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Different rewards of Apostles and other Saints.
Homil. some by the name of Brethren, some by the appellation of XXXI.
Saints. And some he honours by the mere fact of addressing them, and some by addressing them by name, and some by calling them first-fruits, and some by their precedence in time,
but more than all, Priscilla and Aquila'. For even if all πιρί Πρ. :
were believers, still all were not alike, but were different in their merits. Wherefore to lead them all to greater virtue, he keeps no man's encomiums concealed. For when they who do more, do not receive the greater reward also, many become more listless. On this ground even in the kingdom, the honours are not equal, nor among the disciples were all alike, but the three' were preeminent above the rest. And among these three again there was a great difference. For
there is a very exact method observed by God even to the 1 Cor. 1, last. Hence, one star differeth from another star in glory,
it says. And yet all were Apostles, and all were to sit on twelve thrones“, and all left their goods, and all companied
with Him; still it was the three He took. And again, to ? lyxw. these very three, He said it was possible that some might prav
even be superior. For to sit, He says, on My right hand and on My left, is not Mine to give, save to those for whom it
is prepared. And He sets Peter before them, when He says, John21, Lovest thou Me more than these? And John too was loved
even above the rest. For there shall be a strict examination
Where then are they who with all this great exactness in view, yet will not allow that there is a hell. For if all the righteous are not to enjoy the same lot, if they exceed others even a little, (for one star, it says, differeth from
9 for doi would bear to be rendered beginning of judgment was manifested. they often.'
For then a new world was made mani. ri. e. Peter, James, and John. fest. For then was power given them
s See Macarius, Hom. vi. v. fin. 'So to sit and judge in this world. How. then many that were taught by Peter, ever, they will sit and give judgment came to repentance, and formed a new at the coming of the Lord, in the resurworld, elect of God. You see how a rection of the dead.
Known rewards and punishments indicate the future. 495
another star in glory,) how are sinners to be in the same lot Rom.
16, 16. with the righteous ? Such a confusion as this even would not make, much less God! But if ye will, I will shew you that even in the case of sinners, arguing from existing facts, there is this distinction, and exact just judgment. Now consider; Adam sinned, and Eve sinned, and both transgressed, yet they were not equally sinful. And therefore neither were they equally punished. For the difference was so great, that Paul said, Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression'. And yet the deceit was one. But still God's searching examination pointed out a difference so great, as that Paul should make this assertion. Again, Cain was punished, but Lamech, who committed a murder after him, did not suffer near so great a punishment. And yet this was a murder, and that was a murder, and that so much the worse, because even by the example he had not become the better. But since the one neither killed his brother after exhortation, nor needed an accuser, nor shrunk from answering when God questioned him, but even without any accuser both pleaded against himself, and condemned himself", he obtained pardon. But the other as having done the opposite was punished. See with what exactness God sifteth the facts. For this reason He punished those in the flood in one way, and those in Sodom in another; and the Israelites again, and those in Babylon, and those in Antiochus' time, in different ways: so shewing that He keeps a strict account of our doings. And these were slaves for seventy years, and those for four hundred, but others again ate their children, and underwent countless other more grievous calamities, and even in this way were not freed, either they or those that were burnt alive in Sodom. For it shall be more tolerable, He Mat. 10, says, for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha, than for that 15. city. For if He hath no care for us, either when we sin or when we do aright, perhaps there will be some reason in saying that there is no punishment. But since He is so exceedingly urgent about our not sinning, and adopts so
! 1 Tim. 2, 14. whence it appears they were capable of being turned to that St. C. looked upon the pains of good. see Gen. 3, 16. childbirth as a punishment, though u Mar, adds more severely.'
496 None deny hell but those who fear the thought. Homil. many means to keep us in the right, it is very plain that XXXI.
He punisheth the wicked, and also crowneth those that do right. But let me beg you to consider the unfairness of the generality. For they find fault with God because He is so often long-suffering, overlooks so many that are impious, impure, or violent, without now suffering punishment. Again, if he threaten to punish them in the other world, they are vehement and pressing in their accusations. And yet if this be painful, they ought to accept and admire the other. But alas the folly! the unreasonable and asinine spirit! alas the sin-loving, pleasure-loving soul, that gazes after vice! For it is from the love of pleasure that all these opinions have their birth. And so if they who utter these things should be minded to lay hold upon virtue, they will presently find themselves satisfied concerning hell also, and will not doubt. And where it is said) and in what place is this hell? For some fablers say that it is in the valley of Josaphat, thus drawing that which was said about a certain by-gone war, to apply to hell. But the Scripture does not say this. But in what place, pray, will it be? Somewhere as I think at least quite out of the pale of this world. For as the prisons and mines are at a great distance from royal residences, so will hell be somewhere out of this world. Seek we not then to know where it is, but how we may escape it. Neither yet because God doth not punish all here, therefore disbelieve things to come.
For merciful and longsuffering He is: that is why He threatens, and does not cast us into Ez. 18, it forthwith. For I desire not, He says, the death of a
sinner. But if there is no death of a sinner, the words are
but idle. And I know indeed that there is nothing less pleasant Iso mar. to you than these words. But to me nothing is of higher value?. Sav.
And would it were possible at our dinner, and our supper, pleasanter and our baths, and every where, to be discoursing about hell.
For we should not then feel the pain at the evils in this world, nor the pleasure of its good things. For what would you tell me was an evil? poverty ? disease ? captivity? maiming of the body? Why all these things are sport compared to the punishment there, even should you speak of
* Joel 3, 2. which is however a type of the last judgment.
Tr. conj. and Ben. from Mss. Baris iwr.
If Hell is for unbelievers, much more for bad Christians. 497 those who are tormented with famine all their life long; or Rom. those who are maimed from their earliest days, and beg their
16, 16. food too, and that in addition to the former evils. Let us then continually employ ourselves with talking about these things. For to remember hell prevents our falling into hell. Dost thou not hear St. Paul saying, Who shall suffer ever-2 Thess. lasting punishment from the face of the Lord? Dost thou not hear what Nero's character was, whom Paul even calls the mystery of Antichrist ? For the mystery of iniquity, he 2 Thers. says, already worketh. What then } Is Nero to suffer 2, 7. nothing? Is Antichrist to suffer nothing? or the Devil nothing? Will Antichrist then always exist, and the Devil ? For from mischief they will not leave off, unless they be punished. 'Yea,' you say, ' but that there is a punishment and a hell every body sees.
But the unbelievers only are to fall into it.' What is the reason, pray? It is because the believers acknowledge their Master. And what is this to the purpose? when their life is impure, they will on this ground be punished more severely than the unbelievers. For as many as hare sinned without law shall also perish
Rom. 2, without law : but as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law. And, The servant that knew his Lukel2, master's will, and did it not, shall be beaten with many stripes. But if there is no such thing as giving an account of one's life, and all this is said in a loose way, then neither will the Devil have vengeance taken upon him. For he too knows God, and more than many men too, and all the demons know Him, and tremble, and own He is their Judge. If then there is no giving an account of our life, nor of evil deeds, then will they also clean escape. These things are not so, surely they are not ! Deceive not yourselves, beloved. For if there is no hell, how are the Apostles to judge the twelve tribes of Israel? How cometh Paul to say, Know ye not that 1 Cor. we shall judge Angels ? how much more things of this life? How came Christ to say, The men of Nineveh shall rise in Mat. 12, judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; and, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day Mat.11,
a This whole argument is nearly minds to the subject, as well as to conthat of the close of Hom. 25. The vince gainsayers. object of it is clearly to keep their
498 Exactness of retribution. Consent of mankind. Homil. of judgment. Why then make merry with things that are XXXI.
no subjects for merriment? Why deceive thyself, and put cheats upon thy soul, o man? Why fight with the love of God toward man ? For it was through this that He prepared it, and threatened, that we might not be cast into it, as having by this fear become better. And thus he that does away with speaking on these subjects doth nothing else than covertly thrust us into it, and drive us thither by this deceit. Slacken not the hands of them then that labour for virtue, nor make the listlessness of them that sleep greater. For if the many be persuaded that there is no hell, when will they leave off vice? Or when will right be seen? I do not say between sinners and righteous men, but between sinners and sinners ? Why is it that one is punished here, and another not punished, though he does the same sins, or even far worse? For if there be no hell, you will have nothing to say in defence of this to those who make it an objection. Wherefore my advice is, that we leave off this trifling, and stop the mouths of those that are gainsayers upon these subjects. For there will be an exact searching
into the smallest things, both in the way of sins and in Eccl.12, the way of good deeds, and we shall be punished for un
chaste looks, and for idle words, and for laughter shall we render an account, and for mere reproachful words, and for thoughts, and for drunkenness; as in the way of good deeds
again, even for a cup of cold water we shall receive a reward, Ez. 9, 4. and a good word, and a sigh only. For it says, Set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry.
How then darest thou to say that He, who with so great exactness will search into our doings, threatened hell in bare words, and lightly? Do not, I beseech you, do not with these vain hopes destroy thyself and those that are persuaded by thee! For if thou disbelievest our words, make enquiry of Jews and Gentiles, and all heretics. And all of them as with one mouth will answer that a judgment there shall be, and a
retribution. And are men not enough? Ask the devils themMat. 8, selves, and thou wilt hear them cry, Why hast thou come
hither to torment us before the time? And putting all this
" See Bp. Taylor, Serm. on Sir G. Dalston; and Bp. Butler, Anal. 1. 2, note a.