St. Paul's fellow-prisoners. His modesty. 489 call them my fellow-prisoners, a prisoner indeed he had not Rom. been, but he had suffered things far worse than prisoners, in

16, 7. being not an alien only to his country and his family, but in wrestling with famine and continual death, and thousands of other things. For of a prisoner the only misfortune is this, that he is separated from his relations, and often has to be a slave instead of being free. But in this case one may mention temptations thick as snow-flakes, which this blessed person underwent by being carried and taken about, scourged, fettered, stoned, shipwrecked, with countless people plotting against him. And captives indeed have no further foe after they are led away, but they even experience great care from those who have taken them. But this man was continually in the midst of enemies, and saw spears on every side, and sharpened swords, and arrays, and battles. Since then it was likely that these shared many dangers with him, he calls them fellow-captives. As in another passage also, Aristarchus Col. 4, my fellow-prisoner. Then another praise besides. Who are 10. of note among the Apostles. And indeed to be apostles' at all is a great thing. But to be even amongst these of note, just consider what a great encomium this is ! But they were of note owing to their works, to their achievements. Oh?!! Babai how great is the devotion? of this woman ", that she should ? Pinoco. be even counted worthy of the appellation of apostle! But Piz even here he does not stop, but adds another encomium besides, and says, Who were in Christ before me.

For this too is a very great praise, that they sprang forth and came before others. But let me draw your attention to the holy soul, how untainted it is by vanity. For after glory such as his in kind and degree, he sets others before himself, and does not hide from us the fact of his having come after them, nor is ashamed at confessing this. And why art thou



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k St. Chrys, takes the word in its Phil. 2, 25. takes it to literal sense of a captive in war.

Bishop,' as on 1 Tim. 2, 8. he says, meant it inight be figurative, but it most they then called the same persons likely refers either to an imprisonment, Bishops and Elders, but those who are or to what he speaks of 2 Cor. 11, 26. now called Bishops they named Apoas perils from robbers.

stles.' St. Chrys. Hom. in S. Ignat. St. Chrys, on 2 Cor. 8, 23. and calls him an Apostle. Phil. 2, 25. takes this word to mean m Hammond reads the name Junias, messengers of the Churches, Theodoret, and supposes a man to be intended,

1, 3.


1 Cor,

490 Various praises giren to different persons. Homil. surprised at his not being ashamed of this, when he shunneth XXXI.

not even to parade before men his former life, calling himself I Tim.

a blasphemer, and a persecutor. Since then he was not able to set them before others on this score, he looked out himself, who had come in after others, and from this he did find means of bestowing a praise upon them by saying, Who were in Christ before me.

Ver. 8. Greet Amplias my beloved.

Here again he passes encomiums upon this person for his charity. For the love of Paul was for God, carrying countless blessings with it. For if being loved by the king is a great thing, what a great encomium must it be to be beloved by Paul ? For if he had not acquired great virtue, he would

not have attracted his love? Since as for those who live in Teid! vice and transgressions he is accustomed' not only to

abstain from loving them, but even to anathematize them.

As when he says, If any man love not the Lord Jesus, let 16, 24. Gal.1,8. him be accursed; and, If any man preach any other gospel

unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.

Ver. 9. Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ.
This is a greater encomium than the other.

For this even comprehends that. And Stachys, my beloved. This again is an honour of the same kind.

Ver. 10. Salute Apelles, approved in Christ.

There is no praise like this, being unblameable, and giving no handle in the things of God. For when he says, approved in Christ, he includes the whole list of virtues. And on what ground does he no where say my Lord such an one, my Master this?

It is because these encomiums were greater 2 τιμής

than those. For those are meet titles of rank', but these are of virtue. And this same honour he paid them not at random, or as addressing several of inferior virtue with the high and great characters. For so far as he is addressing, and that too one along with another, and in the same letter, he honours them all alike. But by stating the praises particularly to each, he sets before us the virtue peculiar to each; so as neither to give birth to envy by honouring one and dishonouring another, nor to work in them listlessness and confusion, by giving them all the same dignity, though they


Praise of Labour, of Perseverance. Simple mention. 491 did not deserve the same. See now how he again comes to Rom. the admirable women.

For after saying, Salute them which 16.11.14 are of Aristobulus' household,

Ver. 11. Salute Herodion my kinsman ; greet them which be of the houshold of Narcissus.

Who, it is likely, were not so worthy as the afore-mentioned, on which account also he does not mention them all by name even, and after giving them the encomium which was suited to them, that of being faithful, (and this the meaning of,

Which are in the Lord,)
He again reverts to the women,


says, Ver. 12. Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord.

And in regard to the former woman, he says that she bestowed labour upon us, but of these that they are still labouring. And this is no small encomium, that they should be in works throughout, and should not only work, but labour

But Persis he calls beloved too, to shew that she is greater than these.

For he says, Salute the beloved Persis.

And of her great labourings he likewise bears testimony, and says, which laboured much in the Lord.

So well does he know how to name each after his deserts, so making these more eager by not depriving them of any of their dues, but commending even the slightest pre-eminence, and making the others more virtuous, and inciting them to the same zeal, by his encomiums upon these.

Ver. 13. Salute Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.

Here again the good things are without any drawback, since the son and the mother are each of such a character, and the house is full of blessing, and the root agreeth with the fruit; for he would not have simply said, his mother and mine, unless he had been bearing testimony to the woman for great virtue.

Ver. 14. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them.

Here do not be looking to how he states them without any encomium, but how he went so far as not to reckon even

492 The general salutation to prevent jealousy. Homil. those the least worthy of all, unworthy of being addressed by XXXI.

him. Or rather even this is no slight praise that he even calls them brethren, as also those that are after them he calls saints.

Ver. 15. Salute, then he says, Philologus, and Julia, and Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them ;

Which to us was the greatest dignity, and unspeakable height of honour. Then to prevent any jealousy rising from his addressing one in one way and another in another, and some by name and some with no distinction, and some with more points of praise, and some with fewer, he again mingles them in the equality of charity, and in the holy kiss, saying,

Ver. 16. Salute one another with an holy kiss.

To cast out of them, by this salutation, all arguing that confused them, and all grounds for little pride; that neither the great might despise the little, nor the little grudge at the greater, but that haughtiness and envy might be both driven away, when this kiss soothed down and levelled every

And therefore he not only bids them salute in this way, but sends in like manner to them the greeting even of all the Churches. For there salute you, he says, not this or that person individually, but all of you in common,

The Churches of Christ.

You see that they are no small gains that we earn from these addresses, and what treasures we should have passed hastily over, unless in this part of the Epistle also we had examined it with accuracy, such, I mean, as was in our power. So if there be found any man of wisdom and spiritual, he will dive even deeper, and find a greater number of pearls". But since some have often made it a question wherefore it was that in this Epistle he addressed so many, which thing he has not done in any other Epistle, we might say that it is owing to his never having seen the Romans yet, that he does this. And yet one may say,


" He perhaps means something in 19, and in his metaphors, he shers the names, as well as in the facts im- that he knew and valued allegorical inplied ; most of them are significant. In terpretation, but he makes little public several places, as where he refers to Ps. use of it.

16, 16.


St. Paul's address procured men favour and protection. 493 Well, he had not seen the Colossians either, and yet Rom. he did not do any thing of the kind. But these were more honourable than others, and had come thither from other cities, as to a safer and more royal city. Since then they were living in a foreign country, and they needed much provision for security, and some of them were of his acquaintance, but some too were there who had rendered him many important services, he with reason commends them by letters; for the glory of Paul was then not little, but so great, that even from his sending them letters, those who had the happiness to have an Epistle to them, gained much protection. For men not only reverenced him, but were even afraid of him. Had this not been sop, he would not have said, who hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.

And v. 2.

Rom.9, again, I could wish that myself were uccursed from Christ for my brethren. And to Philemon he wrote and said, as Phil. 9. Paul the aged, and a prisoner in Jesus Christ. And to the Galatians, Behold, I Paul say unto you. And, ye received Gal.5,2. me eren as Christ Jesus. And writing to the Corinthians he 1 Cor.4, said, Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come unto you. And again, These things I have in a figure trans- 1 Cor.4, ferred to myself and to Apollos, that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written. Now from all these passages it is clear that all had a great opinion of him. Wishing then that they should feel on easy terms, and be in honour, he addressed each of them, setting forth their praise to the best advantage he might. For one he called beloved, another kinsman, another both, another fellow prisoner, another fellow-worker, another approved, another elect. And of the women, one he addresses by her title, for he does not call her the servant of the Church in an undefined way, (because if this were so he would have given Tryphena and Persis this name too,) but this one as having the office of deuconess, and another as helper and assistant, another as mother, another from the labours she underwent, and some he addresses from the house they belonged to



• This is rather an unusual way Pi. e. had he not been so greatly of taking

“ πολλής ασφάλμας δει άτο. esteemed. hætur aurus," but the sequel allows no 9 avroő ivoő even of myself. other.

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