204 Ease and Reward of aiming at the Evangelical Standard. Homil. this is why Christ chastised the man who looks unchastely

upon a woman, that He might free us from greater labour, before the adversary became strong, bidding us cast him out of the house, while he may be cast out even with ease. For what need to have superfluous trouble, and to get entangled with the enemies, when without entanglement we may erect the trophy, and before the wrestling seize upon the prize? For it is not so great a trouble not to look upon beautiful women, as it is while looking to restrain one's self. Or rather the first would be no trouble at all, but immense toil and

labour comes on after looking. Since then this trouble is 1 4 Mss. less', or rather there is no labour at all, nor trouble, but the add 10 the in- greater gain, why do we take pains to plunge into an ocean conti. of countless evils? And farther, the not looking upon

a woman, will overcome such lust not only with greater ease, but with a higher purity, as he on the other hand, who does look, getteth free with more trouble, and not without a kind of stain', that is, if he does get free at all. For he that does not take a view of the beautiful figure, is clear of the lust that might result. But he who lusteth to look, after first laying his reason low, and polluting it in countless ways, has then to cast out the stain that came of the lust, that is, if he do cast it out. This then is why Christ, to prevent our suffering in this way, did not prohibit murder only, but wrath ; not adultery only, but an unchaste look even; not perjury only, but all swearing whatsoever. Nor does He make the measure of virtue stop here, but after having given these laws, He proceeds to a still greater degree. For after keeping us far away from murder, and bidding us be clear of wrath, he bids us be ready even to suffer ill, and not to be prepared to suffer no more than what he who attacks us pleases, but even to go further, and

to get the better of his utmost madness by the overflowing2 qñs oi- ness of our own Christian spirit”. For what He says Locopias. If a man smite thee on thy right cheek, bear it nobly and Mat. 5, hold thy peace;' but He adds to this the yielding to him the 39.

other too. For He says, Turn to him the other also. This then is the brilliant victory, to yield him even more than

is not,

κείας φι- ι

" ' There is some little sensuality in ance, c. 5. sect. 6. §. 4. t. 8. p. 494. being tempted.' Bp. Taylor on Repent

5 Mss.

Present and future rewards of Forbearance. 205 what he wishes, and to go beyond the bounds of his evil Rom.

7; 13. desire by the profuseness of one's own patient endurance. For in this way you will put a stop to his madness, and also receive from the second act again the reward of the first, and you will put a stop' to wrath against him. See you, So Sav. how in all cases it is we that have it in our power not xaradito suffer ill, and not they that inflict it? Or rather it is not oas. the not suffering ill alone, but even the having benefits done 2 Sav.

conj. reus that we have in our own power. And this is the truest

dcīvsü, so wonder, that we are so far from being injured, if we be right-2 Mss. minded, that we are even benefitted, and that too by the very things that we suffer unjustly at the hands of others '. Reflect then; has such an one done you an affront? You have the power of making this affront redound to your honour. For if you do an affront in return, you only increase the disgrace. But if you bless him that did you the affront, you will see that all men give you victory, and proclaim your praise. Do you see how by the things wherein we wronged, we get good done unto us if we be so minded. This one may see happening in the case of money matters, of blows, and the same in every thing else. For if we requite them with the opposite, we are but twining a double crown about us, one for the ills we have suffered, as well as one for the good we are doing.

Whenever then a person comes and tells you that 'such an one has done you an affront, and keeps continually speaking ill of you to every body,' praise the man to those who tell you of him. For thus even if you wish to avenge yourself, you will have the power of inflicting punishment. For those who hear you, be they ever so foolish, will praise you, and hate him as fiercer than any brute beast, because he, without being at all wronged, caused you pain, but you, even when suffering wrong, requited him with the opposite. And so you will have it in your power to prove that all that he said was to no purpose. For he who feels the tooth of slander, gives by his vexation a proof that he is conscious of the truth of what is said. But he who smiles at it, by this very thing acquits


1 Ms. omits , otherwise the sense §. 448. a. obs. Kühner, $. 747. 3. who is even more than by others,'

under- quotes Soph. Aj. 945. (966.) fuel aixpos standing pãador. see Matth. Gr. Gr. ribunusy * ruivos y auxós.

First, you

I Gr.


Evil results of anger and revenge. Homil. himself of all suspicion with those who are present. Consider XII. then how many good things you cull together from the affair.

rid yourself of all vexation and trouble. Secondly, (rather this should come first,) even if you have sins, you will put them off', as the Publican did by bearing the Pharisee's accusation meekly. Besides, you will by this practice make

your soul heroic”, and will enjoy endless praises from all philosophic

men, and will divest yourself of any suspicion arising from what is said. But even if you are desirous of taking revenge" upon the man, this too will follow in full measure, both by God's punishing him for what he has said, and before that punishment by thy heroic conduct standing to him in the place of a mortal blow. For there is nothing that cuts those who affront us so much to the heart, as for us who are affronted to smile at the affront. As then from behaving with Christian heroism so many honours will accrue to us, so from being little-minded just the opposite will befal us in every thing. For we disgrace ourselves, and also seem to those present to be guilty of the things mentioned, and fill

our soul with perturbation, and give our enemy pleasure, and ? former provoke God, and add to our own sins. Taking then al and Sav.

this into consideration, let us flee from the abyss of a little

mind, and take refuge in the port of patient endurance, content that here we may at once find rest unto our souls, as Christ ψυχίας

jango- also set forth, and may attain to the good things to come, by Bupias the grace

1 Ms.




and love toward man, &c.

Mat. II,


! An instance of the rhetorical ar- by surprise. rangement he admires in the Apostle. u See on Rom. 12, 20. Hom. 22. His object is of course to make men which illustrates the subsidiary use patient under reproaches even when of inferior motives. partly deserved, and he thus takes them


Rom. vii. 14.

For we know that the Law is spiritual : but I am carnal,

sold under sin.

AFTER having said that great evils had taken place, and Rom. that sin, taking occasion by the commandment, had grown

7, 14, stronger, and the opposite of what the Law mainly aimed at had been the result, and after having thrown the hearer into a great deal of perplexity, he goes on next to give the rationale of these events, after first clearing the Law of any' ill suspicion. For lest upon hearing that it was 5 Mag. through the commandment that sin took that occasion,

om, oñs and that it was when it came that sin revived, and through it deceived and killed-lest, I say, any one should suppose the Law to be the source of these evils, he first sets forth its defence with considerable advantage, not clearing it from accusation only, but encircling it also with the utmost praise. And this he lays down, not as granting it for his own part, but as declaring a universal judgment. For we know, he says, that the Law is spiritual. As if he had said, This is an allowed thing, and self-evident, that it is spiritual, so far is it from being the cause of sin, or to blame for the evils that have happened. And observe, that he not only clears it of accusation, but bestows exceeding great praise upon it. For by calling it spiritual, he shews it to be a teacher of virtue and hostile to vice; for this is what being spiritual means, leading off from sin of every

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208 Passions introduced by the Fall tempt all men to sin. Homil. kind. And this the Law did do, by frightening, admonishXIII.

ing, chastening, correcting, recommending every kind of virtue. Whence then, he means, was sin produced, if the teacher was so admirable. It was from the listlessness of its disciples. Wherefore he went on to say, but I am carnal; giving us a sketch of man, as comporting himself in the Law, and before the Law. Sold under sin.

Sold under sin. Because with death (he means) the throng of passions also came in. For when the body had become mortal, it was henceforth a necessary thing for it to receive concupiscence, and anger,

and pain, and all the other passions, which required a great pinoso-deal of wisdom' to prevent their flooding us, and sinking φίας

reason in the depth of sin. For in themselves they were not sin", but, when their extravagancy was unbridled, it wrought this effect. Thus (that I may take one of them and examine it as a specimen) desire is not sin: but when it has run into extravagance, being not minded to keep within the laws of marriage, but springing even upon other men's wives; then the thing henceforward becomes adultery, yet not by reason of the desire, but by reason of its exorbitancy. And observe the wisdom of Paul. For after praising the Law, he hastens immediately to the earlier period, that he may shew the state of our race, both then and at the time it received the Law, and make it plain how necessary the abundance of grace was, a thing he laboured on every occasion to prove. For when he says, sold under sin, he means it not of those who were under the Law only, but of those who had lived before the Law also, and of men from the very first. Next he mentions the way in which they were sold and

made over. 2 or allow Ver. 15. For that which I do, I know not. as Eng. V.

What does the I know not mean?-I am ignorant. And when could this ever happen? For nobody ever sinned in ignorance. Seest thou, that if we do not use due caution

a The words of the Fathers on this not however called sin in the sense of subject become more definite after the making one guilty, but in that it is Pelagian Controversy. S. Aug. contr. caused by the guilt of the first man, and Julianum, l. 2. $. 32. (Ben, t. 10.) in that it rebels, and strives to draw us speaks thus of concupiscence, (not in into guilt except grace aid us.' act, but as an inherited habit,) It is h So 4 Mss. Sav. lawful marriage.

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