge of the understandings of those, who bid us rejoice at this event.- -In taking my leave of this subject, for the present, I cannot forbear pressing upon the memory of the reader, that it appears from the official dispatches published by the ministers, that the Prince Regent would not have emigrated, had he not been assured, that Napoleon would have shown him no quarter; that, while emigration was talked of in England, rather than the Prince would join the foes of England, the Prince was issuing a proclamation by which he joined the foes of England; and that, therefore, those persons were right, who, with me, laughed at the idea of an emigration to the Brazils, under the circumstances then represented to exist. I am desirous, that the reader should bear in mind, that the emigration, which has now taken place, is an event very different from that which was, at first, talked of, and expected; that the emigration talked of embraced a large number of the people, voluntarily leaving their country rather than live under French rule; that it was, in short, a dignified transfer of the seat of government that was then expected; that the emigration which has now taken place is to be considered as, indeed, the newspapers call it, an escape;" and that none of us,' who ridiculed the idea of an emigration of the state, ever supposed it unlikely, that many persons in Portugal, if implacably pursued by the French, would do their best to escape.- -Just as I was laying by this article, the following paragraph catched my eye. "Notice was yesterday given at "the Post-Office, that bags of letters would "be made up and forwarded to Rio de "Janeiro; a circumstance which induces a

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belief, that a commercial negociation be"tween that country and England will "shortly be opened. Yesterday a few of our merchants waited on the Portuguese "Ambassador. His excellency received "them with much complaisance and affa"bility, but informed them, that until the

necessary arrangements were formed, he "could not take upon him to hold out any "encouragement to commercial enterprizes "to the Brazils."Yes, they have been at him already. A commercial negociation! Before they knew whether the Prince Regent will ever arrive in Brazil. Greedy as

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ravening wolves. The Ambassador must have thought them mad. Besides, what commerce do these gentlemen expect to carry on to Brazil? They may carry some of the port wine that we have in England; but I know not any thing else that they can carry more than we used to supply the Brazils with before. If, however, it be true, that post-office packets are to be sent to that country, our expenses, on account of this "glorious event," have already actually commenced. We may prepare to sweat; for these expences will make no little figure in our annual disbursements from the treasury.I cannot forbear taking one more paragraph from the Morning Chronicle. "While every one is justly overjoyed at the

prospect of extended commerce which "the Brazils hold out to this country, as "well as the lucky escape which our ancient "ally has made from destruction, by an ac"cident equally unforeseen and extraordi

nary, it is natural for us to feel some degree of anxiety with respect to the policy "which such ministers as the present may "adopt in so delicate and important a juneture, towards our transplanted ally. "Nover was there an occasion upon which more depended on the judgment-the "soundness of views which our rulers may "possess. The first shaping of our con"nexions with the new empire will be in

finitely important to the continuance of "our intercourse with it, in all time coming; "and when we consider what set of men

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are now at the head of affairs, it is im"possible not to feel extreme apprehensions

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as to the plans they may adopt, and the persons they may depute to execute. "then. Lord Bathurst and his commercial "board; Lord Mulgrave, Mr. Robert "Ward, and their maritime views; the "solid talent of Lord Hawkesbury; the "weight of Lord Camden; the wit of Mr.,

Canning, and his deep knowledge of the "ancients, who knew not that Brazil exist "ed; the tolerant, liberal spirit of Mr. "Perceval; the slave-trading views of "Lord Westmoreland, and indeed of almost "the whole junto-all this may do well "enough in ordinary times-and the in"terest of the country may in any com

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mon juncture escape total ruin, in spite "of it."The plain English of which, is, pray, good people, do make a clamour that the no popery ministers may be put out of their places, and that I and my patrons may get into them." But, the people will not clamour. They know, that those who are now in the places are just exactly as good as your patrons, with this difference

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in their favour, that they have never promised the people to do them any good. But, the best of this paragraph, is, the sneer at Mr. Canning for his deep knowledge of the ancients, who knew not that Brazil existed. Not much more did the ancients know about the situation and motions of the sun, the earth, or the planets; not much more did they know about navigation; not much more did they know about chemistry or electrici-. ty; not much more did they know about many of the sciences now of the utmost importance in the affairs of mankind. This is a furious, though side-winded, blow at the "learned languages ;" and, I would have the Morning Chronicle beware how he draws off the envenomed Doctors from me to himselt; for, it is quite clear, either that the "learned languages are useless to a statesman, or that Mr. Canning, who was cap"tain of Eton," has one qualification, at least, which a statesman ought to possess; and, it is precisely this qualification, which the Morning Chronicle has thought proper to ridicule.

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RUSSIA. It will be remembered, that, sometime ago, in speaking upon the consequences, to us, of the total conquest of the continent of Europe by Napoleon, I gave it as my opinion, that we ought now explicitly to proclaim, that we had, and would maintain, a complete sovereignty of the sea; and, that, when we came to make peace, we should as explicitly assert, and exercise in peace, that sovereignty. I then endeavoured to shew, that there were many countries, which we should be able greatly to embarrass by cutting off all maritime communication between them; or, at least, by causing them to purchase all the goods they received from without at a price augmented tenfold. This article has been commented upon by the editor of a foreign newspaper, entitled the "Courier du Nord," a translation of whose comments, as given in the Times newspaper, I here insert, because, suppos ing the writer to be a man well-informed, that is to say, learned, upon the subject, I think his comments will go very far towards convincing the reader, that my opinion was correct, and that, as far as Russia could be injured by the loss of commerce with foreign nations, it is in the power of England to injure her. Without going to the bot"tom of the question, we think it becomes

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us, as Kassians, to examine these points, "viz. whether England has the power of raising the price of foreign merchandize "tenfold; and how far the nations of the globe could communicate with each other "if the paths of the ocean were forbidden

"them. The solution of these two ques"tions depends on some local knowledge, "which is not very common.The first "and important thing is, that merchandize

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may be embarked at Brzesc on the Bug, "and may, without touching land, or "changing its vessel, arrive at Bremer"Forden, within three posts of Bremen, "by means of the canals of Bromberg and "Havel. This way may therefore be made "use of even for the most bulky objects; "and we doubt not that it would have been "used, but for the toll-duties in Germany, "which are a bar against all continental "circulation.But, let us suppose this "obstacle removed, and considering Am"sterdam as the emporium of continental " merchandize, let us see what a Dutch "merchant will do who is desirous of send"ing cloth into Asia Minor, and of receiv "ing cotton in return. He will certainly "be able to embark his cloths upon the "Zuyder Zee, and, always protected by "the Isles, will carry them into the Weser, "where he will have to transport-them three "posts by land, which will bring him to "Bremer-Forden, whence, in the way. "above-mentioned, he will carry his cloths 66 to Brzesc, ever on streams as easy to as"scend as to descend.- -At Brzese he "will find a canal begun, and, for the pre

sent, a short passage by land, which will "bring the wares into the Prypec, and "from thence into the Dnieper, If the "Dutch merchant wishes that his cargoes of "cloth should avoid the passage of the ca"taracts, he will have a further land-car-'. riage of some leagues: then the cloth. "will have only to traverse the Black Sea, "and go to Trebisonde. The return of ? "cotton may be made in the same way; or, "should the Dutch merchant prefer it, he "will find at Odessa waggons belonging to "the peasants of the Ukraine, which re"turn empty, which will perhaps cost less "than the vessels, and which will carry his " merchandize to Brzesc. - Should the

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same Dutch merchant be desirous to trans"port his cloth into Persia, and join to it "the opium of Asia Minor, he will cause "it to ascend the Don up to Zarizyn: there "he will find a land-carriage much employ

ed, which will cost his goods not more "than at the rate of three kopecks each poud. He will go into the Volga, and "thence into the Caspian Sea. Mr. "Cobbett says, "We hold the keys of "China;" but this expression is not true "in respect to Russia. Russia not only has "commerce with China, but this commerce "would be susceptible of a great extension,

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"were Russia to transmit piastres, as other "nations do. A thousand piastres would "cost but six roubles to transport, and the returns would be made by water; for "the Selinga is navigable even to the "frontiers of China. It may be descend"ed as far as the lake Raykal, where "the Argoun is entered, and thence in "the Jenissey to Jenniseysk, where there is a land-carriage of 100 wersts to Ket; and by that river, the Irtis and the Tobol, the "frontiers of European Russia are reached. "This road is much used. Thus among "the nations of the globe, there are inany "communications altogether independent "of the ocean Let us now enquire "what are the articles of merchandize "which might be made tenfold dearer at "the good pleasure of the Lords of the "Ocean. Let us begin with coffee. All "who have been at Venice these ten years or more, know that nothing is drunk there "but the coffee of Arabia; dearer, it is true, than the coffee of the Islands, but it "also pays an enormous contribution to the "Beys of Egypt. Passing by Aleppo, Or fa, Ergerom, and taking the road of Suez "to Trebizonde, it would amount to 1,200 wersts. Besides, the coffee which is "bought at St. Petersburgh goes by land to "the extremities of the empire without be"ing much dearer to the last consumer; "and the carriage on the back of camels is "not in general dear. It results, therefore, "that in Russia, Arabian coffee might be

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had at the price for which it was had at "Venice. Sugar is unquestionably the "article, in respect to which Mr. Cobbett

nearest being in the right; and in fact he is in the right altogether as things are 66 now; but this state of things may very easily be changed, by a free and sure "communication with the Indus, in order "to attain which, nothing is wanting but "the consent of the Persians and Afgans. In "fact, the English have no establishment on "the Indus, which belongs to the indepen"dent Raja of Tatta. Our Tartars of Orembourg, who sometimes proceed so far, agree in saying that the price of sugar on "the Indus is below what would be ima

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cepted, there are few Asiatic articles "which cannot in time be brought into Eu

rope through Russia, and this Russia itself "is, during half the year, an ocean, being " covered with water in the form of snow. "All the horses which cannot then be employed in the labours of husbandry, may "be used in the transport of goods, and that "at a very cheap rate. In summer; num"berless rivers, bearing their waters into "the Volga and the Caspian Sea, shew Rus"sians the direction they ought to give to "their activity.It is beyond a doubt, "that England consumes for its marine a

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great mass of products, and has hitherto "given Russia advantages which she can 66 expect from no other commercial nation; "but if the menace of Mr. Cobbett were "put into execution, Russia, though she "might lose at first, would perhaps be a "gainer in the end.". Now (addressing myself to this foreign editor), first of all you suppose, Sir, the toll duties of Germany removed, in order that Russia may receive her cloth from Holland; but, how are they to be removed? By the power of Napoleon, I suppose; for the Emperor of Russia will not be permitted to meddle in the affairs of Germany; and, for whatever good Napoleon does Russia in this way, it is not to be doubted, that, in some way or other, he will receive an equivalent; so that, upon the sup position that it is possible for Russia to receive her clothing through Amsterdam, this equivalent will have been something forced from her by the maritime power of England. But, have you really considered the cost of transporting heavy and bulky goods two thousand miles by canals, and, in part, land carriage? I can know nothing of the prices of carriage of this sort upon the continent of Europe; but, I am able to come at a pretty correct judgment by comparing the canal and land charges here with the charge of sea freight. The expence of conveying goods by the canal from Liverpool to London, a distance of 200 miles, is more than half as much as that of conveying the same goods from Philadelphia to Liverpool; and, a land carriage of 60 miles, in England, is equal in expence to this canal carriage of 200 miles. Now, Sir, I am not easily to be made believe, that either the canals or the roads between Amsterdam and Petersburgh are bet. ter than they are in England; I am satisfied, that the risk, including damage in lading and unlading, is as great, if not greater, inland than by sea; and though labour may posi tively be cheaper upon the continent than it is here, relatively it cannot be cheaper, for labour, in all its branches, will bear an exact

we shall, by the use of our maritime power, prevent you from receiving any from America. The coffee, which you are to re. ceive from Arabia, may be better than that of the West Indies; but, that you will be able to drink it as cheap as it is drunk at Venice, appears to me quite incomprehensible. You admit, that, in its way to the confines of Russia it must experience a land carriage of 1,200 wersts, or 900 English miles; and, supposing you had camels to carry, which, according to your account, cost nothing to keep, the drivers, I presume, would cost something. But, you have no camels there. The carriage, over the 990 miles must be by the means of horses, and, unless the roads in that country are much better than they are in England (which is not very probable, I think), each pound of coffee would, in this part of the carriage alone, receive ลก additional cost of one shilling and sixpence sterling. In short, what with carriage, damage, loss and waste, coffee, at St. Petersburgh, brought from Arabia, would be nearly as dear as gold-dust.--I am not, observe, supposing, that it would be any injury to the people of Russia if the Freuchified part of the nation were to be totally deprived of coffee, which is of no real use to any body. But, the case is quite different with respect to cloth, and also with respect to sugar, which, though it can be done without, is not only useful, but is, in some cases, almost a necessary of life. I will say nothing about the prime cost of sugar on the Indus; I will suppose it to be got there for nothing; and that a disposition and ability to raise it and give it away would increase with the demand for it; and, then, my opinion is, that each pound of sugar would cost more than a guinea before it arrived at St. Petersburgh. Let the camels live upon the air, or upon nothing, and let them cost nothing to obtain, still camels must have drivers, and those drivers must have food and raiment; and, as to "all the horses of Russia" being employed during the winter in the transport of goods, what are the Russians to do for that fuel, which, during the winter months, they employ those horses in providing? Be assured, Sir, that the Russians as well as the English, keep as many horses as they want for their present purposes and no more. Besides, if the horses are sent upon long journeys from home, in winter, they must he well fed; there must be drivers here too, and they must be fed and cloathed for the journey; all which, it seems to me, you must have completely overlooked. The fact, indeed, that you state, relative to coffee, to wit, that it comes nearly

proportion in price; if canal carriage be cheap at Amsterdam, so will sea carriage; and, therefore, my comparison is quite a sufficient guide for my judgment. Supposing, then, your canal at Brzesc finished instead of begun, and allowing that those "streams," of which you speak, have the extraordinary quality of ascent as easy as the descent, you will find, I believe, that only one hundred miles of your inland carriage will amount to more than sea freight from Amsterdam to Petersburgh; I leave you to calculate what will be the relative amount of two (perhaps I should say three) thousand miles of inland land carriage. Besides, Sir, where are the people to come from to carry on this traffic; it would, I should suppose, require one half of the labouring population of the places, through which the goods would pass, to work the barges and waggons.As to the empty waggons, which the Dutch merchant would find at Odessa, the owners of them must be of a very singular taste, a taste quite peculiar to the farmers! of the Ukraine, if they will carry his goods for less than fifty times as much as it would cost to transport them the same distance in a ship. Of this trade between Holland and Asia Minor, however, it is not necessary to our purpose to say much; but I think there can be little doubt, that, if Russia were shut ont from the ocean, which we have it in our power to accomplish, her supply of woollen cloth would soon become such as to reduce her to the use of her furs, in which state her millions of subjects might, perhaps, be as happy as they now are; but, the change would, I am fully persuaded, give an entire new cast to her character as one of the great nations of Europe.- We do not, according to your opinion, hold the keys of China against Russia. Why, to be sure, China and Russia are joined by intervening lands. They are upon the same continent; and, if the lands join, as some contend, at the northern extremity of the world, and there be bat one continent, we do not, in this sense, hold the keys of the passage between Russia and Cape Horn; but, if we are able to prevent Russia from receiving any goods from China by sea, it appears to me that the keys are completely in our hands; for, as to the conveying of goods of bulk, eight or ten thousand English miles along rivers and through deserts, the notion is too ridiculous to be seriously entertained. Besides, it seems that Dollars are necessary in a traffic between Russia and China, and you recommend the transmitting of Dollars; but, where, in the case supposed, will you get the Dollers? You must dig them out of your snows; for,

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