354 God's wonderful providence toward Jew and Gentile. Homil. election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes. And what XIX.

is this ? for wherein they are enemies, punishment is theirs; but wherein they are beloved, the virtue of their ancestors has no influence on them, if they do not believe. Nevertheless, as I said before, he ceaseth not to solace them with words, that he may bring them over. Wherefore by way of fresh proof for his former assertion, he says,

Ver. 30—32. For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief; even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they may also obtain mercy. For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that He might have mercy upon all.

He shews here those of the Gentiles were called first. Then, as they would not come, the Jews were elected, and the same result occurred again. For when the Jews would not believe, again the Gentiles were brought over. And he does not stop here, nor does he draw the whole to a conclusion at their rejection, but at their having mercy shewn them again. See how much he gives to those of the Gentiles, as much as He did to the Jews before. For when ye, he would say, in times past did not obey, being of the Gentiles, then the Jews came in. Again, when these did not obey, ye have come in. However, they will not perish for ever. For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that is, hath convinced them, hath shewn them disobedient; not that they may remain in disobedience, but that he may save the one by the captiousness of the other, these by those and those by these. Now consider; ye were disobedient, and they were saved. Again, they have been disobedient, and ye have been saved. Yet ye have not been so saved as to be put away again, as the Jews were, but so as to draw them over through jealousy while


abide. Ver. 33. Oh, the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments !

Here after going back to former times, and looking back to God's original dispensation of things whereby the world hath existed up to the present time, and having considered, what special provision He had made for all occurrences, he is stricken with awe, and cries aloud, so making his hearers feel confident that certainly that will come to pass which He Wisdom and power shewn in God's dispensations. 355 saith. For he would not have cried aloud and been awe- Rom. struck, unless this was quite sure to come to pass. That it


i Ms. is a depth then, he saw : but how great, he saw not. For wasallto the language is that of a person wondering, not of one that knew the whole? But admiring and being awe-struck at the Bacon

Adv. of goodliness, so far forth as in him lay, he heralds it forth by

L. S. iii. two intensitive words, riches and depth, and then is awe- obj. 4. struck at His having had both the will and the power to do all this, and by opposites effecting opposites. How unsearchable are His judgments. For they are not only impossible to be comprehended, but even to be searched. And His ways past finding out; that is, His dispensations. Which are not only impossible to be known, but even to be sought into. For even I, he means, have not found out the whole, but a little part, not all. For He alone knoweth His own clearly. Wherefore he proceeds :

Ver. 34, 35. For who hath known the mind of the Lord ? or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to Him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?

What he means is nearly this: that though He is so wise, yet He has not His Wisdom from any other, but is Himself the Fountain of good things. And though He hath done so great things, and made us so great presents, yet it was not by borrowing from any other that He gave them, but by making them spring forth from Himself; nor as owing any a return for having received from him, but as always being Himself the first to do the benefits ; for this is a chief mark of riches, to overflow abundantly, and yet need no aid. Wherefore he proceeds to say, For of Him, and through Him, and to Him, are all things. Himself devised, Himself created, Himself holdeth together. For He is rich, 3 cuand needeth not to receive from another. And wise, and

Mss. needeth no counsellor. Why speak I of a counsellor? To ruyxpoknow the things of Him is no one able, save Himself alone, the Rich and Wise One. For it is proof of much riches that He should make them of the Gentiles thus well supplied; and of much wisdom that He should constitute the inferiors of the Jews their teachers. Then as he was awe-struck he offers up thanksgiving also in the words, To Whom be glory for ever. Amen.


Those whose life glorifies God, His children.



HOMIL, For when he tells of any great and unutterable thing of XIX.

this kind, he ends in wonder with a doxology. And this he does

in regard to the Son also. For in that passage also he went on Rom. 9, to the very same thing that he does here. Of whom is Christ

according to the flesh, Who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

Him then let us also imitate, and let us glorify God in all things, by a heedful way of life, and let us not feel confidence in the virtues of our ancestry, knowing the example that has been made of the Jews. For this is not, certainly it is not, the relationship of Christians, for theirs is the kinsmanship of the Spirit. So the Scythian becometh Abraham's son: and his son on the other hand more of an alien to him than

the Scythian. Let us not then feel confidence in the wellMs. of doings of our fathers, but if you have a parent who is a

marvel even, fancy not that this will be enough to save you, or to get you honour and glory, unless you have the relationship of character to him. So too if you have a bad one, do not think that you will be condemned on this account, or be put to shame, if at least you order your own doings aright.

For what can be less honourable than the Gentiles ? still in % Mar. faith they soon became related to the Saints? Or what more Ms. om: nearly connected than the Jews ? Yet still by unbelief they

were made aliens. For that relationship is of nature and necessity, after which we are all relations. For of Adam we all sprung, and none can be more a relation than another, both as regards Adam, and as regards Noah, and as regards

the earth, the common mother of all. But the relationship 3 Ms. worthy of honours, is thats which does distinguish us from

the wicked. For it is not possible for all to be relations in this way, but those of the same character only. Nor would I call them brothers who have come of the same labour with ourselves, but those who display the same zeal. In this way Christ giveth men the name of children of God, and so on the other hand children of the devil, and so too children of disobedience, of hell, and of perdition likewise.

So Timothy was Paul's son from goodness, and was called 1 Tim. mine own son: but of his sister's son we do not know even 1, 2.

the name. And yet the one was by nature related to him, and still that availed him not. But the other being both by





Acts of mercy the way to become sons of God.

357 nature and country far removed from him, (as being a native Ron.

11,34.35 of Lystra,) still became most nearly related. Let us then also become the sons of the Saints, or rather let us become even God's sons.

For that it is possible to become sons of God, hear what He says, Be ye therefore perfect, as your Father Mat. 5, which is in Heaven. This is why we call Him Father in prayer, and that not only to remind ourselves of the grace', but also of virtue, that we may not do ought unworthy of such a relationship. And how it may be said is it possible to be a son of God? by being free from all passions, and shewing gentleness to them that affront and wrong us. For thy Father is so to them that blaspheme Him. Wherefore, though he says various things at various times, yet in no case does He say that ye may be like your Father, but when He says, Pray for them that despitefully use you, do good to Mat. 5, them that hate you, then he brings in this as the reward. For there is nothing that brings us so near to God, and makes us so like Him”, as this well-doing. Therefore Paul also, when he says, Be ye followers of God, means them to be so in this respect. Eph.5,1. For we have need of all good deeds, chiefly however of love to man and gentleness, since we need so much of His love to man ourselves. For we commit many transgressions every day. Wherefore also we have need to shew much mercy. But much and little is not measured by the quantity of things given, but by the amount of the givers' means. Let not then the rich be highminded, nor the poor dejected as giving so little, for the latter often gives more than the former. We must not then make ourselves miserable because we are poor, since it makes almsgiving the easier for us. For he that has got much together is seized with haughtiness, as well as a greater affection to that'he has. But he that hath but a little is quit of either or lust of these domineering passions: hence he finds more occasions that for doing well. For this man will go cheerfully into a prisonhouse, and will visit the sick, and will give a cup of cold water. But the other will not take upon him any office of this sort, as pampered up? by his riches. Be not then out of pasy

μαίνων ν. heart at thy poverty. For thy poverty makes thy traffick for Phot. in


o i. e. of Baptism, see p. 29. and on P. Greg. Nyss. in illud, Dimitte Rom. viii. 15. p. 240. Greg. Nyss. in nobis debita nostra, de Or. Dom. Or. loc. de Or. Dom. Or. 2.

5. init.


358 A merciful spirit better than large gifts. Homil. heaven the easier to thee. And if thou have nothing, but XIX.

have a compassionating soul, even this will be laid up as a reward for thee. Hence too Paul bade us weep with them that weep, and exhorted us to be prisoners as though bound with them. For it is not to them that weep only that it yieldeth some solace that there be many that compassionate them, but to them who are in other afflicting circumstances. For there are cases where conversation has as much power to recover him that is cast down as money. For this then God exhorts us to give money to them that ask, not merely with a view to relieve their poverty, but that He may teach us to compassionate the misfortunes of our neighbours. For this also the covetous man is odious, in that he not only

disregards men in a beggared state, but because he gets ansip himself trained for cruelty and great inhumanity. And so he

that, for their sakes, thinks little of money, is even on this account an object of love, that he is merciful and kind to man. And Christ, when He blesseth the merciful, blesseth and praiseth not those only that give the alms of money, but those also who have the will to do so. Let us then be so inclinable to mercy, and all other blessings will follow, for he that hath a spirit of love and mercy, if he have money, will give it away, or if he see any in distress, will weep and bewail it; if he fall in with a person wronged, will stand up for him; if he see one spitefully entreated, will reach out his hand to him. For as he has that treasure-house of blessings, a loving and merciful soul, he will make it a fountain for all his brethren's needs, and will enjoy all the rewards that are

laid up with God?. That we then may attain to these, let us ağ ol

of all things frame our souls accordingly. For so, while in this world, we shall do good deeds without number, and shall enjoy the crowns to come. To which may we all attain by the grace and love toward man, &c.

2 Ms.

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