34 Judgment fitly introduced, and proved by men's words and deeds. Homil. declaration of Christ, but if the unbeliever and the Grecian, III.

him Paul silences, by what he says presently of the judgment of God, bringing an uncontrovertible demonstration from the things which were done by them. And this too is by far

the most striking point in him, how he exhibits those who ! 6 Mss. speak against the truth itself', as bearing witness themselves by

the things which they do daily, or even say, to the doctrines (here of the truth. But of this in the sequel : but for the present, and om. aft.) let us keep to what is set before us. For the wrath of God

is revealed from heaven. And indeed even here this often takes place in famines and pestilences and wars: for each individually and all in common are punished. What will be the new thing then? That the chastisement is greater, and common to all, and not by the same rules. For now what takes place is for correction : but then for vengeance. And

this also St. Paul shewed, when he said, We are chastened Om. now, that we should not be condemned with the world.

And now indeed to many such things usually seem to come p. 10.) not of the wrath from above, but of the malice of man. But

then the punishment from God shall be manifest, when the Judge, sitting upon the fearful tribunal, shall command some to be dragged to the furnaces, and some to the outer darkness, and some to other inexorable and intolerable

punishments. And why is it that he does not speak as 3 Man plainly as this, the Son of God' is coming with ten thousand 3 Mss. angels, and will call each man to account, but says, that the

wrath of God is revealed ? His hearers were as yet novices, and therefore he draws them first by things quite allowed by them. And besides what is here mentioned, he also seems to me to be aiming against the Greeks. And this is why he makes his beginning from this, but afterwards he introduces the subject of Christ's judgment.

Against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who hold the truth in unrighteousness. Here he sheweth that the

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6 St. Basil speaks similarly of various Matt. xxii. 13. makes it a temporary punishments, Regulæ Br. Tr. ix. 267. punishment. St. Chrys. on Matt. xxii. ed. Ben. t. ii. p. 507. Theophylact 13. St. Aug. on Ps. vi. 6. St. Jerome on Matt. viii. 12. seems to allude to on Matt. viii. 12. take it otherwise. this passage. Both say that "outer See also St. Bas. on Ps. 33 (4). 11. darkness' implies an inner,' but seem- v. i. 151. e. See Maldonatus on Matt. ingly in opposite senses, Theoph. taking viii. 12. and St. Chrys. on Rom. xvi. 16. Tow to be towards Heaven. Origen on on the difference of punishments.

Unrighteousness toward men ;-toward the Truth.


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ways of ungodliness are many, and that of truth, one. Rom. For error is a thing various and multiform and compound, -1, 19. but the truth is one. And after speaking of doctrines, he also speaks of their life, mentioning the unrighteousness of men. For there be various kinds of unrighteousness also. One is in money affairs, as when any one deals unrighteously by his neighbour in these ; and another in regard to women, when a man leaves his own wife, and breaks in upon the marriage of another. For St. Paul calls this also defrauding, saying thus, That no man go beyond or defraud his brother in the matter. Others again injure not the wife or property,' Gr. et but the reputation of their neighbour, and this too is unrighte

1 Thess. For a good name is better than great riches. But 4, 6

Prov.22, some say that this also is said of Paul about doctrines. Still there is nothing to prevent its having been said of both. ut nos, But what it is to hold the truth in unrighteousness, learn

αιρετώτε. from the sequel.

Ver. 19. Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them, for God hath shewed it unto them.

But this glory they invested stocks and stones with. As then he which is entrusted with the goods of the king, and is ordered to spend them upon the king's glory, if he waste these upon robbers, and harlots, and witches, and make these splendid out of the king's stores, he is punished as having done the kingdom” the greatest wrong. Thus they 25 Mss. also who after having received the knowledge of God and of

king. His glory, invested idols therewith, held the truth in unrighteousness, and, at least as far as was in their power, dealt unrighteously by the knowledge, by not using it upon fitting objects. Now, has what was said become clear to you, or must one make it still clearer? Perhaps it were needful to say somewhat more. What then is it which is here said ? The knowledge of Himself God placed in men from the beginning. But this knowledge the Greeks invested stocks 3 4 Mss. and stones with, and so dealt unrighteously to the truth, who inv. as far at least as they might. For it abideth unchanged, having its own glory immutable. And whence is it plain that He placed in them this knowledge, O Paul?' Because, saith he, that which may be known of Him is manifest in them. This, however, is an assertion, not a proof. But

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36 God mercifully made known to the Heathen by His Works. Homil. do thou make it good, and shew me that the knowledge

of God was plain to them, and that they willingly turned

aside. Whence was it plain then? did He send them a 15 Mss. voice from above'? By no means. But what was able to

draw them to Him more than a voice, that He did, by having put before them the Creation, so that both wise, and unlearned, and Scythian, and barbarian, having through sight learned the beauty of the things which were seen, might mount up to God. Wherefore he says,

Ver. 20. For the invisible things of Him from the Creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things

which are made. Ps.19,1. Which also the prophet said, The heavens declare the 2 i. e. glory of God. For what will the Greeks' say in that Heatben

day? That we were ignorant of Thee? Did ye then not hear the heaven sending forth a voice by the sight, while the well-ordered harmony of all things spake out more clearly than a trumpet ? Did ye not see the hours of night and day abiding unmoved continually, the

goodly order of winter, spring, and the other seasons, which 3 sigue is both sure and unmoved, the treatableness of the sea μοσύνης

amid all its turbulence and waves ? All things abiding in order and by their beauty and their grandeur, preaching aloud of the Creator? For all these things and more than these doth Paul sum up in saying, The invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things which are made, even His eternal Power and Godhead; so that they are without

And yet it was not for this God made these things, even if this came of it. For it was not to bereave them of all excuse, that He set before them so great a system of teaching, but that they might come to know Him. But by not having recognized « Him they deprived themselves of every excuse, and then to shew how they are bereaved of excuse, he says,

Ver. 21. Because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful.


c Pascal. Pen. c. 20. thinks an in- in text vyuoporncartes, having been ward illumination implied here.

obstinate. d agrotantsS 4 Mss. as in marg. ;

13. dúo xai

Sin of slighting Him, so known, and worshipping idols. 37 This is the one greatest charge; and the second after it Rom.

1,22.23. is their also worshipping idols, as Jeremy too in accusing them said, This people hath committed two evils: they have Jer. 2, forsaken me the fountain of living water, and have dug for themselves broken tanks. And then as a sign of their having 5 Mss. known God, and not used their knowledge upon a fit object, he adduces this very thing, that they had known gods. Wherefore he adds, because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God. And he names the cause through which they fell into such senselessness. What then is it? They trusted every thing to their reasonings. Still he does not word it so, but in a much sharper language, but became rain in their reasonings and their foolish heart was darkened. For as in a night without a moon, if any one attempt to go by a strange road, or to sail over a strange sea, so far will he be from soon reaching his destination, that he will speedily be lost. Thus they, attempting to go the way leading to Heaven, and having taken away the light from their own selves, and, in lieu of it, trusted themselves to the darkness of their own reasoning, and seeking in bodies for Him who is incorporeal, and in shapes for Him who hath no shape, underwent a most rueful shipwreck. But beside what has been said, he names also another cause

of their error,

when he says,

Ver. 22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.

For having some great conceit of themselves, and not enduring to go the way which God had commanded them, they were plunged into the reasonings of senselessness?.! 1 Ms.

διανοίας And then to shew and give in outline, what a rueful surge it was, and how destitute of excuse, he goes on to say,

Ver. 23. And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

The first charge is, that they did not find God; the second was, that it was while they had great and clear?

2 ? Sav. means to do it; the third, that withal they said they were wise wise; the fourth, that they not only did not find that Reverend Being, but even lowered Him to devils and to stones and stocks. Now he takes down their haughtiness



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38 God's right given to brutes and idols by false wisdom. Homil. also in the Epistle to the Corinthians, but not in the same

way there as here. For there it is from the Cross he gives them the 1 blow, saying, The foolishness of God is wiser than

But here, without any comparison, he holds their wisdom by itself up to ridicule, shewing it to be folly and a mere display of vain boasting. Then, that you may learn that when they had the knowledge of God they gave it up

thus treacherously, they changed, he says. Now he that 95 Mss.changeth, changeth as having somewhat else insteadFor

they wished to find out more, and did not bear with the limits given them, and so they were banished from these also. For they were lusters after new devices, for such is all that is: Grecian. And this is why they stood against one another, and Aristotle rose up against Plato, and the

Stoics blustered against him, and one became hostile to 4 joguáš 4 Miss.one, another to another. So that one should not so much fenced marvel at them for their wisdom, as turn away from them selves indignant and hate them, because through this very thing ipgále they had become fools. For had they not trusted what they

had to reasonings, and syllogisms, and sophistries, they would not have suffered what they did suffer. Then, to strengthen the accusation against them, he holds the whole of their idolatry up to ridicule. For the changing even were a very fit subject of scorn. But to change to such things too, is beyond all excuse. What they were then that they

changed it for, and what it was which they invested with 5 4 Mss. His Glory, considers. Some conceptions they ought to have with &c, had about Him, as, for instance, that He is God, that He is

Lord of all, that He made them, which were not, that He exerciseth a Providence, that He careth for them. For

these things are the Glory of God. To whom then did they 6 4 Mss. ascribe it? Not to men but to an image made like corruptible omit cor man. Neither did they stop here, but even dropped down ruptible, to the brutes, or rather to the images of these. But consider,

I pray, the wisdom of Paul, how he has taken the two extremes, God the Highest, and creeping things the lowest: or rather, not the creeping things but the images of these; that he might clearly shew their evident madness. For what knowledge they ought to have had concerning Him who is incomparably more excellent than all, with that they in


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