The Gospel seen of old, but then in Types.

Gospel of God; countless treasures of abiding and un- Roм. changeable blessings.

1, 2. 3.

Ver. 2. Which He promised afore by His Prophets in the Holy Scriptures.

For the Lord, saith he, shall give the word to them that Ps. 67, 12. Sept. proclaim glad tidings with great power; and again, Hows. 52,7. beautiful are the feet of them that preach the Gospel of peace. See here both the name of the Gospel expressly Rom. and the temper of it, laid down in the Old Testament. 10, 15. For, we do not proclaim it by words only, he means, but also by acts done; since neither was it human, but both divine and unspeakable, and transcending all nature. Now since they have laid against it the charge of novelty also', He shews it to be older than the Greeks, 13 Mss. and described aforetime in the Prophets. And if He gave it not from the beginning because of those that were unwilling to receive it, still, they that were willing did hear it. Your father Abraham, He says, rejoiced to see My day, and John 5, he saw it, and was glad. How then comes He to say, Many Mat. 13, prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which 17. ye see, and have not seen them. He means not so, as ye 2 and see and hear, the Flesh itself, and the very miracles before hear your eyes. But let me beg you to look and see what a very long time ago these things were foretold. For when God is about to do openly some great things, He announces them of a long time before, to practise men's hearing for the reception of them when they come.


2 Mss.


In the Holy Scriptures. Because the Prophets not only spake, but also writ what they spake; nor did they write only, but also shadowed them forth by actions, as Abraham when he led3 Isaac, and Moses when he lifted up the Serpent, 3 led up and when he spread out his hands against Amalek, and váyw when he offered the Paschal Lamb.


4 Mss.

Ver. 3. Concerning His Son which was made of the seed of David, according to the flesh.

What dost thou, O Paul, that after lifting up our souls so, and elevating them, and causing great and unutterable things to pass in show before them, and speaking of the

Which the Fathers teach to be a Tert. Apol, c. 30. p. 70. Oxf. Tr. type of Christ upon the Cross. See on

10 Christ, His twofold Generation, how proved the Son of God.


HOMIL. Gospel, and that too the Gospel of God, and bringing in the quire of the Prophets, and shewing the whole of them heralding forth many years before those things which were to come: why dost thou again bring us down to David? Art thou conversing, oh tell me, of some man, and giving him Jesse's son for a father? And wherein are these things worthy of what thou hast just spoken of? Yea, they are fully worthy! For our discourse is not, saith he, of any bare man. Such was my reason for adding, according to the flesh; as hinting that there is also a Generation of the Same after the Spirit. And why did he begin from that and not from this the higher? It is because that was what Matthew, and Luke, and Mark, began from. For He Who would lead men by the hand to Heaven, must needs lead them upwards from below. For so was the actual dispensation ordered. First, that is, they saw Him a man upon earth, and then they understood Him to be God. In the same direction then, as He Himself had framed His teaching, did His disciple also shape out the way which leadeth thither. First, therefore, he speaketh of the Generation according to the flesh, not because it was first, but because he was for leading the hearer from this up to that.

Ver. 4. And declared to be the Son of God with power,
according to the Spirit of Holiness, by the resurrection [of
Jesus Christ'] from the dead.

What is said has been made obscure by the close-folding
of the words, and so it is necessary to divide it. What then is
it, which he says? We preach, says he, Him Who was made
of David. But this is plain. Whence then is it plain, that
this incarnate Person was also the Son of God? First, it is
so from the prophets; wherefore he says, Which He had
promised afore by the Prophets in the Holy Scriptures.
And this way of demonstration is no weak one.
And next
also from the very way of His Generation: which also he
sets forth by saying, of the seed of David according to the
flesh for He broke the rule of nature. Thirdly, from the
miracles which He did, yielding a demonstration of much
power, for in power means this. Fourthly, from the Spirit

v. 2.

e 4 Mss. the printed copies,' of what man are you speaking ?'

f So Matthæi after Mss. of St. Chrysostom at Moscow.

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The Spirit His Gift, the Apostleship is of Grace. 11



which He gave to them that believe upon Him, and through Rom. which He made them all holy, wherefore he saith, according to the Spirit of holiness. For it was of God only to grant such gifts. Fifthly, from the Resurrection of the Lord; for He first alone' raised Himself: and this Himself too said be 4 Mss. above all a miracle sufficient to stop the mouths even of and He them that behaved shamelessly. For Destroy this Temple, John 2, he says, and in three days I will raise it up; and, When ye John 8, have lifted Me up from the earth, then shall ye know that 28. I am He; and again, This generation seeketh after a sign; Mat. 12, and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of 39. Jonas. What then is the being declared? being shewn, being manifested, being judged, being confessed, by the feeling and suffrage of all; by Prophets, by the marvellous Birth after the Flesh, by the power which was in the miracles, by the Spirit, through which He gave sanctification, by the Resurrection, whereby He put an end to the tyranny of death.

Ver. 5. By Whom we have received grace and Apostleship for obedience to the faith.

Acts 13,

See the candour of the servant. to be his own, but all his Master's. the Spirit that gave this. Wherefore He saith, I have John 16, many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them 12. now. Howbeit when He, the Spirit of Truth, is come, He2 see 4 will guide you into all truth: and again, Separate me Paul Mss. and Barnabas. And in the Epistle to the Corinthians, he 2. says, that to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom, 1 Cor. to another the word of knowledge; and that It divideth all 12, 8. these as It willeth. And in addressing the Milesians, he says, Over which the Holy Ghost hath made you shepherds Acts 21, and overseers. You see, he calls the things of the Spirit, the 28. Son's, and the things of the Son, the Spirit's. Grace and Apostleship; that is, it is not we that have achieved for ourselves, that we should become Apostles. For it was not by having toiled much and laboured that we had this dignity allotted to us, but we received it of grace, and the achievement was by a gratuity from above. For obedience to the faith. So it was not the Apostles that achieved it, but grace that paved the way before them. For it was of

He wishes nothing
And indeed it was

12 The whole Truth given, Name of Christ, Romans not flattered.


HOMIL. themselves to go about and preach, but to persuade was I. of God, Who wrought in them. As also Luke saith, that Acts 16, He opened their heart; and again, To whom it was given 14. to hear the word of God. To obedience; He says not, to 1 xara- questioning and parade of argument, but, to obedience. For OXEUNT we were not sent, he means, to argue, but to give those [Ernest. L.Tech-things which we had trusted to our hands. For when the nol in v.] Master declareth ought, they that hear should not be nice and curious handlers of what is told them, but receivers only; for this is why the Apostles were sent, to speak what they had heard, not to add aught from their own stock, and that we for our part should believe-that we should believe what?-concerning His Name. Not that we should be curious about His essence, but that we should believe on His Name; for this it was which also wrought the miracles. For it says, Acts3,6. in the Name of Jesus Christ rise up and walk. And this 20μ too requireth faith, neither can one grasp aught of these καταλα- things by reasoning. Among all nations, among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ. What did Paul preach then to all the nations? Now that he ran through the whole space from Jerusalem to Illyricum, and from thence again went forth to the very ends of the earth, is plain from what he writes to the Romans; but even if he did not come to all, yet still what he says is not false, for he speaks not of himself alone, but of the twelve Apostles, and all who declared the word after them. And in another sense, one should not see any fault to find with the phrase, if about himself, when one considers his ready mind, and how that after death he ceaseth not to preach in all parts of the world. And consider how he extols the gift, and shews that it is great and much more lofty than the former, since the old things were with one nation, but this gift drew sea and land to itself. And attend to this too, how free the mind of Paul is from all flattery; for when conversing with the Romans, who were seated as it were upon a sort of summit of the whole world, he attaches no more to them than to the other nations, nor does he on the score of their being then in power and ruling, say, that they have in spiritual things also any advantage. But as (he means) we preach to all the nations, so do we to you, numbering them with Scythians and Thracians: for if

Philo. 'Aße.

Earthly distinctions lost in the gifts of Grace, without confusion. 13

1, 6. 7.

he did not wish to shew this, it were superfluous to say, Roм. Among whom are ye also. And this he does to take down their high spirit, and to prostrate the swelling vanity of their minds, and to teach them to honour others alike to them- Quonμa selves and so he proceeds to speak upon this very point.

Ver. 6. Among whom are ye also [the]' called of Jesus Christ. Gr. as That is, along with whom ye also are: and he does not rec. text say, that he called the others with you, but you with the others. For if in Christ Jesus there is neither bond nor free, much less is there king and private man. For even ye were called and did not come over of yourselves.

Ver. 7. To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints; grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.



res, but


See how continually he puts the word called, saying, called 2 3 Mss. to be an Apostle; among whom ye also are called; to all that be in Seest Rome, called. and this he does not out of superfluity of words, but out of a wish to remind them of the benefit. For since among them which believed, it was likely that there would be some of the rulers and consuls as well as poor and common men, casting 3 ¿rárWO aside the inequality of ranks, he writes to them all under one Ben. appellation. But if in things which are more needful and which are spiritual, all things are set forth as common both see Duto slaves and to free, for instance, the love from God, the calling, the Gospel, the adoption, the grace, the peace, the sanctification, all things else, how could it be other than the uttermost folly, whom God had joined together, and made to be of equal honour in the greater things, those to divide on account of things on earth, and on this ground from the very outstart, this blessed Apostle, after casting out this mischievous disease, conducts them to the mother of blessings, humble-mindedness. This made servants better, since they learnt that they should take no harm from their servitude, while they had the true freedom. This also would incline masters to be gentle, as being instructed that they have no advantage in being free, unless the goods of faith have the first place given them. And that you may learn, that he was not doing this to work confusion, by dashing all things, but still knew the best distinction, he wrote not simply to all that were in Rome, but with a definition added, beloved of

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