had this list before us, we might be able to make a striking contrast between the grants to others for doing nothing and this objection to the paying of Mr. Palmer for what he really earned, and which is as much his due as the wages of a journeyman are his due on a Saturday night Mr. Palmer was a man of too much merit and spirit to profit in such a concern, engaged with such people. He should have learnt to lick spittle, and have drilled himself to crawl apon his belly. This he could not do: well, then, he should have kept his invention to himself. What has he obtained? A life of vexation, from which he might have been free. He has not the public to blame. They would cheerfully pay him, and save the money by the reduction of useless expenses. If he chose to have dealings with the itts, that is no fault of the public. They would rather pay him than pay pensions to Lady Auckland and the like: but, if he chose to confide in "the great man now no more," they are not answerable for it.

N. B. I have received a long letter, containing an eulogium on Mr. Coke, of Norfolk, and, as I have no objection to an eulogium of that gentleman, I shall insert. it in my next Number, if I have not room for it in this. If possible, it shall be inserted in this ; but if the indexes, &c. which must come into this number, do not leave room for it, I beg the writer to be assured, that no further delay shall take place. Botley, June 22, 1808.


SIR,-As a constant reader of your journal and a friend to truth, I request your insertion of the POSTCRIPT to a late pamphlet of Mr. Roscoe's, entitled, "Remarks on the Proposals made to Great Britain for opening Negociations for Peace in the Year 1807."I confidently rely upon your candour for insertion of this, as I think it only just, that the false insinuation of your correspondent should be contradicted in the same journal which gave it birth.-I am, Sir,-AN ADMIRER OF MR. Fox.-Newcastle upon Tyne, June, 8, 1908.


immediate friends of Mr. Fox have dis dained to take any public notice" of "the false assertions, and scandalous imputations to which I allude; and 1 can scarcely suppose that any of my readers require further evidence, than what is contained in Mr." Fox's letter, of a fact, with regard to which'his character and veracity are opposed to the malicions and wanton accusations which have been made against him. But that no possible doubt may hereafter remain as to this transaction, and for the entire refutation of these slanders, I think it incumbent upon me to state, from indisputable authority, that there exists evidence, in documents at the Alien Office, of the arrival at Gravesend, of the person named and described in Mr. Fox's letters; of his application from that place for an audience with Mr. Fox; of his private interview with that gentleman at his house in Arlington-street; of Mr. Fox's order, in the first instance, to send the Frenchman: out of the kingdom, and of his subsequent revocation of that order, in consequence of which the intended assassin was detained in custody three weeks, and was then embarked at Harwich, on board a vessel bound for Husum. When to these particulars it is added, that the person who accompanied the Frenchman to the interview with Mr. Fox, and who acted under his directions in the measures taken for sending him out of the kingdom, was Mr. Brooke, who yet holds the same situation in the Alien Office, as he did under the administration of Mr. Fox, I trust it will be wholly unnecessary for me to state any thing further in vindication of that distinguished character, against so malignant and foul a charge.

Perhaps there never was an instance of more gross and unfounded calumny than in a recent attempt to asperse the memory, and impeach the veracity of the late Mr. Fox, by insinuating that the proposal made to him respecting the assa sination of the French ruler, as related by him in his letter to M. Talleyrand, was a story fabricated by himself, for the purpose of bringing on a negociation with France.

The more

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]


SIR,As I am a constant reader of your Register, I believe there are few subjects that escape my observation: certainly, none of those which contain your sentiments. Although I may differ from you in opinion relative to some of them, yet I cannot avoid expressing my thanks for the pleasure and information I have frequently derived from your labours, and what in my mind is of vastly more importance than individual interest, the concern you take in the welfare of the community demands still more forcibly those thanks; being like yourself only anxious to behold the prosperity of my native land. If it be remarked by those who never will coincide with you, so long as you continue to speak the truth, that your personal attacks are often too severe, nay,

[ocr errors]

what they term unpardonable, your friends, Sir, will do you the justice to declare, that no one more readily contradicts an assertion which has been founded either in misrepresentation, or from not being perfectly acquainted with him concerning whom you are speaking. That rank or fortune should prove no shield to the degrading acts of those who are placed in elevated situations, I perfectly agree with you, and that such a mirror as your Register exists to afford to public characters the opportunity of seeing their faults and their vices, I consider a most fortunate circumstance for the people. But, Sir, as you appear desirous of taking for your motto that most admirable seny sence Nothing to extenuate nor set down aught in malice," I feel convinced you will be obliged to any of your readers, who will point out those mistakes you unintentionally may have committed; or, even if you should still retain your opinion, who in manly argument will differ from you in that opinion; leaving it to the public to correct or confirm the judgment of either,——On reading your Register of the 28th of May, I was greatly astonished at some remarks which were made on Mr. Coke of Norfolk, and if they were not positively addressed to him, his tenants, and to other gentlemen who have exerted every laudable endeavour to encourage industry, reward labour, 2nd promote the general good of the kingdom, they were evidently written with the intention of being applied to them, and solely to them. I shall not, Sir, at this time proceed to state to you the advantages which I consider have arisen from the formation of agricultural societies composed of the most learned men we can boast, and of the best practical, liberal, and enlightened cultivators of land: but, it is may wish to mention some of the most prominent traits in the character of Mr. Coke; that any false impression which may have been made on the minds of that part of your readers who do not know Mr. Coke, may hear that which with perfect truth is advanced in his praise. Thus, Sir, an opportunity will be afforded to you, and to them afterwards, to declare, whether or not they consider Mr. Coke to be deserving that public testimony of esteem the inhabitants of Norfolk have so long bestowed in electing hun their representative; whether or not he may be truly said to reign in the hearts of his tenants and his friends; whether or not he has deserved, although be never received, those marks of distinction conferred on many; although they were con spicnous for their enmity to patriotism-a horough contempt for the laws of the land

disregarding the interests of the people, and only shewing a desire to enrich them. selves at the expence of the country-First, Sir, considering Mr. Coke as an Agricultu rist, it will be necessary to recall the atten tion of your readers to the state of the county of Norfolk, previous to that gentleman's becoming the proprietor of the immense tracts of land he now possesses; and which, I believe, would have worn a very different aspect, bad any other person inherited them. The residence of Mr. Coke but a short period before was a barren spot; the lands around scarcely to be termed cultivated; the greatest part of the western district conspicuous for its growth of rye; the race of sheep such as disgraced the breeders of that animal; the farmers' men who imbibed all the system of the preceding century, and neither emulation nor encouragement prevailed. Although, when Mr. Coke became the sole manager of his property, it may justly be said, speaking figuratively, that the foundation stone of the fabric was laid, yet it was left to him to rear and complete the noble structure. More enraptured with the solid comforts of domestic life, than the transitory joys obtained in courts and palaces, Mr. Coke devoted his time to two of the most laudable pursuits which can engage the attention of man--the increase of his own property, and the happiness of those by whom he was surrounded. While other distinguished characters were lavish ing thousands and tens of thousands at the gaming table; on the turf; in empty parade; in disgusting masquerades and use. less routes; he was inviting to his house and courting the society of men, the most reput ted for their agricultural knowledge. He sought for the first breeders of stock of every description: he attended himself to the management and improvement of a flock of 4000 sheep; and the most ingenious manu. facturers of their produce were ever wel come guests at his hospitable board →→→ Mr. Coke's invaluable Library, thrown open to all his friends, contained every publication deserving the notice of the farmer; and the superior information which from such va rious sources he had derived, was disseminated on every occasion, and that at no small expence, if the printing works on tillage were alone considered. One day in every week was given up by himself and his family to oblige those that chose to examine his gardens, his nurseries, his parks, his farms, his numerous breeds of cattle, bisnewly invented implements of every description; and he added to this gratification of the visitors, by permitting them to enter

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

every room in his princely abode. Three day's were also annually appointed for general inspection, and for the sale or the letting of such stock, as on trial were found to be best adapted to the different soils of the kingdom; but more especially those in Norfolk, and to obtain this knowledge with the best mode of benefiting poor lands, five thou sand pounds were every year devoted. The motto which Mr. Coke chose was "LIVE AND LET LIVE;" and, determining to render his tenants independent yeomen, he granted long leases, and on such terms as he knew must induce them, for their own as well as his sake, to enhance the value of his estates. He erected them houses fit for the residence of gentlemen, and all the external buildings were not to be surpassed for convenience, Vast sums were expended by Mr. Coke in the purchase of the most elegant and costly pieces of plate given to stimulate industry; and, while the farmer himself with honest pride displayed such well earned prizes, he had the additional satisfaction of knowing that his arable land was become more productive; that his breeds of cattle, particularly his flocks, increased in number and in quality; and that his servants were rewarded because they were patterns of industry and integrity. His wife also had equal pride in shewing that the management of the concerns within doors was equal to that without, and her maids received public gifts for their good conduct, and the extraordinary produce of the dairy; as well as the shepherds for their fostering care of the lambs and the ewes. To the encouragement of Planting, Mr. Coke paid particular attention; especially to the growth of the oak for the use of the navy, where it could be raised; and in his own domain, amidst 800 acres of ornamental and profitable wood, is his mansion embosomed. With years of toil, and with a fortune which might have supported even princes, did Mr. Coke alter the face of a whole county. One hundred thousand acres of land were, by his exertions, brought into cultivation. The barley and turnip system was introduced, layers were regularly sown; and, in one of the largest districts, where before only rye was seen, astonishing breadths of the finest wheats were now aunually grown. This larger portion of the Sustenance of human life, supported the increasing population. Heaths hitherto barren, groaned for the sickle and the scythe; farm houses, and stack yards full of corn every where appeared; in a once desolate country riches in abundance met the gladdened eye, and the grateful mind naturally reverted to him who had effected so much


good, and conferred happiness and wealth, not only on individuals, but whole families and generations.-But, even then, Mr. Coke saw that one great evil still remained, an evil more to be dreaded in Norfolk than any county in England, from the lightness of the soil; this was the poverty of much of the uplands, and most of the low meadows and marshes. If the turnip crop failed, (the Norfolk farmer's great resource) what were they to do under these circumstances or, if substitutes were found, they must have been procured at a great expence. Mr. Coke had the mortification to find there were ninety thousand acres of land of this unprofitable description, and the value of great part of it entirely destroyed by constant inundations of the sea. Therefore, he first selected and brought to his house from a great distance, one of the most able engineers, who was also possessed of vast geological knowledge (Mr. William Smith, mineralogist); and in a short time, considering the magnitude of the concern, he recovered forty-five thousand acres from the power of the German ocean, whose raging tides had hitherto been deemed irre sistable to the efforts of human art and this mighty undertaking was accomplished for the small sum of little more than twa thousand pounds, and to effect which the lowest calculation delivered by those previously employed to estimate, and who were considered very capable to judge, from their official situations, amounted to near thirty-five thousand: and thus, through the means of Mr. Coke, in this single instance, a saving to the county of more than thirty thousand pounds was obtained. The same gentleman (Mr. Smith) was employed to render the boggy, gravelly, and useless lands on Mr. Coke's estates, more productives and, by drainage and irrigation, converting them into water-meadows, they were made more profitable than even the oldest and the best pastures. Mr. Coke, for this truly spirited example (which was immediately adopted by many landed proprietors to a considerable extent) was presented by the Board of Agriculture with the gold medal. Mr. Smith, for his masterly style in conducting such works, was honoured by the Society of Arts with a silver medal; and, for his book on this subject also publicly received the thanks of their members. That such astonishing and incredible improvements might the more rapidly spread throughout the county, Mra Coke, to induce his tenants and all other` occupiers of lands to unite with him in such labours, annually gave them massive vases of plate, and every liberal encouragement

Large tracts of stampy lands, where the men walked up to their knees' in water to mow off the rushes, were drained and fertilized even to the growing of corn. Some of a sterile and more boggy nature were made firm; and natural and artificial grasses enriched the soil: many which before would not bear a cow nor feed a sheep, yielded from two to three tons per acre, of most excellent food; exclusive of the large quantities of stock, maintained in the spring and the autumn'; and off others, immense crops of tares and pulse were harvested, which had been dibbled on the surface. It is likewise in contemplation, on a most judicious plan, to propose to open a navigation through the interior of the county, that a free communication may exist between the two principal seaports; or, at least, that it may be carried through part of the distance, where it does not now extend; and, which may easily be effected in a manner most beneficial to the inhabitants. Thus, the labour of man and beast is much decreased; the produce of the land greatly increased; agricultural implements improved, beyond description; and a brilliant example has been shewn, worthy the imitation of every landlord. But, sir, when at the annual festivity of the sheepshearing at Holkham, I behold thousands of people witnessing a scene that is NOT KNOWN ELSEWHERE, when I look around ine, and discover the most scientific men in the empire, assembled to give and to obtain information; when I see Mr. Coke's tenants are gentlemen of enlightened minds and liberal education; fellow labourers in the same vineyard-fit associates for such dignified characters, as the dukes * of Bedford, lord Thanet, lord Somerville, sir John Sinclair, M13 Arthur Young, &c. &c.; when I behold foreigners of the first rank from various parts of the world, and hear them exclaim, as I have, that we petty monarchs "of little states, could have formed no such

ideas: "when I see Mr. Coke at his table, surrounded by five hundred of such men as I have named, who LOOK UP TO HIM with a fervor of esteem and degree of veneration, which KINGS may ENVY, but do NOT OBTAIN. Why, then, if this, Mr. Cobbett, is, what you call "ambition," would to God that EVERY Englisman's bosom glowed with the SAME ambitious hopes; the same desire to be as much respected; and I should have no fear for England's safety! If such a mode of passing through life be called a proof of if little talents," happy, in my humble opinion, is he who possesses that 27 * Inbayi dukes as I wish to speak in the plural


DE DI 2917109,


little. If these men from whom this respect and love are obtained can be termed "knaves or fools," for expressing their estimation of such a patriot, why then, proud may they be on this occasion, to merit the title of either the one or the other.-On this subject, I could add a great deal more, but, less I could not well say. Relative to Mr. Coke's political conduct; has he not always been consistent? What was it during the American war? Did he not then receive the thanks of the county, for his patriotic proceedings? Pursue him through the whole career of his parliamentary duties, and say, where he has been inconsistent, Neither titles nor pomp nor power, could ever purchase HIS integrity; and the glittering useless baubles of state sycophancy have been neglected for the more estimable, and more lasting treasures of GENERAL admitation, and UNIVERSAL esteem. As a husband, a fa, ther, a master, a landlord, and a friend, it is needless for me to say any thing in Mr. Coke's favour. Point out to me such another man, considered in those various public and private views in which his character is to be regarded; and I will then admit, that the kingdom contains two persons, one of whom alone I believed to exist.-Having, Sir, mere ly fulfilled what I thought was my duty, (as a member of that society of which Mr. Coke WAS SOLICITED to be the president), in stating my ideas, why I considered the attack on him UNMERITED, particularly by so public a writer, I trust you will excuse me for having engaged so much of your va luable time; but, weak indeed must be that cause which does not posses an advocate, and truly degenerate that fraternity, amongst whom not one appears to vindicate the dig nified, consistent, and manly conduct of their patron.THOMAS ROPE.-Lakenham Cottage, Norwich, June 9, 1808. f a heft


SIR-I am sorry to see that your late contests with the land-owners and farmers has led you to attempt the defence of the present mode of taking tithes. I think that even all your powers of argument will be unable to convince disinterested men, that they are not, under the present system, a great bar to improvements in agriculture, and render many of the clergy odious in the eyes of numbers, who, under other circumstances, would be friends to the established church; and I should suppose that the clergy would very readily agree to a fair commuta tion, except a few whose thirst for domination over their parishioners is stronger than their desire of being respected by them.


more of hay or corn than it would do with out it, and when produced, the tithing-man was to come and take a tenth of fit,t thus causing you to lose 2 instead of gaining £8: whether you would lay out your capital, or remain content with the "natural produce" of your farm? Your answer to this question will oblige A FRIEND TO LIBERAL-MINDED AGRICULTURISTS.-Narlon, near Alalton, June 9th, 1808.


P. S. The land-owners and farmers are certainly very much alarmed, lest their interests should suffer by stopping the distillation from corn, but I think you have clearly shewn the fallaciousness of their arguments; certainly, barley and oats are as high now as they can desire them to be; but, I suppose their opposition to it arose from the same liberality of sentiment which made "Pitt and "War" such a favourite toast at the farmers' market dinners, because we fortunately had some bad harvests during his administration, and the same cause makes them now so strenuously argue, that we ought not to make peace so long as Buonaparte reigns; some of the less cunning acknowledge, that they think peace would lower the price of corn! They are a good deal like the electors of Honiton, whose patriotism you have sketched so naturally, and much resemble the independent burgesses, of a place that I could name, who have made so much noise lately, about their loyalty, and who have so nobly proved their principles by ex tolling those who have given them a guinea and half-a-crown for a vote, and degrading those who only gave them half-a-guinea,


That tithes are not the rightful property, by long custom, of those to whom they are due, few, if any,. I believe will deny ; but that they are not a greater hardship than a rent, when collected in kind, or an advanced money-payment demanded for them when the produce is increased by superior management, you are very far from proving. If rents were taken in kind, do you think agriculture would flourish as it does? ask those who have seen the Metayers' farms in France. In those parishes where the tithes are impropriate, the clergyman is far more likely to be beloved by his flock, but they are no less a bar to agricultural improvements. If the tithes were appropriated to the purposes for which they were originally given; namely, one part to the bishop, another to the repairing of churches, another for the support of the poor, and the remainder for the support of the clergyman, perhaps the "sect of cultivators" would not so loudly complain of their hardship, and we, should not so often hear of country churches becoming so ruinous as to be dangerous to celebrate divine worship in, and that the parishioners are wholly unable to repair them, "being chiefly tenants at rack rent, and greatly burthened with poor!"-You ask, "for what should new enclosures be exempted from the payment of tithes, for some years at least ?" For what? Because the owner or occupier ought to have the expense of enclosing fully repaid, before the tithe owner ought to touch the produce. In strict justice he ought never to have more than a tenth part of the profit which the land yielded in its natural state, and neither the church nor the poor could justly complain of being robbed. If a man encloses, and brings into cultivation the lands of another, he either has it rent free, or at a low one until it repays him, and if you had had any experience in inclosing, you would know it is not done, but at a very considerable expense, sometimes greater than lands even tithe-free ever repay. But it appears you are not acquainted with the practice of agriculture, or you would know that where manure is to be sold, and lands tithe free, and lands from which they are rigidly taken, are equally situated for receiving it, that far the greater part of it will be applied to the former, and thus "the church and the poor would be robbed.' will ask you, Sir, if you were a hard-working farmer, and could, at the expense of ninety-two pounds, and a good deal of toil and labour, procure as much dung, road-scrapings, waste earth, &c. as would make your farm produce a hundred pounds' worth


[ocr errors]

STIPENDIARY CURATES' BILL." SIR, However different the following sentiments, on the principle of the stipendiary curates' bill, now pending in parliament, may be from those which have been hither to expressed by you, or your correspondents, I trust to your impartiality to allow of their appearance in your Register.So far as the bill is expressive of a wish to ameliorate the condition of curates, it has my most unfeigned approbation. But, this approbation is confined to the wish; and it is mingled with the sincerest regret, that the means intended to accomplish that wish, are not only inadequate to their object, but that they are likely, also, to prove injurious to the publick good, so far as the general con dition and intinence of the great body of the clergy are concerned.I shall, in a few words, endeavour to explain these objections to the bill-First the means intended to accomplish the wish of the bill to improve the condition of curates, are inadequate to

« ElőzőTovább »