4 Later ones shew the Church advanced, St. Paul's love to all.


ROM. date of the Epistles contributes no little to what we are looking Argum. after. For when I see him writing to the Romans and to the Colossians about the same subjects, and yet not in a like way about the same subjects; but to the former with much condescension, as when he says, Him that is weak in the faith receive, but not to doubtful disputations: for one believeth that he may eat all things, another, who is weak, eateth herbs; but to the Colossians he does not write in this way, though about the same things, Col. 2, but with greater boldness of speech: Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ, he says, from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances, (touch not, taste not, handle not,) which all are to perish with the using, not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh. I find no other reason for this difference than the time of the transaction. For at the first it was needful to be condescending, but afterwards it became no more so. And in many other places one may find him doing this. Thus both the physician and the teacher are used to do. For neither does the physician treat alike both those who are in the first stage of a disorder and those who are come to the point of having health thenceforward, nor the teacher those children who are beginning to learn and those who want more advanced subjects of instruction. Now to the rest he was moved to write by some particular cause and subject, and this he shews, as when he says to the Corinthians, Touching those things whereof ye wrote unto me; and to the Galatians too from the very commencement of the whole Epistle writes so as to indicate the same thing; but to these for what purpose and wherefore does he write? For one finds him bearing testimony to them that they are full of goodness, being filled with all knowledge, and able also to admonish others. Why then does he write to them? Because of the grace of God, 15, 15. he says, which is given unto me, that I should be the minister of Rom. 1, Jesus Christ; wherefore also he says in the beginning: I am a debtor; as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the Gospel to you that are at Rome also; for what is said—as that they are able to exhort others also-and the like, rather belongs to encomium and encouragement: and the correction afforded by means of a letter, was needful even for these; for since he had not yet been present, he bringeth the men to good order in two ways, both by the profitableness of his letter and by the expectation of his presence. For such was that holy soul, it comprised the whole world and carried about all men in itself, thinking the nearest relationship to be that in God. And he loved them so, as if he had begotten them all, or rather shewed for them all' a greater


14. 15.

Rom. 14, 1.

1 Cor. 7, 1.

Rom. 14, 15.

I so 4

No excuse for not imitating him in edifying others.



4 Mss.


11, 6.

instinctive affection than any father; for such is the grace of the 1a father Spirit, it exceedeth the pangs of the flesh, and displays a more ardent longing than theirs. And this one may see specially in the soul of Paul, who having as it were become winged through love, went continually round to all, abiding no where nor standing still. For since he had heard Christ saying, Peter, lovest thou John 21, Me? feed My sheep; and setting forth this as the greatest test of 15. love, he displayed it in a very high degree. Let us then, zealously aiming at the same, each one bring into order, if not the world, or not entire cities and nations, yet at all events his own house, his wife, his children, his friends, his neighbours. And let no one say to me, I am unskilled and unlearned:' nothing were less instructed than Peter, nothing more rude than Paul, and this himself confesseth, and was not ashamed to say, though I be rude 2 Cor. in speech, yet not in knowledge. Yet nevertheless this rude one, and that unlearned man, overcame countless philosophers, stopped the mouths of countless orators, and did all by their own ready mind and the grace of God. What excuse then shall we have, if we are not equal to twenty names, and are not even of service to them that live with us. This is but a pretence and an excuse— for it is not want of learning or of instruction which hindereth our teaching, but drowsiness and sleep. Let us then having shaken off this sleep with all diligence cleave to our own members, that we may even here enjoy much calm, by ordering in the fear of God them that are akin to us, and hereafter may partake of countless blessings through the grace and love of our Lord Jesus Christ towards man, through Whom, and with Whom, be glory to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, now, and evermore, and to all ages. Amen.


ROM. i. 1, 2.


HOMIL. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an Apostle, separated unto the Gospel of God, (which He had promised afore by His prophets in the Holy Scriptures.)

MOSES having written five books, has no where put his own name to them, neither have they who after him put together the history of events after him, no nor yet has Matthew, nor John, nor Mark, nor Luke; but the blessed Paul in every part of his Epistles sets his own name. Now why was this? Because they were writing to people who were present, and it had been superfluous to shew themselves when they were present. But this man sent his writings from afar and in the form of a letter, for which cause also the addition of the name was necessary. But if in the Epistle to the Hebrews he does not do the same, this too is after his own wise judgment. For since they felt prejudiced against him, lest on hearing the name at the outstart, they should stop up all admission to his discourse, he subtly won their attention by concealing the name. But if Prophets and Solomon have put their names, this I leave as a subject for you to look further into hereafter, why some of them wished to put it so, and some not. For you are not to learn every thing from me, but to take pains yourselves also and enquire further, lest ye become more dull-witted.

Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ. Why did God change his name, and call him Paul, who was Saul? It was, that he Mark 3, might not even in this respect come short of the Apostles,


but that that preeminence which the chief of the Apostles had, he might also acquire; and have whereon to ground

in every one of his Epistles prefixes (Savile).

b One Ms. But the Prophets, another, But if some Prophets.

St. Paul a servant.

Names of Christ. Unction. Calling. 7



a closer union with them. And he calls himself, the servant Roм. of Christ, yet not merely this; for there be many sorts of servitude. One owing to the Creation, according to which it says, for all are Thy servants; and according to which it Ps. 119, says, Nebuchadnezzar My servant, for the work is the Jer. 25, servant of Him which made it. Another kind is that from 9. the faith, of which it saith, But God be thanked that ye Rom. 6, were the servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered unto you: being then made free from sin, ye became the servants of righteousness. Another is that from conversation, after which it saith, Moses My servant is dead; and indeed all the Jews were Jos. 1,2. servants, but Moses in a special way as shining most brightly in his conversation. Since then, in all the forms of servitude, Paul was a servant, this he puts in the room of the greatest title of dignity, saying, a servant of Jesus Christ. And the Names appertaining to the dispensation he sets forth, going on upwards from the lowest. For with the Name Jesus, did the Angel come from Heaven when He was conceived of the Virgin, and Christ He is called from being anointed, which could only belong to the flesh. And with what oil, it may be asked, was He anointed? It was not with oil that He was anointed, but with the Spirit. And Scripture has instances of calling such Christs': inasmuch as the Spirit is the chief point in the unction, and that for which the oil is used. And where does it call those Christs' who are not anointed with oil? Where it says, touch not Mine anointed, and do Ps. 105, My prophets no harm. For at that time the institution of anointing with oil did not exist even.




Called an Apostle. He styles himself called in all his Epistles, so shewing his own candour', and that it was not siyaof his own seeking that he found, but that when called μúv he came near and obeyed. And the faithful, he styles, called to be saints, for they had been called so far as to be believers; but he had besides a different thing committed to his hands, namely, the Apostleship, a thing full of countless blessings, and at once greater than and comprehensive of, all the gifts.

And what more need one to say of it, than that whatsoever

oixovouías, viz. the concealment of His glory in the Incarnation.

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8 Apostles in Christ's stead. The Father revealed in the Gospel.



HOMIL. Christ was doing when present, this He committed to their hands when He departed. Which also Paul cries aloud, speaking thereof and magnifying the dignity of the Apostles' 2 Cor. 5, office; We are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech by us; i. e. in Christ's stead. Separated to the Gospel of God. As in a house, each one is set apart for divers works; thus also in the Church, there be divers distributions of ministrations. And herein he seems to me to hint, that he was not appointed by lot only, but that of old and from the first he was ordained to this office; which also Jeremy saith, that God spake concerning himself, Jer. 1,5. Before thou camest forth out of the womb, I sanctified thee, I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations. For in that he was writing to a vainglorious city, and one every way puffed up, he therefore uses every mode of shewing that his election was of God. For He Himself called Him, and Himself separated him. And he does this, that he may make the Epistle deserve credit, and meet an easy reception. To the Gospel of God. Not Matthew then alone is an Evangelist, nor Mark, as neither was this man alone an Apostle, but they also; even if he be said preeminently to be this, and they that. And he calleth it the Gospel, not for those good things only which have been brought to pass, but also for those which are to come. And how comes he to say, that the Gospel of God is preached by himself? for he says, separated to the Gospel of God. Now the Father was manifest even before the Gospels. Yet even if He were manifest, it was to the Jews only, and not even to all of these as were fitting. For neither did they know Him to be a Father, and many things did they conceive unworthily John 4, of Him. Wherefore also Christ saith, The true worshippers shall come, and that the Father seeketh such to worship Him. But it was afterwards that He Himself with the Son was manifested' to the whole world, which Christ also spake of beforehand, and said, that they might know Thee John 17, the only true God, and Jesus Christ Whom Thou hast sent.


1 unveiled 4 Mss.


But he calls it the Gospel of God, to cheer the hearer at the outstart. For he came not with tidings to make the countenance sad, as did the prophets, with their accusations, and charges, and reproofs, but with glad tidings, even the

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