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23, 224 eier to ásgle Paralel joes be redeces to three words is Hebrer. forts : paralle's hronym:25, paral- Soaeises, be obserres, tbe lises leis antii petic, and para. tis in. Ocaba, each of dobbie Dembers, ihais, Cf each of tzelt be gives or two proposes. a variety of examples, in order to • Brruth beares, o ta, zi de tew the various forms, coder which they appear: firft from the Tochte pases, and in 123] books wriversaily acknowledged to

ics & Fici. . be poetical ; then correippedent

• Are the fall bed bocles, and it all Examples from the prophe: lfazah; Aré cez ten passends, and shall

irzotti and sometimes also from the other

er befreittrees, &c. 1. In. 21. prophets ; to thew, that the form

Sometimes they are formed by a and character of the composition is repetition of part of the first fenin all the same.

tence. First, of parallel lines fyntagmous: trat is, which correfpond one to

? My voice is urto God, and I cry aloud; another by exprefing the fame My voice or to God, and he will hearken

unto me,' sense in differeat bu: equivalett kerms. As in the following ex

The waters saw thee, o God; amples:

The waters saw thee; they were seized

with anguith.' Pj. lxxvii. 1. 16. • (). Jehovah, in- thy - strength the-king

( For be hath humbled those that dwell on thell-rejoice; Ard-in-thy falvarion how greatly Mall-he


The lotty city, he hath brought her down: exult! I he-dehore oi-his-heart thou-haft-granted He hath levelled her with the dust.

He hath brought her down to the ground; unto him;

The foot shall trample upon her; And the request of-his-lips thou-haft-not.

The feet of the poor, the steps of the denied.' Pf. xxi.

needy.' Ija. xxvi. 5, 6. • Because I-called, and-ye-refused; I-ftretched-out my-hand, and-no-one re- There are parallel triplets, when gardei, &c. Prov. i. 24.

three lines correspond together, and fark-ye Jehovah, white-he-ray-be-found; form a kind of ftanza; of which Call-ye-upon-him, while-he-is near,' &c. however only two commonly are

Ifa. iv. 6. synonymous. 5

6 The turn

s The wicked Mall see it, and it shall grieve 'Where every word hath its oppohim;

site : for the terms father and maHe Mall gnash his teeth, and pine away;

ther are, as the logicians say, reThe desire of the wicked shall perin.'

Pf.cxii, 10. latively opposite. « And he shall snatch on the right, and yet The memory of the just is a blessing; be hungry;

But the name of the wicked Thall rot.' And he shall devour on the left, and not

Prov. X. 70 be satisfied ;

Here are only two antithetic. Every man shall devour the flesh of his

terms: for memory and name are syneighbour.' Ifa. ix. 20.

nonymous. There are likewise parallels con

• There is that scattereth, and still enb fisting of four lines : two distichs

creaseth; being so connected together by the And that is unreasonably sparing, yet sense and the construction, as to groweth poor.' Prov. xi. 24. make one stanza. Such is the Here is a kind of double antithesis; form of the thirty-seventh Pfalm, one between the two lines themwhich is evidently laid out by the selves, and likewise a subordinate initial letters in stanzas of four lines. opposition between the two parts • Be not moved with indignation against of each. the evil doers;

This form, he observes, is pecuNor with zeal against the workers of ini- liarly adapted to adages, aphorisms,

quity : For like the grass they fall soon be cut off;

and detached sentences, and that And like the green herb they shall wither.' we are not therefore to expect fre

Pf. xxxvii. 1, 2. quent instances of it in the other « The ox knoweth his poffesor; poems of the Old Testament; espeAnd the ass the crib of his lord:

cially those that are elevated in But Ifrael doth not know Me;

the style, and more connected in Neither doth my people consider. Ifa.i. 3.

The author however In stanzas of four lines sometimes adds a fewexamples from the higher the parallel lines answer to one

poetry. another alternately; the first to the

« These in chariots, and those in horses; third, and the second to the But we in the name of Jehovah our God fourth :

will be strong. • As the heavens are high above the earth; They are bowed down, and fallen ; So high is his goodness over then that But we are risen, and maintain ourselves fear him:

firm.' Ps. xx. 7, 8. As remote as the east is from the west; The bricks are fallen, but we will build So far hath he removed from us our with hewn stone:

tranfgressions.' Pf.ciii. 11, 12. The sycamores are cut down, but we will 6 And ye said: Nay, but on horses will

replace them with cedars. Ifa.ix. 10. we flee;

The third sort of parallels the Therefore shall ye be put to flight: author calls synthetic, or constracAnd on swift coursers will we ride; Therefore thall they be swift, that tive, where the parallelism congits pursue you.'

Ifa. xxx. 16. only in the similar form of construcHe next proceeds to the second tion : in which word does not ansort of parallels, viz. the antithetic; fwer to word, and fentence to senof which kind are the following:

tence, as equivalent or opposite;

but there is a correspondence and A wise fon rejoiceth his father : But a foolish Son is the grief of his mo

equality between different propo. ther.' Prou, X, I.

fitions in respect of the fhape and

the parts.

turn of the whole sentence, and of is not often to be met with. The the constructive parts'; such as noun poem of Job, being on a large answering to noun, verb to verb, plan, and in a high tragic style, member to member, negative to though very exact in the division of negative, interrogative to interro- the lines, and in the parallelism, gative.

and affording many fine examples

of the synonymous kind, yet con• Praise ye Jehovah, ye of the earth; Ye sea-moniters, and all deeps :

fifts chiefly of the constructive. A Fire and hail, snow and vapour, &c.

happy mixture of the several sorts

Pf.cxlviii. 7. gives an agreeable variety ; and • Is such then the fast which I choose? they serve mutually to recommend That a man should affict his foul for a and set off one another." day?

He next considers the distinction Is it, that he should bow down his head of Hebrew verles into longer and

like a bulruih; And spread fackcloth and ashes for his lorier, founded also on the aucouch, &c. lsa. lviii. 5, 6.

thority of the alphabetic poems ; In these instances it is to be ob- being manifefly of the larger for

one third of the whole number served, that though there are per- of verse, the rest of the shorter. haps no two lines corresponding He does not attempt exactly to deone with another as equivalent or

fine, by the number of syllables, opposite in terms; yet there is a

the limit which separates one sort parallelism equally apparent, and aimoll as striking, which arises from he affirms is this; that one of the

of verse from the other; all that the similar form and equality of the lines, from the correspondence of three poems perfectly alphabetical, the members and the construction ; into its verses; and three of the

and therefore infallibly divided the consequence of which is a har- nine other alphabetical poems, dimony and rhythm little inferior in vided into their verses, after the effect to that of the two kinds

pre ceding

manner of the perfectly aphabeti

cal, with the greatest degree of " Of the three different forts of

probability; that these four poems, parallels, as above explained, every one hath its peculiar character and being the four first Lamentations of

Jeremiah, fall into verses about proper effect: and therefore they are differently employed on dif- with another, than those of the

one third longer, taking them one ferent occasions ... Synonymous other eight alphabetical poems.-parallels have the appearance of art and concinnity, and a ftudied ele. Example of these long verses from

a poem perfectly alphabetical : gance. They prevail chiefly in

' I am the man, that lach seen amillion, shorter poems ; in many of the

by the rod of his anger: Psalms ;'in Balaam's prophecies; He hath led me, and made me walk in frequently in those of Isaiah, which darkness, and not in light,' &c. are most of them distinct poems of

Lam. iii. 1-4. no great length. The antithetic Examples of the fame sort of parallelism gives an acuteness and verse, where the limits of the verses force to adages and moral sens are to be collected only from the tences; and therefore abounds in poetical construction of the sen. Solomon's proverbs, and elsewhere tences :

! The


« The law of Jehovah is perfect, restor- or even false idea of the real chaing the soul :

racter of the author, as a writer; The teitimony of Jehovah is fure, making of the general nature and of the

wise the simple,' &c. Ps. xix. 7. • A found of a multitude in the moun- peculiar form of the composicion? tains, as of many people;

He next proves, in a number of A found of the tumuit ci kingdoms, of examples, that this attention

nations gathered together,' Ifa. xiii. 4. the peculiar turn and cast of the The learned prelate having esta original, may be of still


ure blished, on the grounds we have to the interpreter, by leading him already mentioned, his opinion con- into the meaning of obscure words cerning the compofition of the and phrases, and by suggesting the prophetical writings, proceeds to true reading where the text is corpoint out the very important ad rupted. vantages which are to be deriv- With regard to the fidelity of the ed from this source, both to the translation now offered

to the translator and interpreter of the public the excellent author has scriprures.

entered very largely into the prinFlatness, he observes, and infi- ciples of criticism, and the method pidity, will generally be the con- of interpretarion, on which he has sequences of a deviation from the proceeded. It would be impossible native manner of an original, to do justice to this part of his diswhich has a real merit and a pe- sertation without transcribing the culiar force of its own.

whole; we shall therefore content pre's therefore the form and fashion ourselves with saying, that the of the composition becomes as ne- principal objects of his invaluable cessary in a translation, as to give observations are, the Majoretic the author's sense with fidelity and punctuation, the state of the Heexactness : but with what fuccess brew text, and the ancient versions can this be attempted, when the of the Old Testament. translator himself has an inadequate

To ex

The article from our very respectable correspondent at Liverpool, was, by fome accident, milaid; but shall be inserted in the next volume.

Vol. XXII.


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Retrospective view of American affairs in the year 1778. Expedition to

Bedford, Fair Haven; and to Martha's Vineyard. Admiral Montague dispodeljes the French of the isiands of St. Pierre, and Miquelon. Lord Cornwallis, and Gen. Knyphausen, advance into the enemy's country, on both sides of the North River. Surprize of Baylor's light borse

. Success of the expedition to Egg Harbour. Surprize of Pulaski's legion. Cruel d predations by Butler, Brandt, and the favages, on the back frontiers. Destruction of the new settlement at Wyoming, attended with circumstances of fingular cruelty and barbarity. Col. Clarke's expedition from Virginia, for the reduction of the Canadian towns and settlements in the Illinois country. Consequences of Clarke's success. Expedition from Schobarie to the Upper Susquehanna. Defruction of the Unadilla and Anaquago settlements.

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Review of conciliatory measures pursued by the commisioners for restoring

peace in America. Attempt to open and smooth the way to a negociation by private communications and correspondence, fails in the effect, and is highly resented by the Congress. Resolutions by that body against holding any communication or intercourse with one of the Commissioners. Gentleman in question, declines acting any longer in the commission, and publishes a declaration in answer to the Congress. Declaration from the remaining commifioners in answer 10 that body. Final manifesto and proclamation


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