374 To love as well as do good, and hate as well as shun evil. Homil. neighbour. As then he doth not ask for giving oply, bus XXI. that with simplicity, not aiding, but that with diligence, nor

alms, but that with cheerfulness; so even love too he requires not alone, but that without dissimulation. Since this is what love is. And if a man have this, every thing else follows. For he that sheweth mercy does so with cheerfulness, (for he is giving to himself :) and he that aideth, aideth with diligence; for it is for himself he is aiding: and he that imparteth doth this with largeness; for he is bestowing it on himself. Then since there is a love even for ill things, such as is that of the intemperate, that of those who are of one mind for money, and for plunder's sake,

and for revels and drinking clubs, he clears it of all látortu- these, by saying, Abhor' that which is evil. And he does γούντες s0 Ms. not speak of refraining from it, bui of abhorring' it, that is,

hating it, and hating it exceedingly. For this word étò is often of intensive force with him, as where he speaks of earnest expectation", looking out fore, (complete) redemption'. For since many who do not evil things still have a desire after them, therefore he says, Abhor. But what he wants is to purify the thought, and that we should have a mighty enmity, hatred, and war against vice. For do not fancy, he means, because I said, Love one another, that I mean you to go so far as to cooperate even in bad actions with one another: for the law that I am laying down is just the reverse. Since it would have you an alien not from the action only, but even from the inclination towards vice; and not merely an alien from this same inclination, but to have an excessive aversion and hatred of it too. And he is not content with only this, but he also urges the practice of virtue. Cleave to that which is good.

He does not speak of doing only, but of being disposed too. For this the command to cleave to it indicates. So God, when He knit the man to the woman, said, For he shall cleave to his wife. Then he mentions reasons why we ought to love one another.

Ver. 10. Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love.

dározapadoxía, Rom. 8, 19, cirixdsxénesvos, Rom. 8, 23.

úTelúrgwors, Rom. 8, 24. see ad loc. Hom. xiv. p. 248.

Love causes acts of kindness and respect, and they it. 375

Ye are brethren, he means, and have come of the same Rom. pangs. Hence even on this head you ought to love one

12, 11. another. And this Moses said to those who were quarrelling in Egypt, Ye are brethren, why do ye wrong one to another? Exod. 2,

13. When then he is speaking of those without, he says, if it be possible, as much as in you lieth, live peaceably with all men. But when he is speaking of his own, he says, Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love. For in the other case he requires abstinence from quarrelling, and hatred, and aversion : but here loving too, and not merely loving, but the loving of relatives. For not only must one's love be without dissimulation, but intense also, and warm, and glowing. Because, to what purpose would you love without fraud, and not love with warmth? Whence he says, kindly affectioned one towards another, that is, be friends, and warm ones too. Do not wait to be loved by another, but leap at it thyself, and be the first to begin it. For so wilt thou reap the wages of his love also. Having mentioned the reason then why we ought to love one another, he tells us also the way in which the affection may grow unchangeable. Whence he proceeds, in honour preferring one another. For this is the way that affection is produced, and also when produced abideth. And there is nothing which makes friends so much, as the earnest endeavour to overcome one's neighbour in honouring him. For what he had mentioned before comes of love, and love of honour, as honour does too of love. Then that we may not honour only, he looks for something besides, when he says,

Ver. 11. Not backward in zeal

For this also gendereth love when with honour we also shew a readiness to protect: as there is nothing that makes men beloved so much, as honour and forethought. For to love is not enough, but there must be this also : or rather this also comes of loving, as also loving has its warmth from this, and they are confirmative one of another. For there are many that love in mind, yet reach not forth the hand. And this is why he uses every means to build up love.

love. And how are we to become not backward in zeal ?

8 E. V. not slothful in business.

376 Strength of man when aided by the Spirit. HOMIL. Fervent in spirit. See how in every instance he aims XXI.

after higher degrees; for he does not say give only, but with largeness; nor rule, but do it with diligence; nor shew mercy, but do it with cheerfulness; nor honour, but prefer one another; nor love, but do it without dissimulation ; nor refrain from evil things, but hate them; nor hold to what is good, but cleave to it; nor love, but do it with brotherly affection ; nor be zealous, but be so without backwardness; nor have the Spirit, but have it fervent, that is, that ye may be warm and awakened. For if thou hast those things aforesaid, thou wilt draw the Spirit to thee. And if This abide with thee, It will likewise make thee good for those purposes, and all things will be easy from the Spirit and the

love, while thou art made to glow from both sides. Dost Han- thou not see the bulls' that carry a flame upon their back, nibal.

how nobody is able to withstand them? So thou also wilt xxii. 16. be more than the devil can sustain, if thou takest both these

flames. Serving the Lord. For it is possible to serve God in all these ways; in that whatever thou doest to thy brother passes on to thy Master, and as having been Himself benefitted, He will reckon thy reward accordingly. See to what height he has raised the spirit of the man that worketh these things! Then to shew how the flame of the Spirit might be kindled,

ap. Liv.

he says,

Ver. 12. Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing instant in prayer.

For all these things are fuel for that fire. For when he had required the expenditure of money and the labour of the person, and ruling, and zeal, and teaching, and other laborious occupations, he again supples the wrestler with love, with the Spirit, through hope. For there is nothing which makes the soul so courageous and venturesome for any thing, as a good hope. Then even before the good things hoped for, he gives another reward again. For since hope is of things to come, he says, patient in tribulation.

And before the things to come, in this life present thou wilt 2 see on gain a great good from tribulation, that of becoming hardy Rom. 5,

And after this he affords them another help, when he says, continuing instant in prayer. When therefore love maketh things easy, and the Spirit assisteth, and

4.p.139. and tried.

You see



Abraham's hospitality shames Christians. 377 hope lighteneth, and tribulation maketh thee tried and apt Rom. for bearing every thing nobly, and thou hast along with 12, 13. these another very great weapon, to wit, prayer and the aidances that come of prayer, what further grievousness can there be in what he is enjoining ? Surely none. how in every way he gives the wrestler firm footing, and shews that the injunctions are perfectly easy. Consider again how he vindicates almsgiving, or rather not almsgiving absolutely, but that to the saints. For above when he says, he that sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness, he makes us open-handed to every body. Here, however, it is in behalf of the faithful that he is speaking. And so he proceeds to say, Ver. 13. Sharing with the necessity of the saints.

χριίαις He does not say, Bestow upon, but share with the neces

al.μνείαις sity of the saints, lo shew that they receive more than they ries give, that it is a matter of merchandize, because it is a community. Do you bring in money? They bring you in boldness toward God. Given to? hospitality. He does not say?


Pursusdoing it, but given to it, so to instruct us not to wait for those that shall ask it, and see when they will come to us, but to run to them, and be given to finding them.

Thus did Lot, thus Abraham. For he spent the whole day upon it, waiting for this goodly prey, and when he saw it, leaped on it, and ran to meet them, and worshipped upon the ground, and said, My Lord, if now I have found favour Gen. 18, in Thy sight, pass not away from Thy servant. Not as we do, if we happen to see a stranger or a poor man, knitting our brows, and not deigning even to speak to them. And if after thousands of entreaties we are softened, and bid the serrant give them a trifle, we think we have quite done our 3 Ms.

and duty. But he did not so, but assumed the fashion of a suppliant and a servant, though he did not know who he sing. was going to take under his roof. But we, who have clear information that it is Christ whom we take in, do not grow gentle even for this. But he both beseeches, and entreats, and falls on his knees to them, yet we insult those that come to us.

And he indeed did all by himself and his wife,




& St. Chrysostom (on 2 Tim. i. 16.) See Brit. Crit. No. LI. p. 80, 81. adopts and argues on the reading, pani n xeradiáxusv. lit. hunt them down. ass, for wbich there is some authority.

378 Kindness to be shewn to the unknown and the bad.

Homil. whereas we do it not even by our attendants. But if you XXI.

have a mind to see the table that he set before them, there too you will see great bounteousness, not such as the temper for superfluous display occasions', but what the riches of a ready will does. Yet how many rich persons were there not then ? Still none did any thing of the kind. How many widows were there in Israel ? Yet none shewed hospitality to Elijah. How many wealthy persons again were there not in Elisha's day? But the Shunamite alone gathered in the fruits of hospitality; as did. Abraham also then with largeness and ready mind. And on this ground he deserves one's admiration most, that when he had no knowledge who they were that had come, yet he so acted. Do not thou then be curious either : since for Christ thou dost receive him. And if thou art always so scrupulous, many a time wilt thou pass by a man of esteem, and lose thy reward from him. And yet he that receiveth one that is not of esteem, hath no fault found with him, but is even rewarded. For he that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall receive a prophet's reward. But he who out of this illtimed scrupulousness passeth one that should be admired, shall even suffer punishment. . Do not then busy thyself with men's lives and doings. For this is the very extreme of niggardliness, for one loaf to be exact about a man's entire life. For if this person be a murderer, if a robber, or what not, does he therefore seem to thee not to deserve a loaf and

pence? And yet Thy Master causeth even the sun to rise upon him! And dost thou judge him unworthy of food even for a day? I will put another case to you besides. Now even if you were positively certain that he were laden with countless iniquities, not even then wouldest thou have an excuse for depriving him of this day's sustenance. For thou art the servant of Him who said, ye know not what spirit ye are of. Thou art servant to Him Who healed those that stoned Him, or rather Who was crucified for them. And do not tell me that he killed another,

a few

| Mar. and Ms. (with some varia- making the sense, whom beside his tion) which not the excess of wealth largeness and ready mind it is just furnished.

especially to admire,' &c. k Ms. om. äv, possibly it should be år,

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