Pride aggravates sin. Its cause the want of love.

HOMIL. Ver. 29. Being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness.


See how every thing here is intensitive. For he says, being filled, and with all, and having named vice in general, he also further pursues the particulars, and these too in excess, saying, Full of envy, murder, for the latter of these comes from the former, as was shewn in Abel's case and Joseph's, and then after saying, debate, deceit, malignity;

5, 2.

Ver. 30. Whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, despiteful. Then by classing the things which to many seem indifferent among his charges, he further strengthens his accusation, going up to the stronghold of their wickednesses, and styles them boasters. For even worse than sinning is it, even though sinning to be haughty-minded. Wherefore also he charges the Corinthians with it, saying, 1 Cor. Ye are puffed up. For if in a good action he that puffs himself up loseth all, if any one do so among his sins, what vengeance is there of which he is not worthy, since such an one can not repent any more? Next, he says, inventors of evil things; shewing that they were not content with those already existing, but even invented others. And this again is like men that are full purposed and in earnest, not those that are hurried away and forced out of their course; and after particularizing their wickedness, and shewing that here too they stood against nature itself, (for he says, disobedient to parents,) he then goes on to the root of the pestilence, calling them,

Ver. 31. Without natural affection, implacable.

For this Christ Himself also pronounces to be the cause Mat, 24, of wickedness, saying, When iniquity shall abound, the love



of many shall wax cold. This too St. Paul here says, calling them covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful, and shewing that they were traitors even to the gift of nature. For we have a sort of family feeling even by nature towards one another, which even beasts have Ecclus. got towards each other. For every beast, it says, loveth his 13, 15. bike, and every man his neighbour. But these became more ferocious even than they. The disorder then which resulted to the world by evil doctrines, he proves to us by these witnesses, and clearly shews that the malady in either case

Men's approving sin shews that it is wilful.


1, 32.

came of the negligence of them that were disordered. He Roм. shews besides, what he did in the case of the doctrines, that they were here also deprived of all excuse; and so he says,

1 so 4


selves do

Ver. 32. Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same1, but have pleasure in them that do them. Having assumed two objections, he then in the first place s. themremoves them. For what reason have you to he say, means, that you knew not the things which ought to be done? At best, if you did not know, you are to blame in having left God who had instructed you. But now by many arguments we have shewn that you did know, and transgressed willingly. But are you drawn by passion? Why then do you both cooperate therewith and praise it? For they not only do such things, he says, but have pleasure in them that do them. Having then put the more grievous and the unpardonable sin first, that he might have done with it; (for he that praiseth the sin is far worse than even he that trespasseth;) having then put this the first, he by this method grapples more powerfully with him in the sequel, speaking on this wise.

Chap. II. ver. 1. Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man; whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself.

These things he says, with an aim at the rulers, inasmuch as that city then had the rule of the world put into its hands. He anticipated them therefore by saying, Thou art depriving thyself of defence, whoever thou mayest be; for when thou condemnest an adulterer, and thyself committest adultery, and no man condemneth thee, in thy judgment upon the guilty person thou hast also passed sentence against thyself.

Ver. 2. For we are sure that the judgment of God is ye according to truth against them who commit such things.


For lest any should say, until now I have escaped, to

b5 Mss. although. From the specimens given hitherto it will be seen in some measure how many various readings the Mss. supply, though many are omitted, or do not alter the translation: in

future those only will be noticed which
seem to affect the sense, and the text
of Savile will be followed, except where
another reading is clearly preferable.


Men judging others condemn their own sins.

HOMIL. make him afraid, he says, that it is not so with God as it is V. here. For here one is punished, and another escapes while Theat.et doing the same thing. But hereafter it is not so. That he

I Plato in

that judgeth then knoweth the right, he has said: but whence he knoweth it, he hath not added; for it was superfluous. For in the case of ungodliness, he shews both that the ungodly was so even with a knowledge of God, and also whence he got that knowledge, namely, from the Creation. For inasmuch as it was not plain to all, he gave the cause also: but here he passes it over as a thing admitted. But when he says, whosoever thou art that judgest, he is not addressing himself to the rulers only, but to private individuals and subjects also. For all men, even if they have no chair of state, nor officials, nor stocks at command, yet even they judge those that offend in conversations and public 2 Gr. meetings 2, and by the vote of their conscience. And no one would venture to say, that the adulterer does not deserve γοις punishment, but it is others, he says, they condemn, and not -ισμοῖς themselves, and for this cause he stands forth vehemently or and against them, and says,

κοινοῖς συλλό.

S. mar.


Ver. 3. And thinkest thou this1, O man, that judgest those which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?

For since he had shewn the sin of the world to be great, from its doctrines, from its doings, and that they did yet sin though wise, and though they had the creation to lead them by the hand, and not by leaving God only, but also by choosing the images of creating things, and by their desert


g, in spite of nature's drawings back, to the service of vice even contrary to nature; he goes on next to shew, that they who do such things are punished too. He did indeed at once point out a punishment by mentioning their very practice. For they receive, he says, in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. But as they do not perceive that, he mentions another also, which they stood most in fear of. And indeed already he chiefly pointed at this. For when he says, That the judgment of God is according to truth, he is speaking of no other than this.


4 4 Mss. om. this

e 4 Mss. καίτοι for καὶ τῷ and οὖσαν for εἶναι.

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Much more will God judge what man condemns.

and not

But he establishes the same again upon other further ROM. 2, 4. grounds, saying thus, And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God? Thou hast not been acquitted of thine own judgment, and wilt thou escape through God's? Who indeed would say this? And yet thou hast judged thyself'. But since the rigorousness of1 3 Mss. the judgment-court was such, and thou wert not able to been acspare even thyself, how should not God that cannot do quitted. amiss, and who is in the highest sense just, be much surer to do the same? But hast thou condemned thyself, and is God to approve of thee and praise thee? And how can this be reasonable? And all the while thou art highly deserving of a greater punishment, than he who is of thee condemned. For sinning merely, is not the same thing with falling again into the same sins you have chastised another for committing. See, how he has strengthened the charge? For if you, he means, punish a person, who has committed less sins, and yet are going to disgrace yourself, how shall not God cast. you in your guilt, and condemn you more severely, as you commit the greater transgressions, and this too when He will never dishonour Himself, and you are already condemned by your own decisions. But if thou say, I know that I deserve punishment; yet through His long-suffering think slightingly of it, and art confident because thou dost not suffer punishment forthwith; this is a reason why thou oughtest to be afraid and tremble. For the fact that thou hast not yet suffered punishment, will not result in thy not. suffering any punishment, but in thy suffering a more severe one if thou abidest unamended". And so he goes on


to say:

Ver. 4. Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness and

d Sav. οὐ γὰρ [εἰς τὸ] μὴ δοῦναι [δίκην, ἀλλ ̓ εἰς τὸ δοῦναι] χαλεπωτέραν εἰ μένεις ἀδιόρθωτος ὧν. ἀναβάλλεται. ὃ μηδέποτε rubosraica. Ben. only adopt Savile's conjecture außhentai, as if from Mss. @ Mes. read εἰ μένεις ἀδιόρθωτος ὧν τὸ μηdira diūra; ovμßnerai ro. One of them omits the words in brackets. Savile's text would be, for it is not that thou shouldest not suffer any punishment,

but that thou mayest suffer a worse if
thou abidest unreformed, that He de-
layeth, which shall never befal thee.
[Ben. which may it never befal thee.]
But the sense of the Mss. is better, and
their joint authority above that of
Savile's text, especially in a suspected
passage. See Brit. Crit. Apr. 1841,
p. 346.

Present forbearance proves future judgment.

HOMIL. forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?


For after praising God's longsuffering, and shewing the gain thereof to be very great to them that heeded it, and this was the drawing sinners to repentance; he adds to the terror. For as to them, who avail themselves of it aright, it is a ground of safety; so to them that slight it, it is conducive to a greater vengeance. For this is the notion that goes about, that God doth not exact justice, because He is good and longsuffering! But in saying this, he would answer, you do but mention what will make the vengeance intenser. For God sheweth this goodness that you may get free from your sins, not that you may add to them. If then thou make not this use thereof, the judgment will be more fearful. Wherefore it is a chief ground for abstaining from sin, that God is longsuffering, and not for making the benefit a plea for obstinacy. For if He be longsuffering, He most certainly punisheth. Whence does this appear? from what is next said. For if the wickedness be great and the wicked have not been requited, it is absolutely necessary that they should be requited. For if men do not overlook these things, how should God make an oversight? And so from this point he introduces the subject of the judgment. For the fact of shewing that many who, if they repent not, - are liable, yet still are not punished here, implies' with it necessarily the judgment, and that with increase. Wherefore he says,

Ver. 5. But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath.

For when a man is neither to be softened by goodness nor to be turned back by fear, what can be harder than such an one. For since he had shewed the goodness of God toward 2 5 Mss. man, he next shews that' His vengeance is unbearable for

om. he shews that

one who is not to be turned to Him even by these means.
And observe, with what propriety He uses the words! Thou
treasurest up unto thyself wrath, he says, so making it plain
what is certainly laid up, and shewing that it is not He that
judgeth, but he that is condemned, who is the author of this.
For he says, thou treasurest up for thyself, not God for thee.
For He did all, whatsoever things were fitting, and created


IS. yu Mss.



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