St. Paul warns the Gentile so as to condemn the Jew. 349

tion came to the Gentiles, nor was it their fall that was the Roм. 11, 22. riches of the world. Nor was it by this that we were saved, because they had fallen, but the reverse. And he shews that the providence in regard to the Gentiles was a main object, even though he seems to put what he says into another form. And the whole passage is a tissue of objections, in which he clears himself of the suspicion of hatred, and makes his language such as will be acceptable.

Ver. 20. Well, he praises what they said, then he alarms them again by saying, Because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou art graffed in by faith.

So here another encomium, and for the other party an accusation. But he again lays their pride low by proceeding to say, Be not high-minded, but fear. For the thing is not matter of nature, but of belief and unbelief. And he seems to be again bridling the Gentile, but he is teaching the Jew that it is not right to cling to a natural kinsmanship. Hence he goes on with, Be not high-minded, and he does not say, but be humble, but, fear. For haughtiness genders a contempt and listlessness. Then as he is going into all the sorrows of their calamity, in order to make the statement less offensive, he states it in the way of a rebuke given to the other as follows.

Ver. 21. For if God spared not the natural branches, and then he does not say, neither will He spare thee, but take heed lest He also spare not thee. So paring1 away the dis-νόμενος tasteful from his statement, and representing the believer as in the struggle, he at once draws the others to him, and humbles these also.

Ver. 22. Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodf ness, if thou continue in His goodness: otherwise thou also

shalt be cut off.

And he does not say, Behold thy well doing, behold thy labours, but Behold the goodness of God toward man, to shew that the whole comes of grace from above, and to make us tremble. For this reason for boasting makes thee to fear: since the Lord 2 hath been good unto thee, do thou therefore 2 duró


So also Ms. Bodl. and 2 of Mat. but we need not suppose a various

reading in the text, as there is no
authority for it: rec. t. standest.

350 Power of Free-will. Hope held out to the Jew if penitent.


HOMIL. fear. For the blessings do not abide by thee unmoveable if thou turnest listless, as neither do the evils with them, if they alter; For thou, also he says, unless thou continue in the faith, wilt be cut off.

Ver. 23. And they also, if they abide not in unbelief, shall be graffed in.

For it was not God that cut them off, but they have broken themselves off and fallen'; and he did well to say have broken themselves off. For he hath never yet cast them off, though they have sinned so much and so often. You see what a great thing a man's free choice is, how great the efficacy of the mind is. For none of these things is immutable, neither thy good nor his evil. You see too how he raises up even him in his despondency, and humbles the other in his confidence; and do not thou be faint at hearing of severity, nor thou be confident at hearing of goodness. The reason why He cut thee' off in severity was, that thou mightest long to come back. The reason why He shewed goodness to thee was, that thou mightest continue in (he does not say the faith, but) His goodness, that is, if thou do things worthy of God's love toward man. For there is need of something more than faith. You see how he suffers neither these to lie low, nor those to be elated, but be also provokes them to jealousy, by giving through them a power to the Jew to be set again in this one's place, as he also had first taken the other's ground. And the Gentile he put in fear by the Jews, and what had happened to them, lest they should feel elated over them. But the Jew he tries to encourage by what had been afforded to the Greek. For thou also, he says, wilt be cut off if thou growest listless, (for the Jew was cut off,) and he will be graffed in if he be earnest, for thou also wert graffed in. But it is very judicious in him to direct all he says to the Gentile, as he is always in the habit of doing, correcting the feeble by rebuking the stronger. This he does in the end of this Epistle too, when he is speaking of the observance of meats.

1 Sav. conj.Ms.



h ἐξικλάσθησαν. In earlier Greek this use of the passive belongs to the seoond aorist, but in later times it extends to the first. See Kühner, §. 402. anm. 2.

i Mar. and Ms.'cut thee not off" which is perhaps the better reading. See on the last verse.

It is most natural for the Jew to be received again. 351

11, 24.

and Ms.

Then, he grounds this on what had already happened, not RoM. upon what was to come only. And this was more likely to persuade his hearer. And as he means to keep' consecu-' Mar. tiveness of reasonings, such as could not be spoken against, to enter he first uses a demonstration drawn from the power of God. on For if they were cut off, and cast aside, and others took precedence of them in what was theirs, still even now despair not.

For God is able, he says, to graff them in again, since He doeth things beyond expectation. But if thou wishest for things to be in order, and reasons to be consecutive, you have from yourselves a demonstration which more than meets your wants.

Ver. 24. For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree, which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive tree.

If then faith was able to do what was contrary to nature, much more will it that which is according to nature. For if this person, who was cut off from those by nature his fathers', came contrary to nature unto Abraham, much more wilt thou be able to recover thine own. For the Gentile's evil lot is according to nature, (he being by nature a wild olive,) and the good contrary to nature, (it being contrary to nature for him to be graffed into Abraham,) but thy lot on the contrary is the good by nature. For it is not upon another root, as the Gentile, that thou art to be fixed if thou art minded to come back. What pardon then dost thou deserve, when after the Gentile had been able to do what was contrary to nature, thou art not able to do that which is according to nature, but hast given up even this? Then as he had said contrary to nature, and, wert graffed in, that you may not suppose the Jew to have the advantage, he again corrects this by saying that he also is graffed in. How much more shall these, says he, which be the natural branches be graffed into their own olive. And again, God

κ οὗτοι ἐὰν κατὰ φύσιν ἐγκεντρισθῶσι, but there is no authority for this reading, and Ms. Bodl. and those of Mat. agree with the received text, οὗτοι οἱ

κατὰ φύσιν ἐγκεντρισθήσονται.

1 Ms. from those that were his by nature by others.'

352 St. Paul deals gently with the Jews: their blindness.



HOMIL. is able to graff them in. And before this he says, that if they abide not still in unbelief, they shall be also graffed in. And when you hear that he keeps speaking of according to nature, and contrary to nature, do not suppose that he means the nature that is unchangeable, but he tells us in these words of the probable and the consecutive, and on the other hand of the improbable. For the good things and the bad are not such as are by nature, but by temper and determination alone. And consider also how inoffensive he is. For after saying that thou also wilt be cut off, if thou dost not abide in the faith, and these will be graffed in, if they abide not still in unbelief, he leaves that of harsh aspect, and 1 Mar. insists on that of kindlier sound, and in it he ends, putting ὑπο- great hopes before the Jews if they were minded not to paiva. abide so. Wherefore he goes on to say,


and Ms.

Ver. 25. For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits.

Meaning by mystery here, that which is unknown and unutterable, and hath much of wonder and much of what one should not expect about it. As in another passage too he says, Behold, I tell you a mystery. sleep, but we shall all be changed. mystery?

We shall not all What then is the

That blindness in part hath happened unto Israel. Here again he levels a blow at the Jew, while seeming to take down the Gentile. But his meaning is nearly this, and he had said it before, that the unbelief is not universal, but 2 Cor. only in part. As when he says, But if any hath caused 2, 5.

grief, he hath not grieved me, but in part: that I may not overcharge you all". And, If I be first, somewhat (or in part) filled with your company; so here too he says what he had said above, God hath not cast off his people 15, 24. whom he foreknew; and again, What then? Have they


stumbled that they should fall? God forbid. This then he says here also; that it is not the whole people that is

1 Cor. 15, 51.

m Ben. and Ms. B. quoixà for púru. Savile's reading would be a general position which is not so much to the purpose, such as that of St. Augustine, nullam esse naturam mali.' See p. 199,

note n. This reading however will also bear that meaning.

n Or, in part (that I may not be burdensome) all of you.

The Prophecies give reason to hope for the Jews. 353

pulled up, but many have already believed, and more are Rom. likely to believe. Then as he had promised a great thing, 11,26-29 he adduces the prophet in evidence, speaking as follows. Now it is not for the fact of a blindness having happened that he quotes the passage, (for every one could see that,) but that they shall believe and be saved, he brings Isaiah to witness, who crieth aloud and saith,

Ver. 26. There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, Is. 59,7. and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.

Then to give the mark that fixes its sense to salvation, to prevent any one from drawing it aside and attaching it to times gone by, he says,

Ver. 27. For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.

Not when they are circumcised, not when they sacrifice, not when they do the other deeds of the Law, but when they attain to the forgiveness of sins. If then this hath been promised, but has never yet happened in their case, nor have they ever enjoyed the remission of sins by Baptism, certainly it will come to pass. Hence he proceeds, Ver. 29. For the gifts and repentance.

calling of God are without

And even this is not all he says to solace them, for he uses what had already come about. And what came in of consequence, that he states as chiefly intended, putting it in these words,

Ver. 28. As concerning the Gospel, they are enemies for your sakes; but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes.

That the Gentile then might not be puffed up, and say, 'I am standing, do not tell me of what would have been, but what has been,' he uses this consideration to bring him down, and says, As concerning the Gospel, they are enemies for your sakes. For when you were called they became more captious. Nevertheless God hath not even now cut short the calling of you, but He waiteth for all the Gentiles that are to believe to come in, and then they also shall come. Then he does them another kind favour, by saying, As touching

P So LXX. except in when, &c. which the sequel implies. See Jer. 31, 31. 34. A a

• rò ragúonμov V. Victor. ap. Gaisf. ad Rhet. p. 303.

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